Skip to main content

Full text of "The Anatomy of Melancholy: What it Is, with All the Kinds, Causes, Symptoms ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 





TICS, AND SEVERAL Cl^Rtg. 13p. J^. 

••• :•• 
••• • 

IN THREE Pi^imQilBX*::-.:i--::.-V; 





A NEW EDlThrt^N. 









• • 

: ••• 
• ••• 

• • 

• • 

• • 
• • 



• • 

• • 



• • • • 









• • 


• • 






• « 


KiVERiiiDX, caxbridqe: 


■: : V 


« 9 T " • •• 

• •, 


• • • -. 




Symptoms, or Signs of Melancholy in the Body, 

Pabrhasius, a painter of Athens, amongst those Oljn- 
thian captives Philip of Macedon brought home to sell, 
^ bought one very old man ; and when he had him at Athens, 
put him to extreme torture and torment, the better by his 
example to express the pains and passions of his Prometheus, 
whom he was then about to paint I need not be so barbar- 
ous, inhuman, curious, or cruel, for this purpose to torture 
any poor melancholy man, their symptoms are plain, obvious 
and familiar, there needs no such accurate observation or far- 
fetched object, they delineate themselyes, they voluntarily 
betray themselves, they are too frequent in all places, I meet 
them still as I go, they cannot conceal it, their grievances 
are too well known, I need not seek far to describe them. 

Symptoms therefore are either * universal or particular, 
saith Gordonius, lib. med, cap. 19, part, 2, to persons, to spe- 
cies; "some signs are secret, some manifest, some in the 
body, some in the mind, and diversely vary, according to 
the inward or outward causes," Cappivacdus ; or &om stars, 

1 Seneca, eont. lib. 10, eont. 6. dam jl stellis, qnsBdain ab humoribos, 

* QtUBdam uniTennlla, parttcnlaiia, quie- qnsB nt Tinom eorpns ytaih disponit, fte. 

dam manifcsta. qnas^Utm in corpore, Divena phantannata pro tarfetete eanm 

qnaedam in ooptattone et animo, qxud- eztenuB vel intemae. 


.^. ... 4 •.'/••;•• : Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. 1. sec. 8. 

•: . • V •;•*"•• 
: ••• 

. ja-cca^diog to: J^ianus Pontanus, de reb, coelest, lib. 10, cap. 
:j^ • •/• ?§,*9fi(l*oel6^1al* influences, or from the humours diversely 
mixed, Ficinus, lib. 1, cap. 4, de sanit. tttendd; as they are 
hot, cold, natural, unnatural, intended or remitted, so will 
^tius have melancholica deliria mvMformia, diversity of 
melancholy signs. Laurentius ascribes them to their several 
temperatures, delights, natures, inclinations, continuance of 
time, as they are simple or mixed with other diseases, as the 
causes are divers, so n;ust the signs be, almost infinite, Alto- 
marus, cap. 7, art. med. And as wine produceth divers 
effects, or that herb Tortocolla in ^ Laurentius, " which makes 
some laugh, some weep, some sleep, some dance, some sing, 
some howl, some drink," &c., so doth this our melancholy 
humour work several signs in several parties. 

But to confine them, these general symptoms may be re- 
duced to those of the body or the mind. Those usual signs 
appearing in the bodies of such as are melancholy, be these 
cold and dry, or they are hot and dry, as the humour is more 
or less adust From ^ these first qualities arise many other 
second, as that of ' colour, black, swarthy, pale, ruddy, &c, 
some are impense rubric as Montaltus, cap. 16, observes out 
of Galen, lib. 3, de locis affhctis, very red and high-coloured. 
Hippocrates in his book *de insania et melan. reckons up 
these signs, that they are * " lean, withered, hollow-eyed, look 
old, wrinkled, harsh, much troubled with wind, and a griping 
in their bellies, or bellyache, belch often, dry bellies and hard, 
dejected looks, flaggy beards, singing of the ears, vertigo, 
light-headed, little or no sleep, and that interrupt, terrible and 
fearful dreams," ^Anna soror, qiue me mspensam insomnia 
terrent f The same symptoms are repeated by Melanelius in 
his book of melancholy collected out of Galen, Ruffus, -^tius, 
by Bhasis, Gordonius, and all the juniors, ^ " continual, sharp, 

I Lib. 1, de risu, fol. 17. Ad ejus esum Gal. * Inierprete F. GalTO. b Oculi 

alii sudant. alii Tomnnt , flent, bibnnt, his exoaTantur, yenti gignuntur ciicnm 

saltant, alii rident, tiemnat, dormiant, praecordia, et acidi ructus, sicci torh Ten- 

ftc. s T. Bright, cap. 20. ^ Nigres- tres, vertigo, tinnitus aurium, somni pu- 

cit liic humor aliquando snpercalefiictua. silli, somnia terribilia et interrupta. 

aliquando superfiigefiBictas. Melanel. e ^ yirg. ^q. 7 Aasiduce eaeque acids 

Mem. 1, snbs. 1.] Symptoms of the Body, 5 

and stinking belchings, as if their meat in their stomachs 
were putrefied, or that they had eaten fish, dry bellies, absurd 
and interrupt dreams, and many fantastical visions about 
their eyes, vertiginous, apt to tremble, and prone to venery." 
^Some add palpitation of the heart, cold sweat, as usual 
symptoms, and a leaping in many parts of the body, scJtum 
in mtdtis corporis partibuSj a kind of itching, saith Lauren- 
tins, on the superficies of the skin, like a flea-biting some- 
times. ^ Montaltus, cap, 21, puts fixed eyes and much twink- 
ling of their eyes for a sign, and so doth Avicenna, oculos 
hahentes pcdpitantes, tremtdi, vehementer rtdncundi, S^c, lib, 3, 
J^en, 1, I^act, 4, cap, 18. They stut most part, which he 
took out of Hippocrates's aphorisms. ' Rhasis makes ^' bead- 
ache and a binding heaviness for a principal token, much 
leaping of wind about the skin, as well as stutting, or trip- 
ping in speech, <fec., hollow eyes, gross veins, and broad lips." 
To some, too, if they be far gone, mimical gestures are too 
familiar, laughing, grinning, fleering, murmuring, talking to 
themselves, with strange mouths and faces, inarticulate voices, 
exclamations, &c And although they be commonly lean, 
hirsute, uncheerful in countenance, withered, and not so 
pleasant to behold, by reason of those continual fears, griefs, 
and vexations, dull, heavy, lazy, restless, unapt to go about 
any business ; yet their memories are most part good, they 
have happy wits, and excellent apprehensions. Their hot 
and dry brains make them they cannot sleep, Ingentes habent 
et erehras vigilias (Areteus), mighty and often watchings, 
sometimes waking for a month, a year together. * Hercules 
de Saxonia faithfully averreth, that he hath heard his mother 
swear, she slept not for seven months together ; Trincavel- 
lius, Tom. 2, cons. 16, speaks of one that waked ^hj days, 

ructationes qiue cibum Timlentmn on- tomaxxis, Bruel, Piflo, Montaltus, ' Fre- 

lenttimque nidorem, etsi nil tale inges- quentes habent oculoram nictationes, 

torn sit, referant ob cruditatem. Ven- aliqni tamen Axis ocnlis plerumque sunt, 

tres hisce andi, somntis plemmque par- > Cent. lib. 1, Tract. 9. Signa hujus 

ens et interriiptus, somnia absux^issima, morbi sunt plurimus saltus, sonitus au- 

tnrbulenta, corporis tremor, capitis gra- rium, capitis grayedo, lingua titubat, 

▼edo, strepitus circa aures et yisiones oculi excavantur, &c. ^ In Pantheon, 

ante oculos, ad Tenerem prodigi. ^ Al- cap. de Melancholia. 

6 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. 3. 

and Skenckius hath examples of two years, and all withoat 
offence. In natural actions their appetite is greater than 
their concoction, muUa appetunt, pauca digerunt, as Rhasis 
hath it, thefj covet to eat, but cannot digest And although 
they ^ " do eat much, yet they are lean, ill-liking," saith Are- 
teus, " withered and hard, much troubled with costiveness,'* 
crudities, oppilations, spitting, belching, &c. Their pulse is 
rare and slow, except it be of the ^ Carotides, which is very 
strong; but that varies according to their intended passions 
or perturbations, as Struthius hath proved at large, Sptg^^ 
maticcB artis, L 4, c. 13. To say truth, in such chronic dis- 
eases the pulse is not much to be respected, there being so 
much superstition in it, as ' Crato notes, and so many differ- 
ences in Galen, that he dares say they may not be observed, 
or understood of any man. 

Their urine is most part pale, and low coloured, urina 
paitea, acnSf biltosa, (Areteus), not much in quantity ; but 
this, in my judgment, is all out as uncertain as the other, 
varying so often according to several persons, habits, and 
other occasions not to be respected in chronic diseases. 
* " Their melancholy excrements in some very much, in 
others little, as the spleen plays his part," and thence pro- 
ceeds wind, palpatation of the heart, short breath, plenty of 
humidity in the stomach, heaviness of heart and heartache, 
and intolerable stupidity and dulness of spirits. Their ex- 
crements or stool hard, black to some and little. If the 
heart, brain, liver, spleen, be misaffected, as usually they are, 
many inconveniences proceed from them, many diseases 
accompany, as incubus, * apoplexy, epilepsy, vertigo, those 
frequent wakings and terrible dreams, ' intempestive laugh- 
ing, weeping, sighing, sobbing, bashfulness, blushing, trem- 
bling, sweating, swooning, &c. 'AH their senses are 

1 AIvus arida nihil dejiciens, cibi capa- qnoqnam nee obserrari posse. * T. 

ces, nihilominus tamen extenuati sunt. Bright, cap. 20. ^ Post 40 tetat. an- 

SNic. Piso. Inflatiocarotidam,&c. ^An- nam. saith Jaccbinns in 15, 9 Rtiaais. 

drseas Dudith Rahamo, ep. lib. 8. Orat. Idem Mercnrialis, consil. 8w TrincaTel- 

epist. multa in pulsibus superstitio, au- lias, Tom. 2, cons. 17. ^ Gordonius, 

aim etiam dicere, tot dififorentias qvae mod6 rident, mod6 flent, silent, &c. 

describuntur k Galeno, neque intelligi k 7 Femelins, consil. 43 et 45. Montanus, 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Sf^mptams of the Mind. 7 

troubled, thej think thej see, hear, smell, and touch that 
which thej do not, as shall be proved in the following 

SuBSECT. n. — Symptoms or Signs in the Mind. 

Fear,"^ Abculanus in 9 Rhasis ad Almansor. cap. 16, 
will have these symptoms to be infinite, as indeed they are, 
varying according to the parties, " for scarce is there one of 
a thousmid that dotes alike," ^ Laurentius, c. 1 6. Some few 
of greater note I will point at ; and amongst the rest, fear 
and sorrow, which as they are frequent causes, so if they 
persevere long, according to Hippocrates ^ and Gralen's apho- 
risms, they are most assured signs, inseparable companions, 
and characters of melancholy; of present melancholy and 
habituated, saith Montaltus, cap. 11, and common to them 
all, as the said Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna, and all Neo- 
terics hold. But as hounds many times run away with a 
false cry, never perceiving themselves to be at a fault, so do 
they. For Diocles of old (whom Galen confutes), and 
amongst the juniors, • Hercules de Saxonia, with Lod. Mer- 
catus, cap. 17, L 1, de melan. take just exceptions at this 
aphorism of Hippocrates, 'tis not always tr^e, or so gener- 
ally to be understood, " fear and sorrow are no common 
symptoms to all melancholy; upon more serious considera- 
tion, I find some (saith he) that are not so at all. Some 
indeed are sad, and not fearful ; some fearful and not sad ; 
some neither fearful nor sad ; some both." Four kinds he 
excepts, fanatical persons, such as were Cassandra, Nanto, 
Nicostrata, Mopsus, Proteus, the Sibyls, whom * Aristotle 
confesseth to have been deeply melancholy. Baptista Porta 
seconds him, Physiog. lib. 1, cap. 8, they were atrd bile per- 
citi ; demoniacal persons, and such as speak strange lan- 
guages, are of this rank ; some poets, such as laugh always, 

con8il.230. Galen, de locis affeotis, lib, 8, tils, 1620, per Bolzettam Bibliop. Mihi 

cap. 6. 1 Aphorism, et lib. de Melan. diligentius banc rem consideranti, patet 

^ Lib. 2, cap. 6, de locis afifect. timer et quosdam esse, qui non laborant moerore 

moestitia, si diutius peiseverent, &c. et timore. * Prob. lib. 3. 
s Tract, posthumo de Melan. edit. Vene- 

8 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 

and think themselves kings, cardinals,- &c, sanguine they are, 
pleasantly disposed most part, and so continue. ^ Baptista 
Porta confines fear and sorrow to them that are cold ; but 
lovers, sibyls, enthusiasts, he wholly excludes. So that I 
think I may truly conclude, they are not always sad and 
fearful, but usually so ; and that ^ without a cause, timent de 
non timendis (Grordonius), qtussque momenti non sunt, ^^ al- 
though not all alike (saith Altomarus), * yet all likely fear, 
* some with an extraordinary and a mighty fear," Areteus. 
'^^^Many fear death, and yet in a contrary humour, make 
away themselves," Galen, lib. 3, de he. affect, cap. 7. Some 
are afraid that heaven will fall on their heads ; some they 
are damned, or shall be. • " They are troubled with scru- 
ples of consciences, distrusting God's mercies, think they 
shall go certainly to hell, the devil will have them, and make 
great lamentation," Jason Pratensis. Fear of devils, death, 
that they shall be so sick of some such or such disease, ready 
to tremble at every object, they shall die themselves forthwith, 
or that some of their dear friends or near allies are certainly 
dead ; imminent danger, loss, disgrace, still torment others 
&c ; that they are all glass, and therefore will suffer no man 
to come near^them; that they are all cork, as light as 
feathers ; others as heavy as lead ; some are afraid their 
heads will fall off their shoulders, that they have frogs in 
their bellies, &c ^ Montanus, consil. 23, speaks of one *' that 
durst not walk alone from home, for fear he should swoon or 
die." A second * " fears every man he meets will rob him, 
quarrel with him, or kill him." A third dares not venture 
to walk alone, for fear he should meet the devil, a thief, be 
' sick ; fears all old woman as witches, and every black dog or 
cat he sees he suspecteth to be a devil, every person comes 

1 Physic^, lib. 1, c. 8. Quibus mnlta mortem timent, et tamen sibi ipsis mor- 

firigidft bilis atra, stolidi et timidi, at qui tem consciscunt, alU coeli rainam timent. 

calidi, IngeDiosi, amasii, divinosi, spiritn > AflUgit eo8 plena scrupulis conscientia, 

instigati, &c. ^ Omnes exercent metus divinae misericordice dUldentes, Oreo se 

et tristitia, et sine canaa. > Omnes destinant foeda lamentatione deplorantes. 

timent licet non omnibus idem timendi ? Non ausns eg^redi domo ne deflceret. 

modus. Miiva Tetrab. lib. 2, sect. c. 9. ^ Maltl dsemones timent, latrones, insid- 

* Ingenti payore trepidant. 6 Multl ias, Ayicenna. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] SymptoTfU of the Jl£ncL 9 

near him is malificiated, every creature, all intend to liuit 
him, seek his ruin ; another dares not go over a bridge, come 
near a pool, rock, steep hill, lie in a chamber where cross- 
beams are, for fear he be tempted to hang, drown, or pre- 
cipitate himself. If he be in a silent auditory, as at a ser- 
mon, he is afraid he shall speak aloud at unawares, something 
indecent, unfit to be said. If he be locked in a dose room, 
he is afraid of being stifled for want of air, and still carries 
biscuit, liqua vitae, or some strong waters about him, for fear 
of deliquiums, or being sick ; or if he be in a throng, middle 
of a church, multitude, where^ he may not well get out, 
though he sit at ease, he is so misaffected. He will freely 
promise, undertake any business beforehand, but when it 
comes to be performed, he dare not adventure, but fears an 
infinite number of dangers, disasters, &c. Some are ^ ^' afraid 
to be burned, or that the ^ ground will sink under them, or 
' swallow them quick, or that the king will call them in ques- 
tion for some fact they never did (Rhasis cont.)^ and that they 
shall surely be executed.'* The terror of such a death 
troubles them, and they fear as much and are equally tor- 
mented in mind, ^ " as they that have committed a murder, 
and are pensive without a cause, as if they were now pres- 
ently to be put to death." Plater, cap. 3, de mentis cdtenat. 
They are afraid of some loss, danger, that they shall surely 
lose their lives, goods, and all they have, but why they know 
not. Trincavellius, consil. 13, lib. 1, had a patient that 
would needs make away himself, for fear of being hanged, 
and could not be persuaded for three years together, but that 
he had killed a man. Plater, observat. lib. 1, hath two other 
examples of such as feared to be executed without a cause. 
If they come in a place where a robbery, theft, or any such 
oflfence hath been done, they presently fear they are sus- 
pected, and many times betray themselves without a cause. 
Lewis XI., the French king, suspected every man a traitor 

1 Alii combari, alii de Rege, Rhasis. timore mortis tenentur et mala gratia 
* Ne terra absorbeantur. Forestus. principum putant se aliquid commisisse, 
s Ne terra dehiscat. Qordon. * Alii et ad supplicium requiri. 

10 Symptoms of Melancholy, . [Part. I. sec. 8. 

that came about him, durst trust no officer. Alii formidoUm 
omnium^ alii quorundam (Fracastorius, lib. 2, de InteUecL) 
^ ^ some fear all alike, some certain men, and cannot endure 
their companies, are sick in them, or if thej be from home." 
Some suspect s treason still, others '^are afraid of their 'dear- 
est and nearest friends." {Mdandius e GalenOy Buffo, .^EHo,) 
and dare not be alone in the dark for fear of hobgoblins and 
devils; he suspects everything he hears or sees to be a 
devil, or enchanted, and imagine th a thousand chimeras and 
visions, which to hisr thinking he certainly sees, bugbears, 
talks with black men, ghosts, goblins, <&c., ^ Omnes se terrent 
aurcB, 8onu8 excitat omnis. Another through bashfulness, 
suspicion, and timorousness, will not be seen abroad, ^ ^ loves 
darkness as life, and cannot endure the light," or to sit in 
lightsome places, his hat still in his eyes, he will neither 
see nor be seen by his good*will, Hippocrates, lib, de Insania 
et Melancholia, He dare not come in company for fear he 
should be misused, disgraced, overshoot himself in gesture or 
speeches, or be sick; he thinks every man observes him, 
aims at him, derides him, owes him malice. Most part 
• " they are afraid they are bewitched, possessed, or poisoned 
by their enemies, and sometimes they suspect their nearest 
friends ; he thinks something speaks or talks within him, or 
to him, and he belcheth of the poison." Christophorus A 
Vega, lib, 2, cap, 1, had a patient so troubled, that by no 
persuasion or physic he could be reclaimed. Some are 
afraid that they shall have every fearful disease they see 
others have, hear of, or read, and dare not therefore hear or 
read of any such subject, no, not of melancholy itself, lest by 
applying to themselves that which they hear or read, they 
should aggravate and increase it. If they see one possessed, 

1 Alius domesticofl timet, alius omnes. larvas et malos spiritus ab inimicis, Tene- 

iEtlus. s Alii timent insidias. Aurel. flciis et incantationlbus sibi putant objec- 

lib. 1, de morb. Chron. cap. 6. ^ Hie tari. Hippocrates, potionem se yenefl- 

oharissimos. hie omnes tiomines citra cam sumpdsse putat, et de hac ructare 

discrimen timet. * Virgil. & Hie in sibi crebro videtur. Idem Montaltus, 

lucem prodire timet, tenebrasque quaerit, cap. 21, Atins, lib. 2, et alii. Trallianus, 

contra, ille caliginosa fugit. « Qoidam 1. 1, cap. 16. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] . Symptoms of the Mind, 11 

bewitched, an epileptic paroxysm, a man shaking with the 
palsy, or giddy-headed, reeling or standing in a dangerous 
place, <&c., for many days afler it runs in their minds, they 
are afraid they shall be so too, they are in like danger, as 
PerL c, 12, sc. 2, well observes in his Cases of Ck>nsc., and 
many times by violence of imagination they produce it. 
They cannot endure to see any terrible object, as a monster, 
a man executed, a carcass, hear the devil named, or any 
tragical relation seen, bat they quake for fear, Hecatcu samniare 
sibi videntur (Lucian), they dream of hobgoblins, and may 
not get it out of their minds a long time after ; they apply 
(as I have said) all they hear, see, read, to themselves ; as 
^ Felix Plater notes of some young physicians, that study to 
cure diseases, catch them themselves, wiU be sick, and appropri- 
ate all symptoms they find related of others, to their own per- 
sons. And therefore {quod iterum moneoy licet naitgeam 
paret lectori, mcUo decern potius verba^ decies repetita licet, 
cdmndare, qtiatn unum desiderart) I would advise him that is 
actually melancholy not to read this tract of Symptoms, lest 
he disquiet or make himself for a time worse, and more 
melancholy than he was before. Generally of them all take 
this, de inanibus semper conqueruntur et timent, saith Areteus ; 
they complain of toys, and fear ^ without a cause, and still 
think their melancholy to be most grievous, none so bad as ' 
they are, though it be nothing in respect, yet never any man 
sure was so troubled, or in this sort As really tormented 
and perplexed, in as great an agony for toys and trifles (such 
things as they will after laugh at themselves) as if they were 
most material and essential matters indeed, worthy to be 
feared, and will not be satisfied. Pacify them for one, they 
are instantly troubled with some other fear; always afraid 
of something which they foolishly imagine or conceive to 
themselves, which never peradventure was, never can be, 
neyer likely will be; troubled in mind upon every small 

1 Obseryat. 1. 1. Quando lis nil nocet, ^ — timeo tamen metuoque cauase nescius, 
nisi quod mulieribas melancholicis. causa est metus. Heinsius Austriaco. 

12 SymptOTM of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 

occasion, unquiet, still complaining, grieving, vexing, sus- 
pecting, grudging, discontent, and cannot be freed so long as 
melancholy continues. Or if their minds be more quiet for 
the present, and they free from foreign fears, outward acci- 
dents, yet their bodies are out of tune, they suspect some 
part or other to be amiss, now their head aches, heart, 
stomaeh, spleen, &c., is misaffected, they shall surely have 
this or that disease ; still troubled in body, mind, or both, 
and through wind, corrupt fantasy, some accidental dis- 
temper, continually molested. Yet for all this, as ^ Jacchinus 
notes, " in all other things they are wise, staid, discreet, and 
do nothing unbeseeming their dignity, person or place, this 
foolish, ridiculous, and childish fear excepted; which so 
much, so continually tortures and crucifies their souls, like a 
barking dog that always bawls, but seldom bites, this fear 
ever molesteth, and so long as melancholy lasteth, cannot be 

Sorrow is that other character, and inseparable companion, 
as individual as Saint Cosmus and Damian, fidus Achates, as 
all writers witness, a common symptom, a continual, and still 
without any evident cause, ^mcererU omnes, et si roges eos 
reddere causam, non possunt : grieving still, but why they 
cannot tell : Agelasti, mcBsti, cogitabundiy they look as if they 
had newly come forth of Trophonius's den. And though 
they laugh many times, and seem to be extraordinary merry 
(as they will by fits), yet extreme lumpish again in an instant, 
dull and heavy, semel et simul, merry and sad, but most part 
sad; ^ Si qua placent, aheunt; inimica tenacius hcerent: sor- 
row sticks by them still continually, gnawing as the vulture 
did * Titius's bowels, and they cannot avoid it, No sooner are 
their eyes open, but after terrible and troublesome dreams 
their heavy hearts begin to sigh ; they are still fretting, chaf- 
ing, sighing, grieving, complaining, finding faults, repining, 

1 Cap. 15, in 9 Rhasis, in maltis vidi, aliquid praeter dignitatem committunt. 
praeter rationem semper aliquid timent, ^ Altomarus, cap. 7. Areteus, tristes 
in ctetexis tamen optima se gerunt, neque sunt. > Mant. Egl. 1. ^ Ovid. Met. 4. 

Mem. 1, sabs. 2.] SympU>VM of the Mind. 13 

grudgiDg, weeping, mautaraimorummai, yexing themselves, 
^ disquieted in mind, with restless, unquiet thoughts, discon- 
tent, either for their own, other men's or public affairs, such 
as concern them not; things past, present, or to come, the 
remembrance of some disgrace, loss, injury, abuses, &c., 
troubles them now being idle afresh, as if it were new done ; 
they are afflicted otherwise for some danger, loss, want, shame, 
misery, that will certainly come, as they suspect and mistrust. 
Lugubris Ate frowns upon them, insomuch that Areteus well 
calls it angorem animiy a vexation of the mind, a perpetual 
agony. They can hardly be pleased 6t eased, though in 

other men's opinion most happy, go, tarry, run, ride, ^ 

post equitem sedet aJtra cura; they cannot avoid this feral 
plague, let them come in what company they will, ^hceret 
lateri kthalis arundo, as to a deer that is struck, whether he 
run, go, rest with the herd, or alone, this grief remains ; irres- 
olution, inconstancy, vanity of mind, their fear, torture, care, 
jealousy, suspicion, &c, continues, and they cannot be re- 
lieved. So * he complained in the poet, 

" Domum revortor moestus, atque animo ferd 
Perturbato, atque incerto pr» sgritudine, 
Assido, accurruQt servi : socoos detrahunt, 
Video alios festinare, lectos stemere, 
Coenam apparare, pro se quisque sedulo 
Fociebant, quo illam mihi lenirent miseriam." 

" He came home sorrowful, and troubled in his mind, his ser- 
vants did all they possibly could to please him ; one pulled 
off his socks, another made ready his bed, a third his supper, 
all did their utmost endeavours to ease his grief, and ex- 
hilarate his person, he was profoundly melancholy, he had 
lost his son, illud angehat, that was his Cordolium, his pain, 
his agony which could not be removed." 

Tcedium vita,'] Hence it proceeds many times, that they 
are weary of their lives, and feral thoughts to offer violence 

1 Inquies animus. * Hor. 1. 3, Od. 1. * Mened. Heautontim. Act. 1, 8<k 1. 
" Dark care rides behind him. » 8 yfrg. 

14 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. L sec. 8. 

to their own persons come into their mind^, t€Bd%um vit/e is a 
common symptom, tarda Jluunt, tnyrataque tempora, they 
are soon tired with all things ; they will now tarry, now he 
gone ; now in bed they will rise, now up, then go to bed, now 
pleased, then again displeased ; now they like, by and by dis- 
like all, weary of all, sequitur nunc vtvendt, nunc moriendi 
oupidOf saith Aurelianus, Ub, 1, cap, 6, but most part ^vitam 
damnanty discontent, disquieted, perplexed upon every light, 
or no occasion, object ; often tempted, I say, to make away 
themselves : ^ Vivere nohrnty mori nesciunt : they cannot die, 
they will not live ; Ihey complain, weep, lament, and think 
they lead a most miserable life, never was any man so bad, 
or so before, every poor man they see is most fortunate in 
respect of them, every beggar that comes to the door is hap- 
pier than they are, they could be contented to change lives 
with them, especially if they be alone, idle, and parted from 
their ordinary company, molested, displeased, or provoked; 
grief, fear, agony, discontent, wearisomeness, laziness, sus- 
picion, or some such passion forcibly seizeth on them. Yet 
by and by when they come in company again, which they 
like, or be pleased, suam sententiam rursus damnant^ et vitce 
sokuio delectantur, as Octavius Hoi*atianus observes, Ub, 2, 
c€^, 5, they condemn their former dislike, and are well 
pleased to live. And so they continue, till with some fresh 
discontent they be molested again, and then they are weary 
of their lives, weary of all, they will die, and show rather a 
necessity to live, than a desire. Claudius the emperor, as 
' Sueton describes him, had a spice of this disease, for when 
he was tormented with the pain of his stomach, he had a con- 
ceit to make away himself. Julius Caesar Claudinus, consiL 
84, had a Polonian to his patient, so affected, that through 
^ fear and sorrow, with which he was still disquieted, hated 
his own life, wished for death every moment, and to be freed 
of his misery. Mercurialis another, and another that was 

1 Altomarus. s Seneca. s Cap. 81. * Luget et semper tristatur, solitudinem 
Quo stomachi dolore correptum se etiam amat, mortem sibl precatur, yitam pro- 
de coDsciscenda morte cogitSsse dixit, priam odio habet. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Symptoms of the Mind, 15 

often minded to dispatch himself, and so continued for many 

Suspicion, jealoiisyJ] Suspicion, and jealousy, are general 
symptoms; they are conmionly distrustful, apt to mistake, 
and amplify, fcunl^ ircucibileSy ^ testy, pettish, peevish, and 
ready to smarl upon every ^ small occasion, cum amicissimis, 
and without a cause, datum vel nan datum, it will be scandcdum 
cicceptum. If they speak in jest, he takes it in good earnest 
If they be not saluted, invited, consulted with, called to coun- 
sel, &c., or that any respect, small compliment, or ceremony 
be omitted, they think themselves neglected, and contemned ; 
for a time that tortures them. If two talk together, discourse, 
whisper, jest, or tell a tale in general, he thinks presently 
they mean him, applies all to himself, de se putat omnia diet. 
Or if they talk with him, he is ready to misconstrue every 
word they speak, and interpret it to the worst; he cannot 
endure any man to look steadily on him, speak to him almost, 
laugh, jest or be familiar, or hem, or point, cough, or spit, or 
make a noise sometimes, &c 'He thinks they laugh or 
point at him, or do it in disgrace of him, circumvent him, 
contemn him ; every man looks at him, he is pale, red, sweats 
for fear and anger, lest somebody should obsei*ve him. He 
works upon it, and long after this false conceit of an abuse 
troubles him. Montanus, consiL 22, gives instance in a 
melancholy Jew, that was Iracundior Adrid, so waspish and 
suspicious, tarn facile iratus, that no man could tell how to 
carry himself in his company. 

Inconstancy.'] Inconstant they are in all their actions, 
vertiginous, restless, unapt to resolve of any business, they 
will and will not, persuaded to and fro upon every small 
occasion, or word spoken ; and yet if once they be resolved, 
obstinate, hard to be reconciled. If they abhor, dislike, or 
distaste, once settled, though to the better by odds, by no 

1 Taeild in Iram Incidant. Aret. Angor sine eaam. » Susplcio, diffldeu- 

s Ira sine causa, relocitas irsB. Savaoa- tia. symptomata, Crato, Ep. Julio Alex- 

Tola, pract. major. Teloeitas ins sigaum. andrio cons. 186 Scoltsii. 
Atknnna, 1. 8, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, cap. 18. 


16 SymptOTiM of Mdancholy, [Part. L sec. 8. 

counsel, or persuasion to be removed. Yet in most things 
wavering, irresolute, unable to deliberate, through fear, far 
ciurU, et max facti pcmitet (Areteus), avart, et patdo post 
prodigi. Now prodigal, and then covetous, they do, and by 
and by repent them of that which they have done, so that 
both ways they are troubled, whether they do or do not, 
want or have, hit or miss, disquieted of all hands, soon weary, 
and still seeking change ; restless, I say, fickle, fugitive, they 
may not abide to tarry in one place long. 

1" Romffi rus optans, absentem rnsticus nrbem 
Tollit ad astra " 

no company long, or to persevere in any action or business. 

2 ^ Et similis regam pueris, pappare minatum 
Foscit, et iratus mammse lallare recusat/' 

eftsoons pleased, and anon displeased, as a man that's bitten 
with fieas, or that cannot sleep- turns to and fro in his bed, 
their restless minds are tossed and vary, they have no 
patience to read out a book, to play out a game or two, walk 
a mile, sit an hour, <&c., erected and dejected in an instant ; 
animated to undertake, and upon a word spoken again dis- 

PasmmateJ] Extreme passionate, Quicquid volunt valde 
volunt ; and what they desire, they do most furiously seek ; 
anxious ever and very solicitous, distrustful, and timorous, 
envious, malicious, profuse one while, sparing another, but 
most part covetous, muttering, repining, discontent, and still 
complaining, grudging, peevish, injurtarum tenaces, prone to 
revenge, soon troubled, and most violent in all their imagina- 
tions, not affable in speech, or apt to vulgar compliment, but 
surly, dull, sad, austere ; cogitaJbundi still, very intent, and as 
' Albertus Durer paints melancholy, like a sad woman lean- 

1 Hor. " At Bome, wishing for the eat pap, and, angry at the nurse, reftise 

fields ; in the country, extolling the city her to sing lullaby." > In his Dutch 

to the skies." s Pen. Sat. 3, 18. '' And work picture, 
like the children of nobility, require to 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Symptoms of the Mind, 17 

ing on her arm with fixed looks, neglected habit, &c, held 
therefore by some proud, soil, sottish, or half-mad, as the Ab- 
derites esteemed of Democritus; and yet of a deep reach, 
excellent apprehension, judicious, wise, and witty ; for I am 
of that ^ nobleman's mind, " Melancholy advanceth men's con- 
ceits, more than any humour whatsoever," improves their 
meditations more than any strong drink or sack. They are 
of profound judgment in some things, although in others non 
rede judicant inquiett, saith Fracastorius, lib, 2, de IntelL 
And s^ Arculanus, c. 16, in 9 Rhasis terms it. Judicium 
plerumque perversum, corrupti^ cum judicant honesta inho- 
nesta, et amicitiam habent pro inimicitia : they count honesty 
dishonesty, friends as enemies, they will abuse their best 
friends, and dare not offend their enemies. Cowards most 
part et ad inferendam injuriam Hmidimmi, saith Cardan, 
lib. ,8, cap. 4, de rerum varietate : loath to offend, and if they 
chance to overshoot themselves in word or deed; or any 
small business or circumstance be omitted, forgotten, they are 
miserably tormented, and frame a thousand dangers and in- 
conveniences to themselves, ex musca elephcmtem, if once 
they conceit it ; overjoyed with every good rumour, tale, or 
prosperous event, transported beyond themselves ; with every 
small cross again, bad news, misconceived injury, loss, dan- 
ger, afflicted beyond measure, in great agony, perplexed, de- 
jected, astonished, impatient, utterly undone; fearful, sus- 
picious of all. Yet again, many of them desperate hare- 
brains, rash, careless, fit to be assassins, as being void of all 
fear and sorrow, according to * Hercules de Saxonid, " Most 
audacious, and such as dare walk alone in the night, through 
deserts and dangerous places, fearing none." 

Amorous.'] " They are prone to love," and * easy to be 
taken ; Propensi ad amorem et excandescentiam (Montaltus, 
cap. 21), quickly enamoured, and dote upon all, love one 
dearly, till they see another, and then dote on her, JEt hanc, 

1 Howard, cap. 7, diflfer. * Tract, de et loca periculosa, neminem timent. 
mel. cap. 2. Noctu ambulant per sylvas, * Facil6 amant. Altom. 

VOL. II. 2 


18 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec, 3. 

et hanc^ et iUam^ et omnes, the present moves most, and the 
last commonly they love best. Yet some again Anterotes, 
cannot endure the sight of a woman, abhor the sex, as that 
same melancholy ^ duke of Muscovy, that was instantly sick 
if he came but in sight of them ; and that * Anchorite, that 
fell into a cold palsy when a woman was brought before him. 
Humoroits.'] Humorous they are beyond all measure, some- 
times profusely laughing, extraordinarily merry, and then 
again weeping without a cause (which is familiar with many 
gentlewomen), groaning, sighing, pensive, sad, almost dis- 
tracted, muUa (xbsurda jingurdy et a rcUione aliena (saith 
•Frambesarius), they feign many absurdities, vain, void of 
reason ; one supposeth himself to be a dog, cock, bear, horse, 
glass, butter, &c. He is a giant, a dwarf, as strong as an 
hundred men, a. lord, duke, prince, &c. And if he be told 
he hath a stinking breath, a great nose, that he is sick, or in- 
clined to such or such a disease, he believes it eftsoons, and 
peradventure by force of imagination will work it out. Many 
of them are immovable, and fixed in their conceits, others 
vary upon every object, heard or seen. If they see a stage- 
play, they run upon that a week after ; if they hear music, 
or see dancing, they have nought but bagpipes in their brain ; 
if they see a combat, they are all for arms. * If abused, an 
abuse troubles them long after ; if crossed, that cross, &c. 
Restless in their thoughts and actions, continually meditat- 
ing, Velet cegri somnia, vance Jinguntur species ; more like 
dreams, than men awake, they fain a company of antic, fan- 
tastical conceits, they have most frivolous thoughts, impossible 
to be effected ; and sometimes think verily they hear and see 
present before their eyes such phantasms or goblins, they 
fear, suspect, or conceive, they still talk with, and follow 
them. In fine, cogitationes somniantibus similes, id vigilant, 
quod alii somniant cogitahundi : still, saith Avicenna, they 

1 Bodine. ^ lo. Major, vitis patrum, gult. lib. 1, 17 Cons. * Generally as 

fol. 202. Paiilus Abbas Eremita tanta they are pleased or displeased, so are 

solitudine perseverat, lit nee vestem nee their continual cogitations pleasing or 

Tultum mulieris ferre possit, &c. 3 Con- displeasing. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Symptoms of the Mind, 19 

wake as others dream, and such for the most part are their 
imaginations and conceits, ^absurd, vain, foolish toys, yet 
they are ^ most curious and solicitous, continual, et supra mo- 
duniy Rhasis, cont, lib, 1, cap, 9, prcemeditantur de aliqua re. 
As serious in a toy, as if it were a most necessary business, 
of great moment, importance, and still, still, still thinking of 
it : sceviunt in se, macerating themselves. Though they do 
talk with you, and seem to be otherwise employed, and to 
your thinking very intent and busy, still that toy runs in 
their mind, that fear, that suspicion, that abuse, that jealousy, 
that agony, that vexation, that cross, that castle in the air, 
that crotchet, that whimsey, that fiction, that pleasant waking 
dream, whatsoever it is. Nee irUerrogant (saith 'Fracas- 
torius) nee interrogatis recte respondent. They do not much 
heed what you say, their mind is on another matter ; ask 
what you will, they do not attend, or much intend that busi- 
ness they are about, but forget themselves what they are say- 
ing, doing, or should otherwise say or do, whither they are 
going, distracted with their own melancholy thoughts. One 
laughs upon a sudden, another smiles to himself, a third 
frowns, calls, his lips go still, he acts with his hand as he 
walks, &c. 'Tis proper to all melancholy men, saith * Mer- 
curialis, con. 11. "What conceit they have once entertained, 
to be most intent, violent, and continually about it." Invitus 
occurrit, do what they may they cannot be rid of it, against 
their wills they must think of it a thousand times over. Per- 
petud moUstantur nee oUivisei possunt, they are continually 
troubled with it, in company, out of company ; at meat, at 
exercise, at all times and places, ^ non desinuni ea, quce min- 
ime volunt, eogitare, if it be offensive especially, they cannot 
forget it, they may not rest or sleep for it, but still torment- 
ing themselves, Sysiphi saxum volvunt sihi ipsis, as * Bruner 
observes, Perpetxia calamitas et miserabile flagellum, 

1 Omnes ezercent vanae intensseque an- quas semel imaijfinationes valde recepe- 

imi co^tationes, (N. Piso Bruel) et assi- rint, non iacil6 rejiciant, Bed hse etiam 

dnse. s Curiosi de rebus minimis, yel invitis semper occurrant. & Tulli- 

Areteus. » Lib. 2, de Intell. * Hoc us de Senect. • Consil. med. pro Hy- 

melancholicis omnibus proprium, ut pochondriaco. 

20 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 3. 

Bashfulness,'] ^ Crato, ^ Laurentius, and Femelius, put 
bashfulness for an ordinary symptom, suhrusticus pudor, or 
mtiosus pudoTy is a thing which much haunts and torments 
them. If they have been misused, derided, disgraced, chid- 
den, &c., or by any perturbation of mind misaffected, it so far 
troubles them, that they become quite moped many times, 
and so disheartened, dejected, they dare not come abroad, into 
strange companies especially, or manage their ordinary affairs, 
so childish, timorous, and bashful, they can look no man in the 
face ; some are more disquieted in this kind, some less, longer 
some, others shorter, by fits, &c., though some on the other 
side (according to • Fracastorius) be inverecundi et perttnaceSy 
impudent and peevish. But most part they are very shame- 
faced, and that makes them with Pet. Blesensis, Christopher 
Urswick, and many such, to refuse honours, ofiices, and pre- 
ferments, which sometimes fall into their mouths, they cannot 
speak, or put forth themselves as others can, tirrior hos, pudor 
impedit illos, timorousness and bashfulness hinder their pro- 
ceedings, they are contented with their present estate, un- 
willing to undertake any oflSce, and therefore never likely to 
rise. For that cause they seldom visit their friends, except 
some familiars ; pauciloqui, of few words, and oftentimes 
wholly silent. * Frambeserius, a Frenchman, had two such 
patients, ommno tacttumos, their friends could not get them 
to speak; Rodericus a Fonseca, consult, tom. 2, 85 consiL 
gives instance in a young man, of twenty-seven years of age, 
that was frequently silent, bashful, moped, solitary, that would 
not eat his meat, or sleep, and yet again by fits apt to be 
angry, &c. 

Solitariness^] Most part they are, as Plater notes, desides, 
tacitumi, cegre imptdsi nee nisi coacti procedunt, Sfc, they 
w'iil scarce be compelled to do that which concerns them, 
though it be for their good, so diflSdent, so dull, of small or no 
compliment, unsociable, hard to be acquainted with, especially 
of strangers ; they had rather write their minds than speak, 

1 Consil. 43. s Cap. 5. » Lib. 2, de Intell. * Consult. 15 et 16, Ub. 1. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2. J Symptoms of the Mind, 21 

and above all things love solitariness. Oh voluptatem, an oh 
timorem soil sunt f Are they so solitary for pleasure (one 
asks) or pain? for both; yet I rather think for fear and sor- 
row, &c. 

1 ^^ Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent fagiuntque, nee auras 
Respiciunt, clausi tenebris, et carcere caeco." 

" Hence 'tis they grieve and fear, avoiding light, 
And shut themselves in prison dark from sight." 

As Bellerophon in * Homer, 

" Qui miser in sylvis moerens errabat opacis, 
Ipse suum cor edens, hominum vestigia vitans." 

" That wandered in the woods, sad, all alone, 
Forsaking men's society, making great moan." 

They delight in floods and waters, desert places, to walk alone 
in orchards, gardens, private walks, back lanes, averse from 
company, as Diogenes in his tub, or Timon Misanthropus, 
•they abhor all companions at last, even their nearest ac- 
quaintances and most familiar friends, for they have a conceit 
(I say) every man observes them, will deride, laugh to scorn, 
or misuse them, confining themselves therefore wholly to their 
private houses or chambers, yw^Mw^ homines sine causa (saith 
Rhasis) et odio hdhenty cont, I, 1, c. 9, they will diet them- 
selves, feed and live alone. It was one of the chiefest rea- 
sons why the citizens of Abdera suspected Democritus to be 
melancholy and mad, because that, as Hippocrates related in 
his epistle to Philopoemenes, * " he forsook the city, lived in 
groves and hollow trees, upon a green bank by a brook side, 
or confluence of waters all day long, and all night" Qucb 
quidem (saith he) plurimum atra bile vexatis et melancholicis 
eveniunt, deserta frequentanty hominumque congressum aver- 
santur; * which is an ordinary thing with melancholy men. 
The Egyptians therefore in their hieroglyphics expressed a 

I Virg. Xn. 6. « Iliad. 8. » Si herbis, vel ad aquarum crebra et quieta 

malum exa8i>exetar, homines odio habent fluenta, &c. 6 Gaudet tenebris, ali- 

et solitaria petunt. ■* Democritus solet turque dolor. Ps. Ixii. Vigilavi et fec- 

noctes et dies apnd se degere, plemmque tus sum yelnt nycticorax Id domicilio, 

autem in speluncis, sub amoenis arbOr passer solitarius in templo. 
mm umbrls vel in tenebris, et moUibus 


22 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 8. 

melancholy man by a hare sitthig in her form, as being a 
most timorous and solitary creature, Pierius, Hieroglyph, L 12. 
But this, and all precedent symptoms, are more or less appar- 
ent, as the humour is intended or remitted, hardly perceived 
in some, or not at all, most manifest in others. Childish in 
some, terrible in others ; to be derided in one, pitied or ad- 
mired in another ; to him by fits, to a second continuate ; and 
howsoever these symptoms be common and incident to all 
persons, yet they are the more remarkable, frequent, furious, 
and violent in melancholy men. To speak in a word, there 
is nothing so vain, absurd, ridiculous, extravagant, impossible, 
incredible, so monstrous a chimaera, so prodigious and strange, 
^ such as painters and poets durst not attempt, which they 
will not really fear, feign, suspect and imagine unto them- 
selves ; and that which ^ Lod. Viv. said in a jest of a silly 
country fellow, that killed his ass for drinking up the moon, 
ut lunam mundo redderet, you may truly say of them in ear- 
nest ; they will act, conceive all extremes, contrarieties, and 
contradictions, and that in infinite- varieties. Melancholici 
plane incredihilia siM persuadent, ut vix omnibus scecvUs duo 
reperti stnt, qui idem imaginati sint (Erasttts de Lamiis), 
scarce two of two thousand that concur in the same symp- 
toms. The tower of Babel never yielded such confusion of 
tongues, as the chaos of melancholy doth variety of symp- 
toms. There is in all melancholy similitudo dissimilis, like 
men's faces, a disagreeing likeness still ; and as in a river we 
swim in the same place, though not in the same numerical 
water ; as the same instrument affords several lessons, so the 
same disease yields diversity of symptoms. Which howsoever 
they be diverse, intricate, and hard to be confined, I will ad- 
venture yet in such a vast confusion and generality to bring 
them into some order ; and so descend to particulars. 

1 Et quae vix audet fabula, monstra parit. ^ In cap. 18, 1. 10, de civ. dei, 
Luaam ab Asino epotam Tideas. 

Mem. 1, subs. 8.] Symptoms of the Stars, S^c, 23 

SuBSECT. III. — Particular Symptoms from the influence of 
Stars, parts of the Body, and Humours. 

Some men have peculiar symptoms, according to their 
temperament and crisis, which thej had from the stars and 
those celestial" influences, variety of wits and dispositions, as 
Anthony Zara contends, Anat. ingen. sect. l,memb. 11, 12, 
13, 14, plurimum irritant influentice coelestes, unde cientur 
animi ceyritudines et morhi corporum. ^ One saith, diverse 
diseases of the body and mind proceed from their influences, 
^as I have already proved out of Ptolemy, Pontanus, Lem- 
nius, Cardan, and others, as they are principal signiflcators 
of manners, diseases, mutually irradiated, or lords of the gen- 
iture, &c. Ptolomeus in his centiloquy, Hermes, or whoso- 
ever else the author of that tract, attributes all these symp- 
toms, which are in melancholy men, to celestial influences ; 
which opinion, Mercurialis, de affect, lib. cap. 10, rejects ; but, 
as I say, * Jovianus Pontanus and others stiffly defend. That 
some are solitary, dull, heavy, churlish ; some again blithe, 
buxom, light, and merry, they ascribe wholly to the stars. 
As if Saturn be predominant in his nativity, and cause mel- 
ancholy in his temperature, then * he shall be very austere, 
sullen, churlish, black of colour, profound in his cogitations, 
full of cares, miseries, and discontents, sad and fearful, 
always silent, solitary, still delighting in husbandry, in woods, 
orchards, gardens, rivers, ponds, pools, dark walks and close : 
Coyitationes sunt velle cedificare, velle arbores plantare, agros 
cohre, S^c. To catch birds, fishes, &c., still contriving and 
musing of such matters. If Jupiter domineers, they are more 
ambitious, still meditating of kingdoms, magistracies, offices, 
honours, or that they are princes, potentates, and how they 
would carry themselves, &c. If Mars, they are all for wars, 
brave combats, monomachies, testy, choleric, harebrain, rash, 
furious, and violent in their actions. They will feign them- 

1 Velc. 1. 4, o. 6. > Sect. 2, Memb. 1, Subs. 4. < De reb. coelest. lib. 10, c. 18. 
4 1, de Induce Goclenios. 

24 Symptoms of MeUmcholy, [Part. I. sec. 8. 

selves victors, commanders, are passionate and satirical in 
their speeches, great braggers, ruddy of colour. And though 
they be poor in show, vile and base, yet like Telephus and 
Peleus in the ^ poet, AmpuUas jactant et. sesquipedalia verba^ 
" forget their swelling and gigantic words," their mouths are 
full of myriads, and tetrarchs at their tongues' end. If the 
sun, they will be lords, emperors, in conceit at least, and 
monarchs, give offices, honours, &c. If Venus, they are still 
courting of their mistresses, and most apt to love, amorously 
given, they seem to hear music, plays, see fine pictures, dan- 
cers, merriments, and the like. Ever in love, and dote on 
all they see. Mercurialists are solitary, much in contempla- 
tion, subtile, poets, philosophers, and musing most part about 
such matters. If the moon have a hand, they are all for per- 
egrinations, sea voyages, much affected with ti-avels, to dis- 
course, read, meditate of such things; wandering in their 
thoughts, diverse, much delighting in waters, to fish, fowl, &c. 

But the most immediate symptoms proceed from the tem- 
perature itself, and the organical parts, as head, liver, spleen, 
meseraic veins, heart, womb, stomach, &c., and most espe- 
cially from distemperature of spirits (which, as ^ Hercules de 
Saxonid contends, are wholly immaterial), or from the four 
humours in those seats, whether they be hot or cold, natural, 
unnatural, innate or adventitious, intended or remitted, simple 
or mixed, their diverse mixtures, and several adustions, com- 
binations, which may be as diversely varied, as those ' four 
first qualities in * Clavius, and produce as many several symp- 
toms and monstrous fictions as wine doth effect, which as An- 
dreas Bachius observes, lib, 3, de vino, cap. 20, are infinite. 
Of greater note be these. 

If it be natural melancholy, as Lod. MerccUiiSj lib, 1, cap, 
17, de melan, T, Bright, c, 16, hath largely described, either 
of the spleen, or of the veins, faulty by excess of quantity, or 
thickness of substance, it is a cold and dry humour, as Mon- 

1 Hor. de art. poet. s Tract. 7, de dum, siccum. * Com. in 1, c. Johannis 

Melan. s Humidum, calidum, fiigi- de Sacrobosco. 

Mem. 1, subs. 8.] Symptoms of the Stars, S^c. 25 

tanus affirms, cansiL 26, the parties are sad, timorous and 
fearful. Prosper Calenus, in his book de atra hUe, will have 
them to be more stupid than ordinary, cold, heavy, dull, soli- 
tary, sluggish ; Si midtam atram hilem et frigidam hahent, 
Hercules de Saxonia, c. 19, L 7, * " holds these that are 
naturally melancholy, to be of a leaden colour or black," and 
so doth Guianerius, c. 3, tract, 15, and such as think them- 
selves dead many times, or that they see, talk with black 
men, dead men, spirits and goblins frequently, if it be in 
excess. These symptoms vary according to the mixture of 
those four humours adust, which is unnatural melancholy. 
For as TraUianus hath written, cap. 16, L 7, ^ " There is not 
one cause of this melancholy, nor one humour which begets, 
but diverse diversely intermixed, from whence proceeds this 
variety of symptoms ; " and those varying again as they are 
hot or cold. * " Cold melancholy (saith Benedic Vittorius 
Faventinus pract. mag.) is a cause of dotage, and more mild 
symptoms ; if hot or more adust, of more violent passions, 
and furies." Fracastorius, l. 2, de intellect, will have us to 
consider well of it, * " with what kind of melancholy every 
one is troubled, for it much avails to know it ; one is enraged 
by fervent heat, another is possessed by sad and cold ; one is 
fearful, shamefaced ; the other impudent and bold ; as Ajax, 
Arma rapit superosque furens in prtslia poscit : quite mad or 
tending to madness : I^unc kos, nunc impetit iUos. Bellero- 
phon on the other side, solis errat male sanus in agris, 
wanders alone in the woods ; one despairs, weeps, and is 
weary of his life, another laughs, &c. All which variety is 
produced from the several degrees of heat and cold, which 
* Hercules de Saxonia will have wholly proceed from the dis- 
temperature of spirits alone, animal especially, and those 
immaterial, the next and immediate causes of melancholy, as 

1 Si lesidet melaDchoUa naturalis, tales mor frigidus delirii causa, humor calidus 

plumbei colons aut nigri. stupidi, solita- faroris. * Multum refert qua quisque 

rii. * Non una melancnolUe cauaa est, melancholi& teneatur, huno ferrens et 

nee unus humor vitii parens, sed plures, accensa agitat, ilium tristis et frigeos 

et alius aliter mutatus, unde non omnes oocupat : hi timidi. illi inyerecundi, in- 

eadem sentiunt symptomata. > Hu- trepidi, &c. & Ca^. 7 et 8, Tract, de Mel. 


26 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 3. 

thej are hot, cold, dry, moist, and from their agitation pro- 
ceeds that diversity of symptoms, which he reckons up in the 
* thirteenth chap, of his Tract of Melancholy, and that largely 


through every part. Others will have them come from the 
diverse adustion of the four humours, which in this unnatural 
melancholy, by corruption of blood, adust choler, or melan- 
choly natural, ^ " by excessive distemper of heat turned, in 
comparison of the natural, into a sharp lye by force of adus- 
tion, cause, according to the diversity of their matter, diverse 
and strange symptoms," which T. Bright reckons up in his 
following chapter. So doth 'Arculanus, according to the 
four principal humours adust, and many others. 

For example, if it proceed from phlegm (which is seldom 
and not so frequently as the rest), * it stirs up dull symptoms, 
and a kind of stupidity, or impassionate hurt ; they are sleepy, 
saith * Savanarola, dull, slow, cold, blockish, ass-like, Asini- 
nam melancholiamy * Melancthon calls it, " tliey are much 
given to weeping, and delight in waters, ponds, pools, rivers, 
fishing, fowling," &c (Amoldus, hreviar. 1, cap, 18.) They 
are ' pale of colour, slothful, apt to sleep, heavy ; * much 
troubled with headache, continual meditation, and muttering 
to themselves; they dream of waters, "that they are in 
danger of drowning, and fear such things, Rhasis. They are 
fatter than others that are melancholy, of a muddy com- 
plexion, apter to spit, ^° sleep, more troubled with rheum than 
the rest, and have their eyes still fixed on the ground. Such 
a patient had Hercules de Saxonia, a widow in Venice, that 
was fat and very sleepy still ; Christophorus a Vega, another 
affected in the same sort. If it be inveterate or violent, the 
symptoms are more evident, they plainly denote and are 
ridiculous to others, in all their gestures, actions, speeches ; 

1 Signa melancholiaa ex intemperie et fluvios plorant multum. 7 Pigra naa- 

agitatione Rpirituum sine materia ^T. citur ex colore pallido et albo, Here, de 

Bright, cap. 16. Treat. Mel. » Cap. Saxon. » Savanarola. » Muros ca- 

16, in 9 Rhasis. ^ Bright, c. 16. dere in se, ant submergi timent, cum 

^ Pract. major. Somnians, piger, frigidns. torpore et segnitie et fluTios amant tales, 

• De anima, cap. de humor. Si k Phleg- Alexand. c. 16, lib. 7. ^o Semper fer^ 

mate semper in aquis fere sunt, et circa dormit somnolenta, c. 16, 1. 7. 

Mem. 1, subs. 3. J Symptoms of the Stars, S^c, 27 

imagining impossibilities, as he in Christophorus a Vega, that 
thought he was a tun of wine, * and that Siennois, that re- 
solved within himself not to piss, for fear he should drown all 
the town. 

If it proceed from blood adust, or that there be a mixture 
of blood in it, ^ " such are commonly ruddy of complexion, 
and high-coloured,*' according to Salust. Salvianus, and Her- 
cules de Saxonia. And as Savanarola, Vittorius Faventinus 
Emper. farther adds, ' " the veins of their eyes be red, as 
well as their faces.** They are much inclined to laughter, 
witty and merry, conceited in discourse, pleasant, if they be 
not far gone, much given to music, dancing, and to be in 
women's company. They meditate wholly on such things, 
and think * they see or hear plays, dancing, and such-like 
sports (free from all fear and sorrow, as * Hercules de Sax- 
onii supposeth). If they be more strongly possessed with 
this kind of melancholy, Arnoldus adds, Breviar, lib, 1, cap. 
18, like him of Argos in the Poet, that sate laughing * all 
day long, as if he had been at a theatre. Such another is 
mentioned by ' Aristotle, living at Abydos, a town of Asia 
Minor, that would sit after the same fashion, as if he had 
been upon a stage, and sometimes act himself; now clap his 
hands, and laugh, as if he had been well pleased with the 
sight Wolfius relates of a country fellow called Brunsellius, 
subject to this humour, * " that being by chance at a sermon, 
saw a woman fall off from a form half asleep, at which object 
most of the company laughed, but he for his part was so 
much moved, that for three whole days after he did nothing 
but laugh, by which means he was much weakened, and 
worse a long time following.** Such a one was old Sophocles, 
and Democritus himself had hilare delirium, much in this 

1 Laurentius. s Cap. 6, de mel. Si putat se videre choreas, musiciun aadire, 

\ sanguine, venit rubedo oculorum et ludos, &c. ^ Cap. 2, Tract, de Melan. 

fiKiei, plurimus risus. 8 Venaa oculo- ^ Hor. ep. lib. 2, qaidam baud ignobilis 

rum sunt rubrse, vide an pnecesserit vini Argis, &c. ^ Lib. de reb. mir. scum 

et aromatum usas, et frequens balneam, inter concionandum mulier dormiens h 

Trallian. lib. 1. 16, an pnecesserit mora subsellio caderet, et omnes rellqui qui id 

sub sole. ^ Ridet patiens si k sanguine, yiderent, riderent, tribus post diebus, &o. 

28 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 

vein. Laurentius, cap, 3, de melan. thinks this kind of melan- 
choly, which is a little adust with some mixture of blood, to 
be that which Aristotle meant, when he said melancholy men 
of all others are most witty, which causeth many times a 
divine ravishment, and a kind of enthtisiastnus, which stirreth 
them up to be excellent philosophers, poets, prophets, &c. 
Mercurialis, consiL 110, gives instance in a young man his 
patient, sanguine melancholy, * " of a great wit, and excel- 
lently learned." 

If it arise from choler adust, they are bold and impudent, 
and of a more harebrain disposition, apt to quarrel, and think 
of such things, battles, combats, and their manhood, furious ; 
impatient in discourse, stiff, irrefragable and prodigious in 
their tenets ; and if they be moved, most violent, outrageous, 
*-* ready to disgrace, provoke any, to kill themselves and 
others ; Amoldus adds, stark mad by fits, * " they sleep little, 
their urine is subtile and fiery. (Guianerius.) In their fits 
you shall hear them speak all manner of languages, Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin, that never were taught or knew them 
before.** Apponensis, in com. in Pro, sec, 30, speaks of a 
mad woman that spake excellent good Latin ; and Rhasis 
knew another, that could pi-ophesy in her fit, and foretell 
things truly to come. ^ Guianerius had a patient could makj& 
Latin verses when the moon was combust, otherwise illiterate. 
Avicenna and some of his adherents will have these symptoms, 
when they happen, to proceed from the devil, and that they 
are rather dcemoniaci, possessed, than mad or melancholy, or 
both together, as Jason Pratensis thinks, Immiscent se mali 
genii, &c., but most ascribe it to the humour, which opinion 
Montaltus, cap, 21, stiffly maintains, confuting Avicenna and 
the rest, referring it wholly to the quality and disposition of 
the humour and subject. Cardan, de rerum var, lib, 8, cap, 
10, holds these men of all others fit to be assassins, bold, 
hardy, fierce, and adventurous, to undertake anything by 

1 JuTenis et non Tulgaris eruditioiiia. na subtilis et ignea, pamm dormiunt. 
3 Si & cholera, furibundi interficiunt se * Tract. 15, o. 4. 
et alios, putant se videre pugnas. > Uri- 

Mem. 1, subs. 3.] Symptoms of the Stars, S^c. 29 

reason of their choler adust. ^Thia humour, says he, pre- 
pares them to endure death itself, and all manner of torments 
with invincible courage, and 'tis a wonder to see with what 
alacrity they will undergo such tortures," tU supra naturam 
res videatur ; he ascribes this generosity, fury, or rather 
stupidity, to this adustion of choler and melancholy ; but I 
take these rather to be mad or desperate, than properly 
melancholy ; for commonly this humour so adust and hot, 
degenerates into madness. 

If it come from melancholy itself adust, those men, saith 
Avicenna, ^ " are usually sad and solitary, and that continu- 
ally, and in excess, more than ordinarily suspicious, more 
fearful, and have long, sore, and most corrupt imaginations ; " 
cold and black, bashful, and so solitary, that as ' Amoldus 
writes, " they will endure no company, they dream of graves 
still, and dead men, and think themselves bewitched or 
dead ; " if it be extreme, they think they hear hideous noises, 
see and talk * " with black men, and converse familiarly with 
devils, and such strange chimeras and visions " (Gordonius), 
or that they are possessed by them, that somebody talks to 
them, or within them. Tales mdancholici plerumque dcemo- 
ntact, Montaktis, consiL 26, ex Avicenna, Valescus de Ta- 
ranta had such a woman in cure, ^ '^ that thought she had to 
do with the devil ; " and Grentilis Fulgosus qucest, 55, writes 
that he had a melancholy friend, that * " had a black man in 
the likeness of a soldier " still following him wheresoever he 
was. Laurentius, cap. 7, hath many stories of such as have 
thought themselves bewitched by their enemies; and some 
that would eat no meat as being dead. ^Anno 1550 an 
advocate of Paris fell into such a melancholy fit, that he 

1 Ad hsBC perpetranda ftirore rapti du- adusta, tristes, de sepulchris somnlant, 

cuntur, cruclatus quosvis tolerant, et timent ne ftrscinentur, putant se mortu- 

mortem, et farore ezacerbato audent et os, aspici nolunt. ^ Videntur sibi yi- 

ad supplicia plus irritantur, minim est dere monachos nigros et daemones, et 

qnantam habeant in toimentis patienti- gTupensoe et mortuos. ^ Qoayis nocte 

am. s Tales plos cseteris timent, et se cum dnmone coire putayit. * Sem- 

continne tristantar, valde suspiciosi, sol- per fere yidisse militem nigrum preesen- 

itudinem diligunt, corruptissimas habent tem. 7 Anthony de Verdeur. 
tmaginationes, &c. > Si it melancholia 

30 S^mptojfM of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

believed verilj he was dead, he oould not be persuaded 
otherwise, or to eat or drink, till a kinsman of his, a scholar 
of Boarges, did eat before him dressed like a corse. The 
stoiy, saith Serres, was acted in a comedy before Charles the 
Ninth. Some think they are beasts, wolves, hogs, and cry 
like dogs, foxes, bray like asses, and low like kine, as King 
Praetus's daughters. * Hildesheim, spiceL 2, de mania, hath 
an example of a Dutch baron so affected, and Trincavellius, 
Ub. 1, consiL 11, another of a nobleman in his country, 
^ " that thought he was certainly a beast, and would imitate 
most of their voices," with many such symptoms, which 
may properly be reduced to this kind. 

If it proceed from the several combinations of these four 
humours, or spirits. Here de Saxon, adds hot, cold, dry, 
moist, dark, confused, settled, constringed, as it participates 
of matter, or is without matter, the symptoms are likewise 
mixed. One thinks himself a giant, another a dwarf; one 
is heavy as lead, another is as light as a feather. Marcellus 
Donatus, L 2, cap, 41, makes mention out of Seneca, of one 
Seneccbio, a rich man, '^"that thought himself and every- 
thing else he had, gi*eat ; great wife, great horses, could not 
abide little things, but would have great pots to drink in, 
great hose, and great shoes bigger than his feet" Like her 
in * Trallianus, that supposed she " could shake all the world 
with her finger," and was afraid to clinch her hand together, 
lest she should crush the world like an apple in pieces ; or 
him in Galen, that thought he w^as * Atlas, and sustained 
heaven with his shoulders. Another thinks himself so little, 
that he can creep into a mouse-hole ; one fears heaven will 
fall on his head ; a second is a cock ; and such a one, 
® Guianerius saith he saw at Padua, that would clap his 
hands together and crow. ^ Another thinks he is a nightin- 

1 Quidam mugitas bourn SBiniilantur, menta pedibus majora. ^ Lib. 1, cap. 

et pecoia se putant, ut Praeti filiee. 16^, putavit se nno digito posse totum 

s Baro quidam mugitus bourn, et rugitus mundum conteiere. ^ Sustinet hu- 

asinorum, et aliorum animaiium voces meris coelum cum Atlante. Alii coeli 

efflDgit. * Omnia magna putabat. uz- ruinam tlment. ^ Cap. 1, Tract. 15, 

orem magnam, grades equos, abhorruit alius se gallum putat, alius lusciniam. 

omnia parva, magna pocula, et calcea- 7 Trallianus. 

Mem. 1, subs. 3.] Stfmptoms of the Stars, SfC. 31 

gale, and therefore sings all the night long; another he is 
all glass, a pitcher, and will therefore let nobody come near 
him, and such a one i Laurentius gives out upon his credit, 
that he knew in France. Christophorus k Vega, cap, 3. I. 
14, Skenckius and Marcellus Donatus, L 2, .cap. 1, have 
many such examples, and one amongst the rest of a baker in 
Ferrara, that thought he was composed of butter, and durst not 
sit in the sun, or come near the fire for fear of being melted ; 
of another that thought he was a case of leather, stuffed with 
wind. Some laugh, weep ; some are mad, some dejected, 
moped, in much agony, some by fits, others continuate, &c. 
Some have a corrupt ear, they think they hear music, or 
some hideous noise as their fantasy conceives, corrupt eyes, 
some smelling ; some one sense, some another. ^ Lewis the 
Eleventh had a conceit everything did stink about him, all 
the odoriferous perfumes they could get, would not ease him, 
but still he smelled a filthy stink. A melancholy French 
poet in * Laurentius being sick of a fever, and troubled with 
waking, by his physicians was appointed to use unguentum 
poptdeum to anoint his temples; but he so distasted the 
smell of it, that for many years afler, all that came near him 
he imagined to scent of it, and would let no man talk with 
him but aloof off, or wear any new clothes, because he 
thought still they smelled of it ; in all other things wise and 
discreet, he would talk sensibly, save only in this. A gentle- 
man in Limousin, saith Anthony Verdeur, was persuaded he 
had but one leg, affrighted by a wild boar, that by chance 
struck him on the leg ; he could not be satisfied his leg was 
sound (in all other things well) until two Franciscans by 
chance coming that way, fully removed him from the conceit. 
Sed abunde fahalarum audivimuSy — enough of story-telling. 

1 Cap. 7, de mel. > Anthony de Verdeur s Cap. 7, de mel. 

82 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 3. 

SuBSECT. IV. — Symptoms from Educaiion, Custom, Con- 
ttniiance of Time, our Condition, mixed with other Dis- 
eases, by Fits, Inclination, S^c, 

Another great occasion of the variety of these symptoms 
proceeds from custom, discipline, education, and several incli- 
nations, J " this humour will imprint in melancholy men the 
objects most answerable to their condition of life, and ordi- 
nary actions, and dispose men according to their several 
studies and callings." If an ambitious man become melan- 
choly, he forthwith thinks he is a king, an emperor, a mon- 
arch, and walks alone, pleasing himself with a vain hope of 
some future preferment, or present as he supposeth, and 
withal acts a lord's part, takes upon him to be some states- 
man or magnifico, makes conges, gives entertainment, looks 
big, &c. Francisco Sansovino records of a melancholy man 
in Cremona, that would not be induced to believe but that 
he was pope, gave pardons, made cardinals, &c. ^ Chris- 
tophorus k Vega makes mention of another of his acquaint- 
ance, that thought he was a king, driven from his kingdom, 
and was very anxious to recover his estate. A covetous 
person is still conversant about purchasing of lands and tene- 
ments, plotting in his mind how to compass such and such 
manors, as if he were already lord of, and able to go through 
with it ; all he sees is his, re or «p6, he hath devoured it in 
hope, or else in conceit esteems it his own ; like him in 
^Athenseus, that thought all the ships in the haven to be 
his own. A lascivious inamorato plots all the day long to 
please his mistress, acts and struts, and carries himself as if 
she were in presence, still dreaming of her, as Pamphilus of 
his Glycerium, or as some do in their morning sleep. * Mar- 
cellus Donatus knew such a gentlewoman in Mantua, called 
Elionora Meliorina, that constantly believed she was married 
to a king, and ^ " would kneel down and talk with him, as if 

1 Laurentius, cap. 6. ^ Lib. 8, cap. omnes naves in Pirenm portum appellen- 
14, qui 86 legem putavit regno expulsum. tes suas esse. ^De hist. Med. mirab. 
> DipnoBophist. lib. Thrasilaus putarit lib. 2, cap. 1. ^ Genibus flexis loqui 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Symptoms from Custom. 33 

he had been there present with his associates ; and if she 
had found by chance a piece of glass in a muck-hill or in the 
street, she would say that it was a jewel sent from her lord 
and husband." K devout and religious, he is all for fasting, 
prayer, ceremonies, alms, interpretations, visions, prophecies, 
revelations, ^ he is inspired by the Holy Ghost, full of the 
Spirit ; one while he is saved, another while damned, or still 
troubled in mind for his sins, the devil will surely have him, 
&c., more of these in the third partition of love-melancholy. 
^A scholar's mind is busied about his studies, he applauds 
himself for what he hath done, or hopes to do, one while 
fearing to be out in his next exercise, another while con- 
temning all censures ; envies one, emulates another ; or else 
with indefatigable pains and meditation, consumes himself. 
So of the rest, all which vary according to the more remiss 
and violent impression of the object, or as the humour itself 
is intended or remitted. For some are so gently melancholy, 
that in all their carriage, and to the outward apprehension 
of others it can hardly be discerned, yet to them an intolera- 
ble burden, and not to be endured. ^ Qucedam occulta qtue- 
dam manifesta, some signs are manifest and obvious to all at 
all times, some to few or seldom, or hardly perceived ; let 
them keep their own counsel, none will take notice or sus- 
pect them. " They do not express in outward show their 
depraved imaginations," as * Hercules de Saxonia observes, 
** but conceal them wholly to themselves, and are very wise 
men, as I have often seen ; some fear, some do not fear at 
all, as such as think themselves kings or dead, some have 
more signs, some fewer, some great, some less, some vex, 
fret, still fear, grieve, lament suspect, laugh, sing, weep, 
chafe, &c., by fits (as I have said) or more during and 

cnm fllo Tolnit, et adstare jam tarn pn- nee opere, sed alta mente recondunt, et 

tayit, &c. 1 Gordonius, quod sit sunt Tiri prudentissimi, quos ^o saepe 

propheta, et inflatus k spiritu sancto. noyi, cum multi sint siDe tlmore, ut qui 

* Qui forensibuB causis insudat, nil nisi se r^^s et mortuos putant, plura signa 

arresta c(^tat, et supplices libellos, alius quidam habent, pauciora, majora. mi- 

non nisi versus fkcit. P. Forestus. nora. 
8 Gordonius. < Verbo non exprimunt, 

VOL. II. 3 


84 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 3. 

permanent" Some dote in one thing, are most childish, 
and ridiculous, and to be wondered at in that, and jet for all 
other matters, most discreet and wise. To some it is in 
disposition, to another in habit ; and as they write of heat 
and cold, we may say of this humour, one is melancholicus ad 
octo, a second two degrees less, a third half-way. 'Tis 
superparticular, sesquialtera, sesquitertia, and superbipartiens 
terttas, quintas Melancholice, S^c, all those geometrical pro- 
portions are too little to express it. ^ " It comes to many by 
fits, and goes ; to others it is continuate ; many (saith ^ Fa- 
ventinus) in spring and fall only are molested, some once a 
year, as that Boman ' Galen speaks of; * one, at the con- 
junction of the moon alone, or some unfortunate aspects, at 
such and such set hours and times, like the sea-tides, to some 
women when they be with child, as * Plater notes, never 
otherwise ; to others 'tis settled and fixed ; to one led about 
and variable still by that ignis faJtuus of fantasy, like an 
arthritis or running gout, 'tis here and there, and in every 
joint, always molesting some part or other ; or if the body be 
free, in a myriad of forms exercising the mind. A second 
once peradventure in his life hath a most grievous fit, once 
in seven years, once in five years, even to the extremity of 
madness, death, or dotage, and that upon some feral accident 
or perturbation, terrible object, and that for a time, never 
perhaps so before, never after. A third is moved upon all 
such troublesome objects, cross fortune, disaster, and violent 
passions, otherwise free, once troubled in three or four years. 
A fourth, if things be to his mind, or he in action, well 
pleased, in good company, is most jocund, and of a good 
complexion; if idle, or alone, «l la mort, or carried away 
wholly with pleasant dreams and fantasies, but if once 
crossed and displeased, 

" Pectore concipiet nil nisi triste suo; ** 

" He will imagine nought save sadness in his heart; " 

1 Trallianus, lib. 1, 16, alii intervalla &c. 2 Prac. mag. Vere tantnm et 
qusedam habent, ut etiam consueta ad- autamno. 3 Lib. de humoribufi. 

ministrent, alii in continuo delirio sunt, ^ Guianerius. & De mentis alienat. cap. 8. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Symptoms from Custom. 35 

his countenance is altered on a sudden, his heart heavy, irk- 
some thoughts crucify his soul, and in an instant he is moped 
' or weary of his life, he will kill himself. A fifth complains 
in his youth, a sixth in his middle age, the last in his old age. 
Grenerally thus much we may conclude of melancholy; 
that it is ^most pleasant at first, I say, mentis grcUissimus 
erroTy* a most delightsome humour, to be alone, dwell alone, 
walk alone, meditate, he in bed whole days, dreaming awake 
as it were, and frame a thousand fantastical imaginations unto 
themselves. They are never better pleased than when they 
are so doing, they are in paradise for the time, and cannot 
well endure to be interrupt ; with him in the poet, ^pol me 
occidisfis, amid, nan servdstis, ait? you have undone him, 
he complains if you trouble him; tell him what inconvenience 
will follow, what will be the event, all is one, canis ad vomi- 
turn, ^ 'tis so pleasant he cannot refrain. He may thus con- 
tinue peradventure many years by reason of a strong tem- 
perature, or some mixture of business, which may divert his 
cogitations; but at the last kesa imaginatio, his fantasy is 
crazed, and now habituated to such toys, cannot but work 
still Hke a fate, the scene alters upon a sudden, fear and sor- 
row supplant those pleasing thoughts, suspicion, discontent, 
and perpetual anxiety succeed in their places; so by little 
and little, by that shoeing-hom of idleness, and voluntary 
solitariness, melancholy this feral fiend is drawn on, ^ et quan" 
tum vertice ad auras ^thereas, tantum radice in Tartara 
tendit, " extending up, by its branches, so far towards Heaven, 
as, by its roots, it does down towards Tartarus ; " it was not 
so delicious at first, as now it is bitter and harsh ; a cankered 
soul macerated with cares and discontents, tadium vitie, im- 
patience, agony, inconstancy, irresolution, precipitate them 
unto unspeakable miseries. They cannot endure company, 
light, or life itself, some unfit for action, and the like. * Their 
bodies are lean and dried up, withered, ugly, their looks harsh, 

!• LeviDUS Lemnius, Jason Pratensis, cilifi descensus Ayerni. *T\rg. ^Cor- 
blanda ab initio. * " A most agree- pus cadaverosum. Psa. Ixrii. cariosa est 

able mental delusion." ^Hor. 8 Fa- fkcies mea prse aegritudine animsB. 

36 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 

very dull, and their souls tormented, as they are more or less 
entangled, as the humour hath been intended, or according to 
the continuance of time they have been troubled. 

To discern all which symptoms the better, ^ Rhasis the 
Arabian makes three degrees of them. The first is, fcdsa 
cogitatio, false conceits and idle thoughts ; to misconstrue and 
amplify, aggravating everything they conceive or fear ; the 
second is, fako cogitata hqui, to talk to themselves, or to use 
inarticulate incondite voices, speeches, obsolete gestures, and 
plainly to utter their minds and conceits of their hearts, by 
their words and actions, as to laugh, weep, to be silent, not 
to sleep, eat their meat, &c. ; the third is to put in practice 
that which they ^ think or speak. Savanarola, Bub. 11, 
Tract. 8, cap. 1, de ayrittidine, confirms as much, * " when 
he begins to express that in words, which he conceives in his 
heart, or talks idly, or goes from one thing to another," which 
* Gk)rdonius calls nee captU hahentia nee caudam, (" having 
neither head nor tail,") he is in the middle way ; ^ " but 
when he begins to act it likewise, and to put his fopperies in 
execution, he is then in the extent of melancholy, or madness 
itself." This progress of melancholy you shall easily observe 
in them that have been so affected, they go smiling to them- 
selves at first, at length they laugh out ; at first solitary, at last 
they can endure no company ; or if they do, they are now diz- 
zards, past sense and shame, quite moped, they care not what 
they say or do, all their actions, words, gestures, are furious or 
ridiculous. At first his mind is troubled, he doth not attend 
what is said, if you tell him a tale, he cries at last, what said 
you ? but in the end he mutters to himself, as old women do 
many times, or old men when they sit alone, upon a sudden 
they laugh, whoop, halloo, or run away, and swear they see or 
hear players, * devils, hobgoblins, ghosts, strike, or strut, &c., 

1 Lib. 9, ad Almansorem. s Practics quitur secum et ad alios, ac si vere prse- 

majore. ^ Quum ore loquitur quae sentes. Aug. cap. 11, li. de cura pro 

corde conoepit. quum subito de una re mortuis gerenda. Rhasis. ^ Quum 

ad aliud transit, neque rationem de ali- res ad hoc devenit, nt ea quae cc^tare 

quo reddit, tunc est in medio^ at quum coeperit, ore promat, atque acta permis- 

incipit operari quae loquitur, m summo ceat, tum perfecta melancholia est. 

gradu eat. * Cap. 19, Partic. 2. Lo- « Melancholicus se videre et audire putat 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Symptoms from Cmtom, 37 

grow humorous in the end ; like him in the poet, <«pc ducentos^ 
8€epe decern servos (" at one time followed by two hundred 
servants, at another only by ten "), he will dress himself, and 
undress, careless at last, grows insensible, stupid, or mad. 
^ He howls like a wolf, barks like a dog, and raves like Ajax 
and Orestes, hears music and outcries, which no man else 
hears. As ^he did whom Amatus Lusitanus mentioneth, 
cent 3, curcu 55, or that woman in * Springer, that spake 
many languages, and said she was possessed ; that farmer in 
* Prosper Calenus, that disputed and discoursed learnedly in 
philosophy and astronomy with Alexander Achilles his 
master at Bologna, in Italy. But of these I have already 

Who can sufficiently speak of these symptoms, or prescribe 
rules to comprehend them ? as Echo to the painter in Au- 
sonius, vane, quid ctffectas, Sfc, foolish fellow ; what wilt ? if 
you must needs paint me, paint a voice, et similem si vis pin- 
gere, pinge sonum ; if you will describe melancholy, describe 
a fantastical conceit, a corrupt imagination, vain thoughts and 
different, which who can do ? The four and twenty letters 
make no more variety of words in diverse languages, than 
melancholy conceits produce diversity of symptoms in several 
persons. They are irregular, obscure, various, so infinite, 
Proteus himself is not so diverse, you may as well make the 
moon a new coat, as a true character of a melancholy man ; 
as soon find the motion of a bird in the air, as the heart of 
man, a melancholy man. They are so confused, I say, di- 
verse, intermixed with other diseases. As the species be 
confounded (which * I have showed) so are the symptoms ; 
sometimes with headache, cachexia, dropsy, stone ; as you 
may perceive by those several examples and illustrations, ' 
collected by •Hildesheim, spicel, 2, Mercurialis, consiL 118, 
cap. 6 and 11, with headache, epilepsy, priapismus. Trin- 
cavellius, consiL 12, lib, 1, consil, 49, with gout: caninus 

diemonies. Layater de spectris, part. 3, < lAh. de atra bile. 6 Part. 1, Subs. 2, 
cap. 2. I Wienu, lib. 8, cap. 81. Memb. 2. < De delirio, melaDcbolia, et 

3 Michael it musian. > Malleo malef. mania. 

*)8 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. 3. 

appetitus, Montanus, consiL 26, 4&c., 23, 234, 249, with 
falling-sickness, headache, vertigo, Ijcanthropia, &c. I. Caesar 
Claudinus, consult. 4, consult. 89 and 116, with gout, agues, 
haemorrhoids, stone, &c., who can distinguish these melan- 
choly symptoms so intermixed with others, or apply them to 
their several kinds, confine them into method? 'Tis hard 
I confess, yet I have disposed of them as I could, and will 
descend to particularize them according to their species. For 
hitherto I have expatiated in more general lists or terms, 
speaking promiscuously of such ordinary signs, which occur 
amongst writers. Not that they are all to be found in one 
man, for that were to paint a monster or chimera, not a man ; 
but some in one, some in another, and that successively, or at 
several times. 

Which I have been the more curious to express and report ; 
not to upbraid any miserable man, or by way of derision (I 
rather pity them), but the better to discern, to apply remedies 
unto them ; and to show that the best and soundest of us all 
is in great danger; how much we ought to fear our own 
fickle estates, remember our miseries and vanities, examine 
and humiliate ourselves, seek to God, and call to Him for 
mercy, that needs not look for any rods to scourge ourselves, 
since we carry them in our bowels, and that our souls are in 
a miserable captivity, if the light of grace and heavenly truth 
doth not shine continually upon us ; and by our discretion to 
moderate ourselves, to be more circumspect and wary in the 
midst of these dangers. 

MEMB. n. 

SuBSECT. I. — Symptoms of Head-Melancholy, 

" If ^no symptoms appear about the stomach, nor the blood 
be misaffected, and fear and sorrow continue, it is to be thought 

1 Nicholas Piso. Si signa circa ventric- affectus, et adsant ttmor et moestitia, ce- 
ulum non apparent, nee sanguia male rebrum ipsum ezistimandam est, &c. 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Symptoms of HeadrMdancholy, 39 

the brain itself is troubled, by reason of a melancholy juice 
bred in it, or otherwise conveyed into it, and that evil juice is 
from the distemperature of the part, or left afler some inflam- 
mation," thus far Piso. But this is not always true, for blood 
and hypochondries both are often affected even in head-mel- 
ancholy. ^ Hercules de SaxoniH differs here from the com- 
mon current of writers, putting pecuHar signs of head- 
melancholy, from the sole distemperature of spirits in the 
brain, as they are hot, cold, dry, moist, "^ all without matter 
from the motion alone, and tenebrosity of spirits ; " of melan- 
choly which proceeds from humours by adustion, he treats 
apart, with their several symptoms and cures. The common 
signs, if it be by essence in the head, " are ruddiness of face, 
high sanguine complexion, most part ruhore saturato, 'one 
calls it a blueish, and sometimes full of pimples, with red 
eyes. Avicenna, l. 3, Fen, 2, Tr(zcL 4, c. 18. Duretus and 
others out of Galen, de affect, L 3, c. 6. • Hercules de Sax- 
oni& to this of redness of face, adds '^ heaviness of the head, 
fixed and hollow eyes. * If it proceed from dryness of the 
brain, then their heads will be light, vertiginous, and they 
most apt to wake, and to continue whole months together 
without sleep. Few excrements in their eyes and nostrils, 
and often bald by reason of excess of dryness," Montaltus 
adds, c. 17. If it proceed from moisture ; dulness, drowsi- 
ness, headache follows ; and as Salust Salvianus, c,\,l, 2, 
out of his own experience found, epHeptical, with a multitude 
of humours in the head. They are very bashful, if ruddy, 
apt to ' blush, and to be red upon all occasions, prcesertim si 
metus accessent. But the chiefest symptom to discern this 
species, m I have said, is this, that there be no notable signs 
in the stomach, hypochondries, or elsewhere, diyna, as * Mon- 

1 Tract, de mel. cap. 13, &c. Ex intern- capitis erit leiitas, sitis, yigilia, paucitas 

perie spirituam, et cerebri motu, tene- superflnitatum in oculis et naribos. ^ Si 

brositate. * Facie sunt rubente et Ut- nulla digna leesio yentriculo, quoniam in 

efloente, quibns etiam aliquando adsunt hac melancholia capitis, exigua nonnun- 

pastuUe. ' Jo. Pantheon, cap. de mel. quam ventriculi pathemata cocSunt, duo 

Si cerebrum primario afflciatur adRunt enim haec membra sibi inyicem affectio- 

capitis gravitaa. fix! oculi, &o. * Lau- nem transmittunt. 
rent. cap. 5, si a oerebro ex siccitate, turn 

i^^f^^mmmmm^mm i j , i ivj- 


40 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 

taltas terms them, or of greater note, because oftentimes the 
passions of the stomach concur with them. Wind is common 
to all three species, and is not excluded, only that of the 
hypochondries is ^ more windy than the rest, saith HoUerius. 
JEtius, tetrab. I, 2, sc. 2, c. 9 and 10, maintains the same, 
2 if there be more signs, and more evident in the head than 
elsewhere, the brain is primarily affected, and prescribes 
head-melancholy to be cured by meats amongst the rest, void 
of wind, and good juice, not excluding wind, or corrupt blood, 
even in head-melancholy itself; but these species are often 
confounded, and so are their symptoms, as I have already 
proved. The symptoms of the mind are superfluous and 
continual cogitations; *"for when the head is heated, it 
scorcheth the blood, and from thence proceed melancholy 
fumes, which trouble the mind," Avicenna. They are very 
choleric, and soon hot, solitary, sad, often silent, watchfiil, dis- 
content, Montaltus, cap. 24. If anything trouble them, they 
cannot sleep, but fret themselves still, till another object miti- 
gate, or time wear it out They have grievous passions, and 
immoderate perturbations of the mind, fear, sorrow, &c., yet 
not so continuate, but that they are sometimes merry, apt to 
profuse laughter, which is more to be wondered at, and that 
by the authority of * Galen himself, by reason of mixture of 
blood, prc^rubri jocosis delectantur et irrisores plerumqtie sunt, 
if they be ruddy, they are delighted in jests, and sometimes 
scoffers themselves, conceited; and as Rodericus k Vega 
comments on that place of Galen, merry, witty, of a pleasant 
disposition, and yet grievously melancholy anon after : omnia 
discunt sine doctore, saith Areteus, they learn without a 
teacher ; and as ** Laurentius supposeth, those feral passions 
and symptoms of such as think themselves glass, pitchers, 
feathers, &c, speak strange languages, proceed a calore 

1 Poetrema ma^s flatuoaa s Si &c., raro cerebrum afficitur sine ventri- 

minus molestisB circa yentriculam aut culo. > Sanguinem adarit caput calid- 

yentrem, in iis cerebrum primario afflci- ius, et inde fumi melancholici adusti, 

tur, et curare oportet hunc affectum, per animum eza^tant. ^ Lib. de loo. a£Eect. 

cibos flatus exortes, et bonae concoctionis, cap. 6. 6 Cap. 6. 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Symptoms of Windy Melancholy. 41 

cerebri (if it be in excess), from the brain's distempered 

SuBSECT. IL — Symptoms of windy Hypochondriaxial Melan- 

" In this hypochondriacal or filatuous melancholy, the symp- 
toms are so ambiguous," saith ^ Crato in a counsel of his for 
a noblewoman, ^ that the most exquisite physicians cannot 
determine of the part affected." Matthew Flaccius, con- 
sulted about a noble matron, confessed as much, that in this 
malady he with HoUerius, Fracastorius, Falopius, and others, 
being to give their sentence of a party labouring of hypo- 
chondriacal melancholy, could not find out by the symptoms 
which part was most especially affected ; some said the womb, 
some heart, some stomach, &&, and therefore Crato, consiL 
24, lib. 1, boldly avers, that in this diversity of symptoms, 
which commonly accompany this disease, ^ ^' no physician can 
truly say what part is affected." Galen, lib. 3, de loc. affect. 
reckons up these ordinary sjrmptoms, which all the Neoterics 
repeat of Diodes ; only this fault he finds with him, that he 
puts not fear and sorrow amongst the other signs. Trinca- 
vellius excuseth Diocles, lib. 3, consiL 35, because that often- 
times in a strong head and constitution, a generous spirit, and 
a valiant, these symptoms appear not, by reason of his valour 
and courage. ' Hercules de SaxoniS, (to whom I subscribe) 
is of the same mind (which I have before touched) that fear 
and sorrow are not general symptoms ; some fear and are 
not sad ; some be sad and fear not ; some neither fear nor 
grieve. The rest are these, beside fear and sorrow, * " sharp 
belchings, fulsome crudities, heat in the bowels, wind and 
rumbling in the guts, vehement gripings, pain in the belly 

1 Hildeshdm, spicel. 1, de mel. In tates, sestus in pnecordiis, flatns, inter- 

Hjpochondriaca melancholia adeo ambi- dum yentriculi dolores yehemente8,sump- 

gna sunt symptomata, ut etdam exercita* toque cibo concoctn difflcili, sputum hu- 

tissimi medici de loco affocto statuere non midum idque multum sequetur. &e. 

podsint. s Medici de loco afiecto ne- Hip. lib. de mel. Galenus, Melanelius h 

queunt statuere. 3 Tract, posthumo Rufifo et JEtio, Altomams, Piso, Montal- 

de mel. Patayii edit. 1620, per Bossettum tus, Bruel, Wecker, &c. 
Bibliop. cap. 2. ^ Acidi ructus, crudi- 

42 SymptOTM of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

and stomach sometiines, after meat that is hard of ooncoctioiiy 
much watering of the stomach, and moist spittle, cold sweat, 
tmportunus sudor, unseasonable sweat all over the body," as 
Octavius Horatianus, lib. 2, cap. 5, calls it ; ^ cold joints, in- 
digestion, ^ they cannot endure their own fulsome belchings, 
continual wind about their hypochondries, heat and griping 
in their bowels, prcecordia sursum conveUurUur, midriff and 
bowels are pulled up, the veins about their eyes look red, 
and swell &om vapours and wind*" Their ears sing now 
and then, vertigo and giddiness come by fits, turbulent 
dreams, dryness, leanness, apt they are to sweat upon all 
occasions, of all colours and complexions. Many of them 
are high-coloured, especially after meals, which symptom 
Cardinal Csecius was much troubled with, and of which he 
complained to Prosper Calenus his physician, he could not 
eat, or drink a cup of wine, but he was as red in the face as 
if he had been at a mayor's feast That symptom alone 
vexeth many. ' Some again are black, pale, ruddy, some- 
times their shoulders, and shoulder-blades ache, there is a 
leaping all over their bodies, sudden trembling, a palpitation 
of the heart, and that cardiaca passio, grief in the mouth 
of the stomach, which maketh the patient think his heart 
itself acheth, and sometimes suffocation, difficuUas anheUtus, 
short breath, hard wind, strong pulse, swooning. Montanus, 
consiL 55, Trincavellius, lib. 3, coruiL 3^ et 37, Femelius, 
cons. 43, Frambesarius, consult, lib. 1, consiL 17, Hildes- 
heim, Claudinus, &c., give instance of every particular. The 
peculiar symptoms, which properly belong to each part be 
these. J£ it proceed ftt>m the stomach saith ' Savanarola, 
'tis full of pain and wind, Guianerius adds vertigo, nausea, 
much spitting, <&c If from the myrach, a swelling and wind 
in the hypochondries, a loathing, and appetite to vomit, pull- 
ing upward. If firom the heart, aching and trembling of it, 

1 Circa pneoordla de anidua inflatione doloras habent. > Montaltus, c. 18, 

qnemntur, et cum gudore totios corpo< Wecker, Fuchsias, e. 18, Altomams, c. 

ris tmportuno, frigidos articuloa saepe 7, Laarentias, o. 78, Bruel, Qordon. 

patiuntar, indi^tione laborant, ractoa > Pract. major : dolor in eo et Tentositas, 

sao6 insaares pertiorrescunt, Yiaoeram nausea. 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Symptoms of Windy Melancholy, 43 

much heaviness. If from the liver, there is usually a pain 
in the right hypochondrie. If from the spleen, hardness and 
grief in the left hypochondrie, a rumbling, much appetite and 
small digestion, Avicenna. If £ix>m the meseraic veins and 
liver on the other side, little or no appetite. Here, de Saxo- 
ni4. If from the hypochondries, a rumbling inflation, con- 
coction is hindered, often belching, &c. And from these 
crudities, windy vapours ascend up to the brain which trouble 
the imagination, and cause fear, sorrow, dulness, heaviness, 
many terrible conceits and chimeras, as Lemnius weU ob- 
serves, ^. 1, <?. 16, "as ^a black and thick cloud covers the 
sun, and intercepts his beams and light, so doth this melan- 
choly vapour obnubilate the mind, enforce it to many absurd 
thoughts and imaginations," and compel good, wise, honest, 
discreet men (arising to the brain from the ^ lower parts, " as 
smoke out of a chimney ") to dote, speak, and do that which 
becomes them not, their persons, callings, wisdoms. One 
by reason of those ascendmg vapours and gripings, rumbling 
beneath, will not be persuaded but that he hath a serpent in 
his guts, a viper, another frogs. Trallianus relates a story 
of a woman, that imagined she had swallowed an eel, or a 
serpent, and Felix Platerus, ohservat, lib, 1, hath a most 
memorable example "of a countryman of his, that by chance 
falling into a pit where frogs and frogs' spawn was, and a 
little of that water swallowed, began to suspect that he had 
likewise swallowed frogs' spawn, and with that conceit and 
fear, his fantasy wrought so far, that he verily thought he 
had young live frogs in his belly, qui vivehant ex cdimento 
suo^ that lived by his nourishment, and was so certainly 
persuaded of it, that for many years following he could not 
be rectified in his conceit; He studied physic seven years 
together to cure himself, travelled into Italy, France and 
Grermany to confer with the best physicians about it, and A*. 
1609, asked his counsel amongst the rest; he told him it was 

1 nt atra densaque nubes soli eflhisa, sic, &o. > Ut fmntis ^ camino. 
ladios et lumen cgus intercipit et offuscat ; 

44 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 1. 

wind, his conceit, &c., but mordicus contradicere, et ore et 
scrtptts probare nitehatur ; no saying would serve, it was no 
wind, but real frogs ; " and do you not hear them croak ? " 
Platerus would have deceived him, by putting live frogs into 
his excrements ; but he, being a physician himself, would not 
be deceived, vir prudens alias, et doctus, a wise and learned 
man otherwise, a doctor of physic, and after seven years' 
dotage in this kind, a phantasia Uberattts est, he was cured. 
Laurentius and Goulart have many such examples, if you 
be desirous to read them. One commodity above the rest 
which are melancholy, these windy filatuous have, lucida inter* 
valla, their symptoms and pains are not usually so continuate 
as the rest, but come by fits, fear and sorrow, and the rest ; 
yet in another they exceed all others ; and that is, ^ they are 
luxurious, incontinent) and prone to venery, by reason of 
wind, et faciU amant, et quamlibet fere amant. (Jason Pra- 
tensis.) ^ Rhasis is of opinion, that Venus doth many of them 
much good; the other symptoms of the mind be common 
with the rest. 

SuBSECT. III. — Symptoms of Melancholy abounding in the 

whole body. 

Their bodies that are affected with this universal melan- 
choly are most part black, • " the melancholy juice is redun- 
dant all over," hirsute they are, and lean, they have broad 
veins, their blood is gross and thick. ^ "• Their spleen is 
weak," and a liver apt to engender the humour ; they have 
kept bad diet, or have had some evacuation stopped, as 
haemorrhoids, or months in women, which ^ Trallianus, in the 
cure, would have carefully to be inquired, and withal to ob- 
serve of what complexion the party is of, black or red. For 
as Forrestus and HoUerius contend, if • they be black, it pro- 

1 Hypoohondriaci nuudme aflfectant cilior. Montaltus, cap. 22. s Lib. 1, 

coire, et multiplioatur coitoB in ipsig, cap. 16. Interrogare oonyenit, an aliqoa 

ed quod Tentodtateg muItipUcantnr in evacuationis reteotio obrenerit, yiii in 

hjpochondriis, et coitru scepe allerat has heemorrhoid. mulierum menfltniis, et 

Tentositates. s Cont. lib. 1, tract. 9. Tide fkciem similiter an sit rubicunda. 

8 Wecker, Melancholicus succns toto cor- * Naturales nigri acquidti k toto corpore, 

pore rednndans. « Splen natura imbe- saepe rubicundi. 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Symptoms of Women^s Melancholy, 45 

ceeds from abundance of natural melancholy ; if it proceed 
from cares, agony, discontents, diet, exercise, &c, they may 
be as well of any other colour ; red, yeUow, pale, as black, 
and yet their whole blood corrupt : prcerubri colore scepe sunt 
tcUeSy sapejlavt, (saith ^Montaltus, cap. 22.) The best way 
to discern this species, is to let them bleed, if the blood be 
corrupt, thick, and black, and they withal free from those 
hypochondriacal symptoms, and not so grievously troubled 
with them, or those of the head, it argues they are melan- 
choly, a toto corpore. The fumes which arise from this cor- 
rupt blood, disturb the mind, and make them fearful and 
sorrowful, heavy heai*ted as the rest, dejected, discontented, 
solitary, silent, weary of their lives, dull and heavy, or merry, 
&c., and if far gone, that which Apuleius wished to his en- 
emy, by way of imprecation, is true in them ; ' " Dead men's 
bones, hobgoblins, ghosts, are ever in their minds, and meet 
them still in every turn ; all the bugbears of the night, and 
terrors, fairy-babes of tombs, and graves are before their 
eyes, and in their thoughts, as to women and children, if they 
be in the dark alone." If they hear, or read, or see any 
tragical object, it sticks by them, they are afraid of death, 
and yet weary of their lives, in their discontented humours 
they quarrel with all the world, bitterly inveigh, tax satir- 
ically, and because they cannot otherwise vent their passions 
or redress what is amiss, as they mean, they will by violent 
death at last be revenged on themselves. 

SuBSECT. IV. — Symptoms of Maids, Nuns, and Widowi 


Because Lodovicus Mercatus, in his second book de 
mulier, affect, cap, 4, and Rodericus k Castro, de morh, mtdier, 
cap. 3, lib. 2, two famous physicians in Spain, Daniel Sen- 
nertus of Wittenberg, lib. 1, part. 2, cap. 13, with others, 

1 Montaltus, cap. 22. Piso. Ex colore mm oculis suis aggemnt, sibi fingnnt 

sanguinis si minuas yenam, si fluat ni- omnia noctium occursacula, omnia bus- 

ger, &c. 2 Apul. lib. 1, semper obvisB torum formidamina, omnia sepulchrorimi 

species mortuomm qnicquid umbramm terriculamenta. 
est Qspiam, q.aicq.uid lemurum et larva- 

46 Symptoms of Mdaneholy, [Part. I. sec. 8. 

have vouchsafed in their works, not long since published, to 
write two just treatises de MehnchoUA Virginum^ MoniaUvm 
et Viduarum^ as a particular species of melancholy (which 
I have already specified) distinct from the rest; (^for it 
much differs from that which commonly befalls men and 
other women, as having one only cause proper to women 
alone) I may not omit in this general survey of melancholy 
symptoms, to set down the particular signs of such parties so 

The causes are assigned out of Hippocrates, Cleopatra, 
Moschion, and those old Gymeciorum Scriptores, of this feral 
malady, in more ancient maids, widows, and barren women, 
oh septum transversum violatum, saith Mercatus, by reason of 
the midriff or Diaphrayma, heart and brain offended with 
those vicious vapours which come from menstruous blood, 
injiammaJtionetn arteria circa dorsum, Rodericus adds, an in- 
flammation of the back, which with the rest is offended by 
' that fuliginous exhalation of corrupt seed, troubling the 
brain, heart, and mind ; the brain, I say, not in essence, but 
by consent, Untversa enim hujus affectus causa ah utero pen- 
dety el d sanguinis menstrui malitia, for in a word, the whole 
malady pix>ceeds from that inflammation, putridity, black 
smoky vapours, &c., from thence comes care, sorrow, and 
anxiety, obfuscation of spirits, agony, desperation, and the 
like, which are intended or remitted ; si amatorius accesserit 
ardor, or any other violent object or perturbation of mind. 
This melancholy may happen to widows, with much care and 
sorrow, as frequently it doth,- by reason of a sudden alteration 
of their accustomed course of life, &c To such as lie in 
childbed oh suppressam puryationem ; but to nuns and more 
ancient maids, and some barren women for the causes afore- 
said, 'tis more familiar, crehrius his quam reliquis accidit, 
inquit Rodericus, the rest are not altogether excluded. 

1 Differt enim ab ea quae ylris et reliquis &c., non per essentiam, sed per consen- 

feminifl oommuniter oontingit, propriam aum. AnlmuB moerens et anxias inde 

habena causam. « Ex menstrui san- malum trahit, et spiritus cerebrum ob- 

>!uini8 tetra ad cor et cerebrum ezliala- fuscantur, quae cuncta augentur, &c. 
tione, Titiatam aemen mentem perturbat, 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Symptoms of Women's Melancholy, 47 

Out of these causes Rodericus defines it with Areteus, tp 
be angorem ammi, a vexation of the mind, a sudden sorrow 
from a small, light, or no occasion, ^ with a kind of still dotage 
and grief of some part or other, head, heart, breasts, sides, 
back, belly, &c., with much solitariness, weeping, distraction, 
&c., from which they are sometimes suddenly delivered, be- 
cause it comes and goes by fits, and is not so permanent as 
other melancholy. 

But to leave this brief description, the most ordinary symp- 
toms be these, pulscUto juxta dorsum, a beating about the 
back, which is almost perpetual, the skin is many times 
rough, squalid, especially, as Areteus obser\'es, about the 
arms, knees, and knuckles. The midriff and heart-strings do 
bum and beat very fearfully, and when this vapour or fume 
is stirred, flieth upward, the heart itself beats, is sore grieved, 
and faints, ybtwcs, stccitcUe prceclitduntur, vt difficuUer possit 
ab uteri strangtdatione decemt, like fits of the mother, AhmspU' 
risque nil reddit, cdiis exiguum, acre, biliosum, lotium Jlavum. 
They complain many times, saith Mercatus, of a great pain in 
their heads, about their hearts, and hypochondries, and so 
likewise in their breasts, which are often sore, sometimes 
ready to swoon, their faces are inflamed, and red, they are 
dry, thirsty, suddenly hot, much troubled with wind, cannot 
sleep, &c. And from hence proceed ferina delirament(z, a 
brutish kind of dotage, troublesome sleep, terrible dreams in 
the night, suhrusticus pudor et verecundia ignava, a foolish 
kind of bashfulness to some, perverse conceits and opinions, 
^dejection of mind, much discontent, preposterous judgment. 
They are apt to loathe, dislike, disdain, to be weary of every 
object, &c., each thing almost is tedious to them, they pine 
away, void of counsel, apt to weep, and tremble, timorous, 

1 Cum tacito delirio ac dolore aliciijaB sum erolat, cor palpitat aut premitur, 

partis internae, dorsi, hypochondrii, cor- animoB deficit, &c. ^ Animi d^ectio, 

dis regionem et univeraam mammam in- perversa rerum existimatio, praeposte- 

terdum occupantis, &c. Cutis aliquan- rum Judicium. Fastidiosae, langnentes, 

do squalida, aspera, rugosa, prsecipue tsediosae, consilii inopee, lachrymosae, 

cubitis, genibus, et digitorum articulis, timentes, moestse, cum summa rcrum 

praecordia ingenti saepe torrore aestuant meliorum desperatione, nulla re deleetan- 

et pulsant, cumque vapor excitatus sur- tur, solitudinem amant, &c. 

48 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

fearful, sad, and out of all hope of better fortunes. Thejr 
take delight in nothing for the time, but love to be alone and 
solitary, though that do them more harm ; and thus they are 
affected so long as this vapour lasteth ; but by and by as 
pleasant and merry as ever they were in their lives, they 
sing, discourse, and laugh in any good company, upon all 
occasions, and so by fits it takes them now and then, except 
the malady be inveterate, and then 'tis more frequent, vehe- 
ment, and continuate. Many of them cannot tell how* to 
express themselves in words, or how it holds them, what ails 
them, you cannot understand them, or well tell what to make 
of their sayings ; so far gone sometimes, so stupefied and dis- 
tracted, they think themselves bewitched, they are in despair, 
apicB ad jietum, desperationem^ dolores jnammis et hypochon- 
driis, Mercatus therefore adds, now their breasts, now their 
hypochondries, belly and sides, then their heart and head 
aches, now heat, then wind, now this, now that offends, they 
are weary of all ; ^ and yet will not, cannot again tell how, 
where or what offends them, though they be in great pain, 
agony, and frequently complain, grieving, sighing, weeping, 
and ^discontented still, sine causd manifestd, most part, yet I 
say they will complain, grudge, lament, and not be persuaded, 
but that they are troubled with an evil spirit, which is fre- 
quent in Germany, saith Rodericus, amongst the common 
sort ; and to such as are most grievously affected (for he 
makes three degrees of this disease in women), they are in 
despair, surely forespoken or bewitched, and in extremity of 
their dotage (weary of their lives), some of them will attempt 
to make away themselves. Some think they see visions, con- 
fer with spirit sand devils, they shall surely be damned, are 
afraid of some treachery, imminent danger, and the like, they 
wiU not speak, make answer to any question, but are almost 
distracted, mad, or stupid for the time, and by fits ; and thus 

1 Nolunt aperire molestlam quam pati- nulla orationis snavitate ad spem salutis 

untur, Bed conqueruntur tamen de capi- recuperandam erigi, &e. Familiares non 

te, corde, mammis, &c. In pnteos fere curant, non loquuntur, non respondent, 

maidaci prosilire, ac strangulari cupiunt, &c., et haec graviora, si, &c. 

.A I 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Symptoms of WomerCs Melancholy, 49 

it holds them, as they are more or less affected, and as the 
inner humour is intended or remitted, or by outward objects 
and perturbations aggravated, solitariness, idleness, &c. 

Many other maladies there are incident to young women, 
out of that one and only cause above specified, many feral 
diseases. I will not so much as mention their names, mel- 
ancholy alone is the subject of my present discourse, from 
which I will not swerve. The several cures of this infirmity, 
concerning diet, which must be very sparing, phlebotomy, 
physic, internal, external remedies, are at large in great va- 
riety in ^ Rodericus a Castro, Sennertus, and Mercatus, whicJi^ 
whoso will, as occasion serves, may make use of. But the '] 
best and surest remedy of all, is to see them well placed, and 
married to good husbands in due time, hinc iUcB lachrymcB, 
that is the primary cause, and this the ready cure, to give 
them content to their desires. I write not this to patronize 
any wanton, idle flirt, lascivious or light housewives, which 
are too forward many times, unruly, and apt to cast away 
themselves on him that comes next, without all care, counsel, 
circumspection, and judgment. If religion, good discipline, 
honest education, wholesome exhortation, fair promises, fame 
and loss of good name, cannot inhibit and deter such (which 
to chaste and sober maids cannot choose but avail much), 
labour and exercise, strict diet, rigour and threats, may more 
opportunely be used, and are able of themselves, to qualify 
and divert an ill-disposed temperament. For seldom should 
you see an hired servant, a poor handmaid, though ancient, 
that is kept hard to her work, and bodily labour, a coarse 
country wench troubled in this kind, but noble virgins, nice 
gentlewomen, such as are solitary and idle, live at ease, lead 
a life out of action and employment, that fare well, in great 
houses and jovial companies, ill disposed peradventure of 
themselves, and not willing to make any resistance, discon- 
tented otherwise, of weak judgment, able bodies, and subject 
to passions, (yrandiores virgines, saith Mercatus, stenks et 

1 Clisteres et Helleboriimaiun Mathioli sxunmd laudat. 
VOL. II. 4 


50 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

vidiuB plerumque melancholica,) such for the most part are 

\ misafiTected, and prone to this disease. I do not so much pity 

them that may otherwise be eased, but those alone that out 
of a strong temperament, innate constitution, are violently 
carried away with this torrent of inward humours, and though 
very modest of themselves, sober, religious, virtuous, and 
well given (as many so distressed maids are), yet cannot 
make resistance, these grievances will appear, this malady 
will take place, and now manifestly show itself, and may not 
otherwise be helped. But where am I ? Into what subject 
have I rushed ? What have I to do with nuns, maids, vir- 
gins, widows ? I am a bachelor myself, and lead a monastic 
life in a college, nee ego sane tneptus qui Jubc dixerim, I con- 
fess, 'tis an indecorum, and as Pallas a virgin blushed, when 
Jupiter by chance spake of love matters in her presence, and 
turned away her face ; me reprimam, though my subject 
necessarily require it, I will say no more. 
[ And yet I must and will say something more, add a word 
' or two in yratiam Virginum et Viduarum, in favour of all 
such distressed parties, in commiseration of their present 
estate. And as I cannot choose but condole their mishap 
that labour of this infirmity, and are destitute of help in 
this case, so must I needs inveigh against them that are in 
fault, more than manifest causes, and as bitterly tax those 
tyrannizing pseudo-politicians* superstitious orders, rash vows, 
hard-hearted parents, guardians, unnatural friends, allies (call 
them how you will), those careless and stupid overseers, that 
out of worldly respects, covetousness, supine negligence, their 
own private ends (cum sibi sit interim bene) can so severely 
reject, stubbornly neglect, and impiously contemn, without all 
remorse and pity, the tears, sighs, groans, and grievous mis- 
eries of such poor souk committed to their charge. How 
odious and abominable are those superstitious and rash vows 
of Popish monasteries ! so to bind and enforce men and 
women to vow virginity, to lead a single life, against the laws 
of nature, opposite to religion, policy, and humanity^' so to 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Symptoms of Women's Melancholy. 51 

starve, to offer violence, to suppress the vigour of youth bj 
rigorous statutes, severe laws, vain persuasions, to debar 
them of that to which by their innate temperature they are 
so furiously inclined, urgently carried, and sometimes precipi- 
tated, even irresistibly led, to the prejudice of their soul's 
health, and good estate of body and mind ; and all for base 
and private respects, to maintain their gross superstition, to 
enrich themselves and their territories, as they falsely sup- 
pose, by hindering some marriages, that the world be not full 
of beggars, and their parishes pestered with orphans ; stupid 
politicians, hcBccine fieri flagitiaf ought these things so to be 
carried ? better marry than burn, saith the Apostle, but they 
are otherwise persuaded. They wiU by all means quench 
their neighbour's house if be on fire, but that fire of lust which 
breaks out into such lamentable fiames, they will not take 
notice of, their own bowels oftentimes, flesh and blood shall 
so rage and bum, and they will not see it : miserum est, saith 
Austin, seipsum non miserescere, and they are miserable in the 
mean time that cannot pity themselves, the common good of 
all, and per consequens their own estates. For let them but 
consider what fearful maladies, feral diseases, gross inconven- 
iences, come to both sexes by this enforced temperance, it 
troubles me to think of, much more to relate those frequent 
abortions and murdering of infants in their nunneries (read 
^Kemnitius and others), their notorious fornications, those 
Spintrias, Tribadas, Ambubeias, &c., those rapes, incests, 
adulteries, mastuprations, sodomies, buggeries of monks and 
friars. See Bale's visitation of abbeys, ^ Mercurialis, Rode- 
ricus a Castro, Peter Forestus, and divers physicians ; I know 
their ordinary apologies and excuses for these things, sed vt- 
derint Politicly Medici, Theohgi, I shall more opportunely 
meet with them ' elsewherfe. 

* " lUius vidnse, aut patronum Virginis hujus, 
Ne me forte putes, verbum non amplius addam.'* 

1 Examen cone. Trident, de cselibata ^ " Lest you may imagine that I patron- 
sacerd.* * Cap. de Satyr, et Priapis. izo that widow or this yirgin, I shall not 
> Part. 3, sect. 2, Memb. 6, Sub. 5. add another word." 

'jx^:.,am^.ZMP- : . i. fc'.n.i—g^nBwwtcwi 

52 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 


Immediate Cause of these precedent Symptoms. 

To give some satisfaction to melancholy men that are 
troubled with these symptoms, a better means in my judg- 
ment cannot be taken, than to show them the causes whence 
they proceed ; not from devils as they suppose, or that they 
are bewitched or forsaken of God, hear or see, &c, as many 
of them think, but from natural and inward causes, that so 
knowing them, they may better avoid the effects, or at least 
endure them with more patience. The most grievous and 
common symptoms are fear and sorrow, and that without a 
cause to the wisest and discreetest men, in this malady not to 
be avoided. The reason why they are so -ZEtius discusseth 
at large, Tetrabih, 2, 2, in his first problem out of Galen, lib, 
2, rfc causis sympU 1. For Galen imputeth all to the cold 
that is black, and thinks that the spirits being darkened, and 
the substance of the brain cloudy and dark, all the objects 
thereof appear terrible, and the ^ mind itself, by those dark, 
obscure, gross fumes, ascending from black humours, is in 
continual darkness, fear, and sorrow; divers terrible mon- 
strous fictions in a thousand shapes and apparitions occur, 
with violent passions, by which the brain and fantasy are 
troubled and eclipsed, ^ Fracastorius, lib. 2, de intellect. 
" will have cold to be the cause of fear and sorrow ; for such 
as are cold are ill-disposed to mirth, dull, and heavy, by 
nature solitary, silent ; and not for any inwai'd darkness (as 
physicians think) for many melancholy men dare boldly be, 
continue, and walk in the dark, and delight in it : " solum 
frigidi timidi : if they be hot, they are merry ; and the more 
hot, the more furious, and void of fear, as we see in madmen ; 

1 Vapores orassi et nigri, k rentriculo tenebras intemas, nt medic! Tolnnt, sed 

in cerebrum exhalant. Fel. Platerus. ob fHgus : multi melancholici nocte am- 

s Galidi bilares, fHgidi indispositi ad laeti- bulant intrepidi. 
tiam, et ideo solitarii, tacitorni, non ob 

Mem. 3.] Cavses of these Symptoms, 53 

but this reason holds not, for then no melancholy, proceeding 
from choler adust, should fear. ^Averroes scoffs at Galen 
for his reasons, and brings five arguments to repel them ; so 
doth Here de Saxonia, Tra4;U de Melanch. cap, 3, assigning 
other causes, which are copiously censured and confuted by 
iBlianus Montaltus, cap, 5 and 6, Lod. Mercatus de Inter, 
morh, cur, lib. 1, cap, 17, Altomarus, cap. 7, de mel., Guia- 
nerius, tract, 15, cap. 1, Bright, cap. 37, Laurentius, cap, 5, 
Valesius, med. cont. lib. 5, con, 1, * " Distemperature,*' they 
conclude, " makes black juice, blackness obscures the spirits, 
the spirits obscured, cause fear and sorrow." Laurentius, cap. 
13, supposeth these black fumes offend specially the diaphrag- 
ma or midriff, and so per consequens the mind, which is 
obscured as * the sun by a cloud. To this opinion of Galen, 
almost aU the Greeks and Arabians subscribe, the Latins 
new and old, interna tenebra offuscarU animum^ ut extemce 
nocent pueris, as childi*en are affrighted in the dark, so are 
melancholy men at all times, ^ as having the inward cause 
with them, and still carrying it about. Which black vapours, 
whether they proceed from the black blood about the heart, 
as T. W. Jes. thinks in his Treatise of the passions of the 
mind, or stomach, spleen, midriff, or all the misaffected parts 
together, it boots not, they keep the mind in a perpetual 
dungeon, and oppress it with continual fears, anxieties, sor- 
rows, &c It is an ordinary thing for such as are sound to 
laugh at this dejected pusillanimity, and those other symptoms 
of melancholy, to make themselves merry with them, and to 
wonder at such, as toys and trifles, which may be resisted and 
withstood, if they will themselves ; but let him that so won- 
ders, consider with himself, that if a man should tell him on a 
sudden, some of his especial friends were dead, could he 
choose but grieve ? Or set him upon a steep rock, where he 
should be in danger to be precipitated, could he be secure ? 

1 Vapores melsneholid, gpiritibus mis- oula Solem offascat. Constantinos, lib. 

tl, tenebramm cauflCB sant, cap. 1. ^la- de melanch. ^ Altomarus, c. 7. 

temperies &cit succum ni^um, nlgrities Causam timoris circumfert ater humor 

obscurat spiritum, obscuratio spiritils fk- passionis materia, et atri splritus perpet> 

cit metam et tristitiam. * Ut nube- uam anhusB domicilio offundunt noctem. 

54 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 3. 

His heart would tremble for fear, and his head be ^ddy. P. 
Bjarus, TrajcL depest, gives instance (as I have said) ^^^and 
put case (saith he) in one that walks upon a plank, if it lie on 
the ground, he can safely do it ; but if the same plank be laid 
over some deep water, instead of a bridge, he is vehemently 
moved, and 'tis nothing but his imagination, forma cadendi 
impressay to which his other members and faculties obey." 
Yea, but you infer, that such men have a just cause to fear, a 
true object of fear; so have melancholy men an inward 
cause, a perpetual fume and darkness, causing fear, grief, 
suspicion, which they carry with them, an object which can- 
not be removed ; but sticks as close, and is as inseparable as 
a shadow to a body, and who can expel or overrun his 
shadow ? Remove heat of the liver, a cold stomach, weak 
spleen ; remove those adust humours and vapours arising 
from them, black blood from the heart, all outward perturba- 
tions, take away the cause, and then bid them not grieve nor 
fear, or be heavy, dull, lumpish, otherwise counsel can do 
little good ; you may as well bid him that is sick of an ague 
not to be a-dry ; or him that is wounded not to feel pain. 

Suspicion follows fear and sorrow at heels, arising out of 
the same fountain, so thinks ^ Fracastorius, ^ that fear is the 
cause of suspicion, and still they suspect some treachery, or 
some secret machination to be framed against them, still they 
distrust." Restlessness proceeds from the same spring, variety 
of fumes make them like and dislike. Solitariness, avoiding 
of light, that they are weary of their lives, hate the world, 
arise from the same causes, for their spirits and humours are 
opposite to light, fear makes them avoid company, and absent 
themselves, lest they should be misused, hissed at, or over- 
shoot themselves, which still they suspect. They are prone to 
venery by reason of wind. Angry, waspish, and fretting 

^ Pone exemplam, quod quia potest diunt membra omnia, et fiicultates reli- 
ambulare super trabem quse est in Tia : quae. * lab. 2, de intellectione. Sus- 
sed si sit super aquam profundam, loco piciosi ob timorem et obliquum discur- 
pontis, non ambuiabit super earn, eo sum, et semper inde putant sibi fieri 
quod imaginetur in animo et timet vehe- insidias. Lauren. 5. 
meuter, forma cadendi impressa, cui obe- 

T^^ i I I  lilt .^^^^^M I , Mil ^ 

Mem. 8.] Causes of these Symptoms. 55 

still, out of abundance of choler, which causeth fearful dreams 
and violent perturbations to them, both sleeping and waking ; 
That they suppose thej have no heads, flj, sink, they are 
pots, glasses, &c., is wind in their heads. ^ Here, de Saxon id, 
doth ascribe this to the several motions in the animal spirits, 
" their dilation, contraction, confusion, alteration, tenebrosity, 
hot or cold distemperature," excluding all material humours. 
* Fracastorius "accounts it a thing worthy of inquisition, 
why they should entertain such false conceits, as that they 
have horns, great noses, that they are birds, beasts," &c., why 
they shopld think themselves kings, lords, cardinals. For the 
first, • Fracastorius gives two reasons : " One is the disposi- 
tion of the body ; the other, the occasion of the fantasy," as 
if their eyes be purblind, their ears sing, by reason of some 
cold and rheum, &c To the second, Laurentius answers, 
the imagination inwardly or outwardly moved, represents to 
the understanding, not enticements only, to favour the passion 
or dislike, but a very intensive pleasure follows the passion or 
displeasure, and the will and reason are captivated by de- 
lighting in it. 

Why students and lovers are so often melancholy and mad, 
the philosopher of * Conimbra assigns this reason, " because 
by a vehement and continual meditation of that wherewith 
they are affected, they fetch up the spirits into the brain, and 
with the heat brought with them, they incend it beyond 
measure ; and the cells of the inner senses dissolve their tem- 
perature, which being dissolved, they cannot perform their 
oflSices as they ought." 

Why melancholy men areiwitty, which Aristotle hath long 
since maintained in his problems ; and that ^aU learned men, 
famous philosophers, and lawgivers, ad unum fere omnes 
melanchoUci, have still been melancholy, is a problem much 

1 Tract, de mel. cap. 7. Ex dilatione, ginationig. * In pro. 1i. de coelo. Ve- 

contractione, confusione, tenebrositate hemens et assidua cogitatio rei erga quam 

spiritaum, calida^ frigida intemperie, afflcitur, spiritus in cerebrom evocat. 

&c. s lUud inquisitione dignum, cur 6 MelanchoUci ingeniosi omnes, sunimi 

tarn Iklaa recipiant, habere se cornua, viri in artibus et disciplinis, flive circum 

esse mortaos, . nasutos, esse aves, &c. imperatoriam aut reip. disciplinam om- 

^ 1. Di«po8itio corporis. 2. Occasio Ima- nes fere melanchoUci. Aristoteles. 

56 Symptom$ of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

controverted. Jason Pratensis will have it understood of 
natural melancholy, which opinion Melancthon inclines to, in 
his book de Anima, and Marsilius Ficinus, de san, tuend. lib, 
1, cap. 5, but not simple, for that makes men stupid, heavy, 
dull, being cold and dry, fearful, fools, and solitary, but mixed 
with the other humours, phlegm only excepted; and they 
not adust, ^ but so mixed as that blood be half, with little or 
no adustion, that they be neither too hot nor too cold.* Ap- 
ponensis, cited by Melancthon, thinks it proceeds from melan- 
choly adust, excluding all natural melancholy as too cold. 
Laurentius condemns^ his tenet, because adustion of Jiumours 
makes men mad, as lime burns when water is cast on it. It 
must be mixed with blood, and somewhat adust, and so that 
old aphorism of Aristotle may be verified, NvUum magnum 
ingenium sine mixturd dementia^ no excellent wit without a 
mixture of madness. Fracastorius shall decide the contro- 
versy, ^ " phlegmatic are dull ; sanguine lively, pleasant, ac- 
ceptable, and merry, but not witty ; choleric are too swift in 
motion, and furious, impatient of contemplation, deceitful 
wits ; melancholy men have the most excellent wits, but not 
all ; this humour may he hot or cold, thick or thin ; if too 
hot, they are furious and mad; if too cold, dull, stupid, 
timorous, and sad ; if temperate, excellent, rather inclining 
to that extreme of heat, than cold." This sentence of his 
will agree with that of Heraclitus, a dry light makes a wise 
mind, temperate heat and dryness are the chief causes of a 
good wit ; therefore, saith -^lian, an elephant is the wisest 
of all brute beasts, because his brain is driest, et oh atrce hilis 
copiam ; this reason Cardan approves, stibtil, I 12. Jo. 
Baptista Silvaticus, a physician of Milan, in his first contro- 
versy, hath copiously handled this question ; Rulandus in his 
problems, CaBlius Rhodiginus, lib. 17, Valleriola, 6" narrat. 
med., Here, de Saxonia, Tract, posth. de mel. cap. 3, Lodo- 

1 Adeo miscentur, ut sit duplum san- at non ingeniosi ; choleric! celeres motu, 

guinis ad reliqua duo. ^ Lib. 2, de in- et ob id contemplationis iinpatientes : 

tellectione. Piiif^ui sunt Minerva phleg- Melancholici solum excellentes, &c. 
matici : 8aDguineiamabiles,grati, bllares, 

Mem. 3.] Oauses of these Symptoms. 57 

vicus Mercatus, de Inter, morb, cur. lib. 1, cap. 17, Baptista 
Porta, Physiog, lib. 1, c. 13, and many others. 

Weeping, sighing, laughing, itching, trembling, sweating, 
blushing, hearing and seeing strange noises, visions, wind, 
crudity, are motions of the body, depending upon these pre- 
cedent motions of the mind; neither are tears, affections, 
but actions (as Scaliger holds) ^ ^ the voice of such as are 
a&aid, trembles, because the heart is shaken," ( Commb. prob. 
6, sec. 3, de som.) why they stutter or falter in their speech, 
Mercurialis and Montaltus, cap. 17, give like i*easons out of 
Hippocrates, ^"dryness, which makes the nerves of the 
tongue torpid." Fast speaking (which is a symptom of some 
few) JEtius will have caused ' " from abundance of wind, and 
swiflness of imagination ; * baldness comes from excess of dry- 
ness," hirsuteness from a dry temperature. The cause of much 
waking in a dry brain, continual meditation, discontent, fears 
and cares, that suffer not the mind to be at rest, incontinency 
is from wind, and a hot liver, Montanus, cons. 26. Rumbling 
in the guts is caused from wind, and wind from ill concoction, 
weakness of natural heat, or a distempered heat and cold ; 
^ Palpitation of the heart from vapours, heaviness and aching 
from the same cause. That the belly is hard, wind is a cause, 
and of that leaping in many parts. Redness of the face, and 
itching, as if they were flea-bitten, or stung with pismires, 
from a sharp subtile wind. ^ Cold sweat from vapours aris- 
ing from the hypochondries, which pitch upon the skin ; lean- 
ness for want of good nourishment Why their appetite is 
so great, 'JEtius answers : Os ventris frigescit, cold in those 
inner parts, cold belly, and hot liver, causeth crudity, and in- 
tention proceeds from perturbations, ^ our souls for want of 
spirits cannot attend exactly to so many intentive operations, 
being exhaust, and overswayed by passion, she cannot con- 
sider the reasons which may dissuade her from such affections. 

1 Trepiclantium tox tremnla, quia cor excessum. ^ iEtias. * Lauren, o. 

quatitur. < Ob ariditatem qu» reddit 13. ^ Tetrab. 2, ser. 2, cap. 10. 

nerros linguas torpidos. * Incontinen- 8 Ant. LodoTicns, prob lib. 1, sect. 6, de 

tia linguae ex copia flatuum, et velocitate atrabilarils. 
imaginationia. * Calyities ob siocitatLi 

58 Symptoms of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. 8. 

^Bashfulness and blushing is a passion proper to men 
alone, and is not only caused for ^ some shaitie and ignominy, 
or that they ai*e guilty unto themselves of some foul fact 
committed, but as ' Fracastorius well determines, oh defectum 
proprium^ et timorem, " from fear, and a conceit of our defects ; 
the face labours and is troubled at his presence that sees our 
defects, and nature, willing to help, sends thither heat, heat 
draws the subtilest blood, and so we blush. They that are 
bold, arrogant, and careless, seldom or never blush, but such 
as are fearful." Anthonius Lodovicus, in his book de pudore, 
will have this subtile blood to arise in the face, not so much 
for the reverence of our betters in presence, * " but for joy 
and pleasure, or if anything at unawares shall pass from us, 
a sudden accident, occurse, or meeting ; '* (which Disarius in 
* Macrobius confirms) any object heard or seen, for blind men 
never blush, ais Dandinus observes, the night and darkness 
make men impudent. Or that we be staid before our betters, 
or in company we like not, or if anything molest and offend 
us, erubescentia turns to ntbory blushing to a continuate red- 
ness. • Sometimes the extremity of the ears tingle, and are 
red, sometimes the whole face, £!t8i nihil vitiosum commiseris, 
as Lodovicus holds; though Aristotle is of opinion, omnis 
pudor ex vitio commisso, all shame for some offence. But we 
find otherwise, it may as well proceed ^ from fear, from force 
and inexperience (so ® Dandinus holds), as vice ; a hot liver, 
saith Duretus, (notis in HoUerium :) " from a hot brain, from 
wind, the lungs heated, or after drinking of wine, strong 
drink, perturbations," &c 

" Laughter, what it is," eaith • TuUy, " how caused, where, 

1 Subnuticus pudor Titioeos pudor. rimum impadentes, nox fiMsit impnden- 

* Ob ignominiam aut turpitudinem &cti, tea. « Alexander Aphrodisiensis makes 

&c. « De symp. et Antip. cap. 12, la- all btuhfulneas a virtue, eamque se refert 

borat facies ob praesentiam ejus qui defec- inseipso experiri golitum, etsi esset ad- 

tnm nostrum videt, et natura quasi modum senex. ' Saape post cibum 

opem latnra calorem illuc mittit, calor apti ad rnbotem, ex potu Tint, ex timora 

sanguinem trahit, unde rubor, audaces siepe et ab hepate calido^ cerebro calido, 

non rubent, &c. * Ob gaudium et vo- &c. » Com. in Arist. de anima, tarn k 

luptatem foras exit sanguis, aut ob meli- yi et inexperentia quam k Titio. 9 2, 

oris reverentiam, aut ob subitum occur- De oratore. Quid ipse risus, quo pacto 

sum, aut si quid incautlus exciderit. concitatur, ubi sit, &c. 
6 Com. in Arist. de anima. Coeci nt plu- 


Mem. 3.] Causes of these Symptoms. 59 


and so suddenly breaks out, that desirous to stay it, we can- 
not, how it comes to possess and stir our face, veins, eyes, 
countenance, mouth, sides, let Democritus determine." The 
cause that it oflen affects melancholy men so much, is given 
by Gomesius, lib, 3, de sale genial, cap, 18, abundance of 
pleasant vapours, which, in sanguine melancholy especially, 
break from the heart, ^ " and tickle the midriff, because it is 
transverse and full of nerves ; by which titillation, the sense 
being moved, and arteries distended or pulled, the spirits 
from thence move and possess the sides, veins, countenance, 
eyes." See more in Jossius, de risu et fletu^ VtveSy 3, de 
Animd. Tears, as Scaliger defines, proceed from grief and 
pity, * *' or from the heating of a moist brain, for a dry can- 
not weep." 

That they see and hear so many phantasms, chimeras, 
noises, visions, &c, as Fienus hath discoursed at large in his 
book of imagination, and 'Lavater, de spectris, part. 1, cap. 
2, 3, 4, their corrupt fantasy makes them see and hear that 
which indeed is neither heard nor seen, Qui muUum jejunant^ 
atU noctes ducunt insomnes, they that much fast, or want sleep, 
as melancholy or sick men commonly do, see visions, or such 
as are weak-sighted, very timorous by nature, mad, distracted, 
or earnestly seek. Sabini quod volunt somniant, as the say- 
ing is, they di*eam of that they desire. Like Sarmiento the 
Spaniai^d, who when he was s%nt to discover the straits of 
Magellan, and confine places, by the Prorex of Peru, stand- 
ing on the top of a hill, AmoBnissimam planitiem despicere 
sibi visus fuit, cedijicia magnijica^ quamplurimos Pagos, 
aUas Turres, splendida Templa, and brave cities, built like 
ours in Europe, not, saith mine * author, that there was any 
such thing, but that he was vanissimus et nimis credulus, and 
would fain have had it so. Or as ^ Lod. Mercatus proves, by 
reason of inward vapours, and humours from blood, choler, 

1 Diaphragma titillant, quia transver- gicco lachiymse non fluunt. ' Res mi- 
sum et nerraeum, qua titillatione moto randas imag^nantur : et putant ae videre 
MUBU atqne arteriis distentis, spiritas qu8B nee vident, nee audiunt. * Laet. 
Inde latera, venaa, oS, oculos occupant, lib. 13. cap. 2. descript. Ind|^ Occident. 
> £x oale&ctione humidi cerebri : nam ex ^Lib. 1, ca. 17, cap. de mel. 

60 Symptoms of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 3. 

&c., diversely mixed, they apprehend and see outwardly, as 
they suppose, divers images, which indeed are npt. As they 
that drink wine think all runs round, when it is in their own 
hrain ; so is it with these men, the fault and cause is inward, 
as Galen affirms, ^mad men and such as are near death, qiias 
extra se videre ptUant Imagines^ intra oculos habent, 'tis in 
their brain, which seems to be before them ; the brain as a 
concave glass reflects solid bodies. Senes etiam decrepiti 
cerebrum haherU concavum et aridum, tU imaginentur se vi- 
dere (saith ^ Boissardus) qua non sunt, old men are too fre- 
quently mistaken and dote in like case ; or as he that looketh 
through a piece of red glass, judgeth everything he sees to be 
red ; corrupt vapours mounting from the body to the head, 
and distilling again from thence to the eyes, when they have 
mingled themselves with the watery crystal which receiveth 
the shadows of things to be seen, make all things appear of 
the same colour, which remains in the humour that over- 
spreads our sight, as to melancholy men all is black, to phleg- 
matic all white, &c. Or else as before the organs, corrupt by 
a corrupt fantasy, as Lemnius, lib. 1, cap. 16, well quotes, 
* " cause a great agitation of spirits, and humours, which wan- 
der to and fro in all the creeks of the brain, and cause such 
apparitions before their eyes." One thinks he reads some- 
thing written in the moon, as Pythagoras is said to have done 
of old, another smells brimstone, hears Cerberus bark ; Ores- 
tes now mad supposed he saw the furies tormenting him, and 
his mother still ready to run upon him — 

** mater obsecro noli me persequi 
His furiis, aspectu anguineis, horribilibas, 
Ecce ecce me invadunt, in me jam ruunt; " * 

but Electra told him thus raving in his mad fit, he saw no 
such sights at all, it was but his crazed imagination. 

1 Iiuani, et qui morti vicini sunt, res ^ " mother ! I beseech you not to per- 

quAS extra se videre putant, intra oculos secute me with those horrible-looking 

habent. * Cap. 10, de Spirit, appa^ furies. See ! see ! they attack, they as- 

ritione. * De occult. Nat. mirac. sault me ! " 

Mem. 8.] Causes of these Symptoms, 61 

" Quiesce, quiesce miser in lintels tuis, 
Kon cemis etenim qase videre te pntiu.*' ^ 

So Pentheus (in Bacchis Euripidis) saw two 8un8, two 
Thebes, his brain alone was troubled. Sickness is an ordi- 
nary cause of such sights. Cardan, svUiL 8. Mens cegra 
laboribus et jefuniis Jrcu;ta, facit eos videre, audire, Sfc. And. 
Osiander beheld strange visions, and Alexander ab Alex^n- 
dro both, in their sickness, which he relates de rerum varietat. 
lib, 8, cap. 44 Albategnius, that noble Arabian, on his 
death-bed, saw a ship ascending and descending, which 
Fracastorius records of his friend Baptista Tirrianus. Weak 
sight and a vain persuasion withal, may effect as much, and 
second causes concurring, as an oar in water makes a re- 
fraction, and seems bigger, bended, double, &c The thick- 
ness of the air may cause such effects, or any object not well 
discerned in the dark, fear and fantasy w^ill suspect to be a 
ghost, a devil, &c ^ Quod nimis miseri timent, hoc fo/ciU 
credunt, we are apt to believe, and mistake in such cases. 
Marcellus Donatus, lib, 2, cap. 1, brings in a story out of Aris- 
totle, of one Antepharon which likely saw, wheresoever he 
was, his own image in the air, as in a glass. Yitellio, lib. 
10, perfect, hath such another instance of a familiar ac- 
quaintance of his, that after the want of three or four nights' 
sleep, as he was riding by a river side, saw another riding 
with him, and using all such gestures as he did, but when 
more light appeared, it vanished. Eremites and anchorites 
have frequently such absurd visions, revelations by reason 
of much fasting, and bad diet, many are deceived by leger- 
demain, as Scot hath well showed in his book of the discov- 
ery of witchcraft, and Cardan, subtil. 18, suffites, perfumes, 
suffumigations, mixed candles, perspective glasses, and such 
natural causes, make men look as if they were dead, or with 
horse-heads, bulls'-homs, and such like brutish shapes, the 
room full of snakes, adders, dark, light, green, red, of all 

1 ** Peace ! peace ! unhappy being, for ^ Seneca. Quod metnunt nimis, nun- 
you do not see what you think yon see." quam amoTeri posse, nee tolli putant. 

62 Sfm pi o mu of Mdam^ofy. [Part. I. sec. 8. 

ooloors^ as joa may perceive in Bapdsta Porta, Alexis, 
Albertas, and others, glow-worms, fire-drakes, meteors, Tffnts 
fatuusy which Plinias, lib. 2, rap. 37, caUs Castor and Pol- 
lax, with many sach that appear in moorish grounds, about 
churchjards, moist valleys, or where battles have been 
fought, the causes of which read in Goclenius, Yelourius, 
Finkius, &c., such fears are often done, to frighten children 
with squibs, rotten wood, &c., to make folks look as if thej 
were dead, ^soUto majores, bigger, lesser, fairer, fouler, tU 
astantes tine eapiiihus videantur; attt ioti igniti^ aut forma 
dienumum, aecipe pilos cams niffri, ^c.j saith Albertus ; and 
so 'tis ordinary to see strange uncouth sights by catoptrics ; 
who knows not that if in a dark room, the light be admitted 
at one only little hole, and a paper or glass put upon it, the 
sun shining, wOl represent on the opposite wall all such 
objects as arc illuminated by his rays ? with concave and 
cylinder glasses, we may reflect any shape of men, devils, 
antics (as magicians most part do, to gull a silly spectator in 
a dark room), we will ourselves, and that hanging in the air, 
when 'tis nothing but such an horrible image as ^ Agrippa 
demonstrates, placed in another room. Roger Bacon of old 
is said to have represented his own image walking in the air 
by this art, though no such thing appear in his perspectives. 
But most part it is in the brain that deceives them, although 
I may not deny, but that oftentimes the devil deludes them, 
takes his opportunity to suggest, and represent vain objects 
to melancholy tnen, and such as are ill-affected. To these 
you may add the knavish impostures of jugglers, exorcists, 
mass-priests, and mountebanks, of whom Roger Bacon speaks, 
&c., de miracidis naturm et artis, cap. 1, • they can counter- 
feit the voices of all birds, and brute beasts almost, all tones 
and tunes of men, and speak within their throats, as if they 

1 Sanguis upup8B cum melle compofd- nissse vocum varietatem in yentre efc gnt- 

txu et centaurea, &c. Albertus. ^ Lib. ture flngentes, formant voces humanas k 

1, occult, phllos. Imperiti homines dae- long6 vel prop^, prout volunt, ac si spir- 

monum et innbrarum imagines videre itus cum homine loqueretur, et sonos 

M) putant, quum nihil sint aliud, quam brutorum fingunt. &c. 
simulachra animse expertia. ^ Pytho- 

Mem. 3.] Causes of these Symptoms. 63 

spoke afar off, that they make their auditors believe they 
hear spirits, and are thence much astonished and affrighted 
with it. Besides, those artificial devices to overhear their 
confessions, like that whispering place of Gloucester^ with 
us, or like the duke's place at Mantua in Italy, where the 
• sound is reverberated by a concave wall ; a reason of which 
Blancanus in his Echometria gives, and mathematically 

So that the hearing is as frequently deluded as the sight, 
from the same causes almost, as he that hears bells, will 
make them sound what he list. " As the fool thinketh, so 
the bell clinketh.'* Theophilus in Galen thought he heard 
music from vapours, which made his ears sound, &c. Some 
are deceived by echoes, some by roaring of waters, or con- 
caves and reverberation of air in the ground, hollow places 
and walls. ^At Cadurcum in Aquitaine, words and sen- 
tences are repeated by a strange echo to the full, or what- 
soever you shall play upon a musical instrument, more dis- 
tinctly and louder, than they are spoken at first Some 
echoes repeat a thing spoken seven times, as at Olympus, in 
Macedonia, as Pliny relates, lib. 36, cap. 15. Some twelve ^ 
times, as at Charenton, a village near Paris, in France. At 
Delphos, in Greece, heretofore was a miraculous echo, and 
so in many other places. Cardan, svhtiL L 18, hath wonder- 
ful stories of such as have been deluded by these echoes. 
Blancanus the Jesuit, in his Echometria, hath variety of 
examples, and gives his reader full satisfaction of all such 
sounds by way of demonstration. ^ At Barrey, an isle in the 
Severn mouth, they seem to hear a smith's forge; so at 
Lipari, and those sulphureous isles, and many such like which 
Olaus speaks of in the continent of Scandia, and those north- 
em countries. Cardan, de rerum var, I, 15, c, 84, mention- 
eth a woman, that still supposed she heard the devil call her, 
and speaking to her, she was a painter's wife in Milan ; and 

1 Oloncester cathedral. 2 Tain clar6 ing of bellows, and knocking of ham- 
et articulate audies repetitnm, nt perfec- mers, if they apply their ear to the cliff, 
tior sit Echo quam ipse dlxeris. 3 Blow- 

64 Sjfmpioms of Mekmekobf. [rart. I. sec. 3. 

manj sach illiisioDS aod voioea, wbidi proceed most part 
from a cormpt imaginadoo. 

Whence it comes to pass, that they prophesy, speak several 
langaages, talk of astronomy, and other nnknovm sciences to 
them (of which they have been ever ignorant) : ^ I have in 
brief touched, only this I will here add, that Arculanus, * 
Badin. lib. 3, cap. 6, dttnum^ and some others, 'hold as a 
manifest token that sach persons are possessed ivith the devil ; 
so doth ' Hercules de Saxoniau and Apponensis, and fit only 
to be cored by a priest. But ^ Guianerius, ^ Montaltus, Pom- 
ponatius of Padua, and Lemnius, Uh, 2, cap, 2, refer it wholly 
to the ill-disposition of the * humour, and that out of the au- 
thority of Aristotle, proL 30, 1, because such symptoms are 
cured by purging ; and as by the striking of a flint fire is 
enforced, so by the vehement motion of spirits, they do dicere 
voces tnatiditcUy compel strange speeches to be spoken ; an- 
other argument he hath from Plato's reminiscentia, which all 
out as likely as that which ^ Marsilius Ficinus speaks of his 
friend Pierleonus ; by a divine kind of infusion he understood 
the secrets of nature, and tenets of Grecian and barbarian 
philosophers, before ever he heard of, saw, or read their 
works ; but in this I should rather hold with Avicenna and 
his associates, that such symptoms proceed from evil spirits, 
which take all opportunities of humours decayed, or other- 
wise to pervert the soul of man ; and besides, the humour 
itself is Balneum Diaholi, the devil's bath ; and as Agrippa 
proves, doth entice him to seize upon them. 

1 Memb. 1, Sub. 8, of this partition, mel. « Tract. 15. c. 4. 6 Cap. 9. 

cap. 16, in 9 Rhasis. s Signa diemonis * Ifira Tis concitat humores, ardorque 

nulla sunt nisi quod loquantur ea qu» yehemens mentem ezagitat, quum, Jbc. 

ante nesciebant, ut Teutonicum ant all- f Prae&t. XambUci mysterils. 
ad Idioma, &c. ^ Cap. 12, tract, de 

Mem. 1.] Prognostics of Melancholy. 65 

Prognostics of Mekmchdy, 

Prognostics, or signs of things to come, are either good 
or bad. If this malady be not hereditary, and taken at the 
beginning, there is good hope of cure, recens curationem non 
kabet difficilem, saith Avicenna, L 3, Fen. 1, TVact 4, c. 18. 
That which is with laughter, of all others is most secure, gentle, 
and remiss, Hercules de Saxonia. * " If that evacuation of 
haemoi^hoids, or varices, which they call the water between 
the skin, shall happen to a melancholy man, his misery is 
ended," Hippocrates, Aphor. 6, 11. Galen, L 6, de morhis 
vulgar, com, 8, confirms the same ; and to this aphorism of 
Hippocrates, all the Arabians, new and old Latins subscribe ; 
Montaltus, c, 25, Hercules de SaxoniS*, Mercurialis, Vittorius . 
Faventinus, &c. Skenckius, I. 1, ohservat, med, c, de Mania, 
illustrates this aphorism, with an example of one Daniel 
Federer a coppersmith that was long melancholy, and in the 
end mad, about the 27th year of his age, these varices or 
water began to arise in his thighs, and he was freed from his 
madness. Marius the Roman was so cured, some say, though 
with great pain. Skenckius hath some other instances of 
women that have been helped by flowing of their months, 
which before were stopped. That the opening of the haem- 
orrhoids will do as much for men, all physicians jointly sig- 
nify, so they be voluntary, some say, and not by compulsion. 
All melancholy are better after a quartan ; ^ Jobertus saith, 
scarce any man hath that ague twice ; but whether it free 
him from this malady, 'tis a question ; for many physicians 
ascribe all long agues for especial causes, and a quartan ague 
amongst the rest. ^ Bhasis, cont, lib, 1, tract, 9. "When 
melancholy gets out at the superficies of the skin, or settles 

1 Si mel&nchoUcis haemorrhoides super- ^ Cap. 10, de quartana. ^ Oum aanguis 
venerint varices, vel at quibusdam pla- e:dt per superficiem et residet melancho- 
cet aqua inter cutem, solvltur malum, lia per scabiem, morpheam nigram, yel 

VOL. II. 5 

66 Prognostics of JManeholy. [Part. I. sec. 4. 

breaking out in scabs, leprosy, morphew, or is purged by 
stools, or by the urine, or that the spleen is enlai^ed, and 
those varices appear, the disease is dissolved." Guianerius, 
cap, 5, tract 15, adds dropsy, jaundice, dysentery, leprosy, as 
good signs to these scabs, morphews, and breaking out, and 
proves it out of the 6th of Hippocrates's Aphorisms. 

£vil prognostics on the other part. Liveterata tnelcmckoKa 
incurabiiisy if it be inveterate, it is ^incurable, a common 
axiom, aut diJUcutter cwraHlis as they say that make the 
best, hardly cured. This Gralen witnesseth, L 3, de he. 
affect, cap. 6, ^ ^ be it in whom it will, or from what cause 
soever, it is ever long, wayward, tedious, and hard to be 
cured, if once it be habituated." As Ludan said of the 
gout, she was *^the queen of diseases, and inexorable," 
may we say of melancholy. Yet Paracelsus will have all 
diseases whatsoever curable, and laughs at them which 
thinks otherwise, as T. Erastus, par, 3, objects to him; 
although in another place, hereditary diseases he accounts 
incurable, and by no art to be removed. ^ HOdesheim, spied, 
2, de mel, holds it less dangerous if only ^ ^ imagination be 
hurt, and not reason, •the gentlest is from blood. Worse 
from choler adust, but the worst of all from melancholy pu- 
trefied." ^Bruel esteems hypochondriacal least dangerous, 
and the other two species (opposite to Gralen) hardest to be 
cured. ^ The cure is hard in man, but much more difficult 
in women. And both men and women must take notice of 
that saying of Montanus, consiL 230, pro Abate IteUo, ' " This 
malady doth commonly accompany them to their grave ; phy- 
sicians may ease, and it may lie hid for a time, but they can- 

expoTgatur per infisrioies partes. tbI nri- tio. * Mala 4 sanguine ferrente, de* 

nam, &c., non erit, &c., splen magnifl- tenor k bile assata, pessima ab atra bile 

catnr et varices apparent. ^ Quia jam putre&cta. ^ Difficilior cura ^us quie 

conversa in uaturam. > In quocun- fit vitio corporis totius et cerebri. ^ Dif- 

que sit, -k quacunqne causa, Hypocon. ficilis curatu in viris, multo difflcUior in 

prsesertim, semper est longa, morosa, nee fteminis. * Ad interitum plerumque 

&cile curari potest. s Regina morbo- homines comitatur, licet medici lerent 

mm et inexorabilis. * Omne delirium plerumque, tamen non tollunt unquam, 

quod oritur k paucitate cerebri incurab- sed recidet acerbior quam antea minima 

ile. Hildesheim, spicel. 2, de mania, occasione, aut errore. 
^ Si sola imaginatio Isedatur, et non xa- 

Mem. l.J Prognostics of Melancholy, 67 

not quite cure it, but it will return again more violent and 
sharp than at first, and that upon every small occasion or 
error ; " as in Mercury's weather-beaten statue, that was 
once all over gilt, the open parts were clean, yet there was 
in jimhriis aurum^ in the chinks a remnant of gold ; there 
will be some relics of melancholy left in the purest bodies 
(if once tainted) not so easily to be rooted out. ^ Oftentimes 
it degenerates into epilepsy, apoplexy, convulsions, and 
blindness: by the authority of Hippocrates and Galen, ^all 
aver, if once it possess the ventricles of the brain, Frambe- 
sarius, and Salust. Salvianus adds, if it get into the optic 
nerves, blindness. Mercurialis, consiL 20, had a woman to 
his patient, that from melancholy became epileptic and blind. 
' If it come from a cold cause, or so continue cold, or increase, 
epilepsy ; convulsions follow, and blindness, or else in the end 
they are moped, sottish, and in all their actions, speeches, and 
gestures, ridiculous. * If it come from a hot cause, they are 
more furious, and boisterous, and in conclusion mad. Coles- 
centem melancholiam seepius sequitur mania. ^ If it heat and 
increase, that is the common event, ^per circuitus, aut semper 
insanit, he is mad by fits, or altogether. For as ' Sennertus 
contends out of Crato, there is seminarius ignis in this humour, 
the very seeds of fire. If it come from melancholy natural 
adust, and in excess, they are oft«n demoniacal, Montanus. 

® Seldom this malady procures death, except (which is the 
greatest, most grievous calamity, and the misery of all mis- 
eries,) they make away themselves, which is a frequent thing, 
and familiar amongst them. *Tis • Hippocrates's observation, 
Gralen's sentence : Etsi mortem timent, tamen plerumque sihi 
ipsis mortem consciscunt, L 3, de locis affect, cap, 7. The 
doom of all physicians. 'Tis ^° Rabbi Moses's Aphorism, the 
prognosticon of Avicenna, Rhasis, ^tius, Grordonius, Vales- 

1 Pericultim est ne degeneret in Epi- madness sobolem melancholia. * AI- 

lepsiam, Apoplexiam, Convulsionem, exander, 1. 1, c. 18. ^ Lib. 1, part. 2, 

Caecitatem. ^ Montal. c. 25. Liauren- c. 11. ^ Montalt. c. 15j raro mora 

tins. Nic. Piso. 3 Here, de Saxonift, aut nunquam, nisi sibi ipsis inferaut. 

Aristotle, Capiyaccius. * Favent. Hu- 9 Lib. de Insan. Fabio Calico iDterprete. 

mor frigidus sola delirii causa, furoris lo Nonnulli violentas manus sibi inferunt 
rero humor calidus. & Heurnius calls 

68 Prognostics of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 4. 

cus, Altomarus, Salust. Salvianus, Capivaccius, Mercatus, 
Hercules de Saxonia, Piso, Bruel, Fuchsius, all, &c 

^ ^ £t saep^ usque adeb mortis formidine vitss 
Percipit infelix odiura lucisque videndse, 
Ut sibi consciscat msrenti pectore lethum." 

" And so far forth death's terror doth affright, 
He makes away himself, and hates the light: 
To make an end of fear and grief of heart, 
He voluntary dies to ease his smart.'* 

In such sort doth the torture and extremity of his misery 
torment him, that he can take no pleasure in his life, but is in 
a manner enforced to offer violence unto himself, to be freed 
from his present insufferable pains. So some (saith ^ Fracas- 
torius) " in fury, but most in despair, sorrow, fear, and out 
of the anguish and vexation of their souls, offer violence to 
themselves ; for their life is unhappy and miserable. They 
can take no rest in the night, nor sleep, or if they do slumber, 
fearful dreams astonish them." In the daytime they are 
affrighted still l?y some terrible object, and torn in pieces 
with suspicion, fear, sorrow, discontents, cares, shame, an- 
guish, &c., as so many wild horses, that they cannot be quiet 
an hour, a minute of time, but even against their wills they 
are intent, and still thinking of it, they cannot forget it, it 
grinds their souls day and night, they are perpetually tor- 
mented, a burden to themselves, as Job was, they can neither 
eat, drink, or sleep. Psal. cvii. 18. " Their soul abhorreth 
all meat, and they are brought to death's door, * being bound 
in misery and iron ; " they * curse their stars with Job, * " and 
day of their birth, and wish for death ; " for as Pineda and 
most interpreters hold. Job was even melancholy to despair, 
and almost ® madness itself; they murmur many times against 
the world, friends, allies, aU mankind, even against Grod him- 
self in the bitterness of their passion, ' vivere nolunty mori 

1 Lucret. 1. 8. 2 Lib. 2. de intell. ssepe se prsecipitant, his mails carituri aut in- 

mortem sibi consciscunt bb timorem et terficiunt se, aut tale quid committunt. 

tristitiam taedio yitse affecti ob furoremet 3 Psal. cvii. 10. * Job xxxiii. & Job 

desperationem. Est enim infera, &c. yi. 8. ^ Vi doloris et tristitiaB ad insaf 

Ergo sic perpetuo afflictati viiam oderunt, niam penh redactus. 7 Seneca. 

Mem. 1.] Prognostics of Melancholy, 69 

nesctunt, live thej will not, die they cannot. And in the 
midst of these squalid, ugly, and such irksome days, they 
seek at last, finding no comfort, ^ no remedy in this wretched 
life, to he eased of all hy death. Omnia appetunt honum, all 
creatures seek the best, and for their good as they hope, stib 
specie, in show at least, vel quia mori pvlchrum putant (saith 
* Hippocrates) vel quia putant inde se majoribus malis li- 
berari, to be freed as they wish. Though many times, as 
^sop's fishes, they leap from the frying-pan into the fire 
itself, yet they hope to be eased by his means ; and therefore 
(saith Felix *Platerus) "after many tedious days at last, 
either by drowning, hanging, or some such fearful end," they 
precipitate or make away themselves ; " many lamentable 
examples are daily seen amongst us : '* alius ante fores se 
laqueo suspendit (as Seneca notes), alius se prcecipitavit a 
tecto, ne dominum stomackantem audiret, alius ne reduceretar 
a fuga ferrum redegit in viscera, " one hangs himself before 
his own door, — ^another throws himself from the house-top, 
to avoid his master's anger, — a third, to escape expulsion, 
plunges a dagger into his heart," — so many causes there 

are His amor exitio est, furor his love, grief, anger, 

madness, and shame, <&c. 'Tis a common calamity, ^ a fatal 
end to this disease, they are condemned to a violent death, by 
a jury of physicians, furiously disposed, carried headlong by 
their tyrannizing wills, enforced by miseries, and there re- 
mains no more to such persons, if that heavenly Physician, 
by his assisting grace and mercy alone do not prevent (for no 
human persuasion or art can help), but to be their own butch- 
ers, and execute themselves. Socrates his cicuta, Lucretia's 
dagger, Timon's halter, are yet to be had ; Cato's knife, and 
Nero's sword are left behind them, as so many fatal engines, 
bequeathed to posterity, and will be used to the world's end, 

1 In ialutis suss desperatione propo- ant submersione, ant aliqua alia tI, prse- 

nnnt sibi mortis desiderium, Oct. Horat. cipitant ut multa tristia exempla vidi- 

l. 2, e. 5. 9 Lib. de insania. Sic sic mus. * Arculanus in 9 Rhasis, c. 16, 

juvat ire per umbras. ' Cap. 3, de cavendum ne ex alto se prsecipitent aut 

mentis alienat. moesti d^nnt, dum tan- ali^ laedant. 
dem mortem quam timent, suspendio 

70 Prognostics of Melaiicholy, [Part. I. sec. 4. 

by such distressed souls ; so intolerable, insufferable, grievous, 
and violent is their pain, ^so unspeakable and continuate. 
One day of grief is an hundred years, as Cardan observes ; 
*Tis camificina hominum, angor animt, as well saith Areteus, 
a plague of the soul, the cramp and convulsion of the soul, 
an epitome of hell ; and if there be a hell upon earth, it is 
to be found in a melancholy man's heart. 

** For that deep torture may be calPd an hell, 
When more is felt than one hath power to tell." 

Yea, that which scoffing Lucian said of the gout in jest, I 
may truly affirm of melancholy in earnest 

" triste nomen ! o diis odibile 

2 Melancholia lacrymosa, Cocyti filia, 

Tu Tartar! specubus opacis edita 

Erinnys, utero quam Megara sno tulit, 

£t ab aberibus aluit, caique parvulee 

Amarulentum in os lac Alecto dedit, 

Omnes abominabilem te dssmones 

Produxere in lucem, exitio mortalium. 

Non Jupiter ferit tale telum fulminis, 

Non ulla sic procella sssvit aequoris, 

Non impetuosi tanta vis est turbinis. 

An asperos sustineo morsus Cerberi ? 

Num virus Echidnas membra mea depascitur? 

Aut tunica sanie tincta Nessi sanguinis ? 

Illacrymabile et immedicabile malum hoc.'* 

** sad and odious name ! a name so fell, 
Is this of melancholy, brat of hell. 
There born in hellish darkness doth it dwell. 
The Furies brought it up, Megara's teat, 
Alecto gave it bitter milk to eat. 
And all conspired a bane to mortal men. 
To bring this devil out of that black den. 
Etpaulo Jupiter's thunderbolt, not storm at sea, 
post Nor whirlwind doth our hearts so much dismay. 
What? am I bit by that fierce Cerberus? 
Or stung by 8 serpent so pestiferous ? 

1 Omnium opinionibug incogitabil« fitmulantur omnes et obediunt. Cardan, 

malum. Lucian. Mortesque miUe, mille ^ Ehen quis intus Scorpio, &o. Seneca, 

dum Tiyit neces gerit, peritque. Heinsi- Act. 4, Here. Et. 
us Austriaco. > Regina morborum cui 

Mem. 1.] Prognostics of Melancholy, 71 

Or put on shirt that's dipt in Nessus's blood? 
My pain's past cnre; physic can do no good." 

No torture of body like unto it, SicuLi non invenere tyranni 
mc^us tormentum, no strappadoes, hot irons, Fhalaris's bulls, 

1 " Kec ira deiim tantum, nee tela, nee hostls, 
' Qaantnm sola noces animis illapsa/' 

" Jove's wrath, nor devils can 
Do so much harm to th' soul of man/' 

All fears, griefs, suspicions, discontents, imbonities, insuavities 
are swallowed up, and drowned in this Euripus, this Irish 
sea, this ocean of misery, as so many small brooks ; 'tis 
coagtdum omnium (erumnarum ; which ^Ammianus applied 
to bis distressed Palladius. I say of our melancholy man, 
he is the cream of human adversity, the * quintessence, and 
upshot ; all other diseases whatsoever, are but flea-bitings to 
melancholy in extent ; *Tis the pith of them all, * Hospitium 
est calamitatis ; quid verbis opus est f 

" Quamcunque malam rem quseris, illic reperies : " 

" What need more words ? 'tis calamities inn, 
Where seek for any mischief, 'tis within; " 

and a melancholy man is that true Prometheus, which is 
bound to Caucasus ; the true Titius, whose bowels are still 
by a vulture devoured (as poets feign) for so doth '^ Lilius 
Greraldus interpret it, of anxieties, and those griping cares, 
and so ought it to be understood. In all other maladies, we 
seek for help, if a leg or an arm ache, through any distem- 
perature or wound, or that we have an ordinary disease, 
above all things whatsoever, we desire help and health, a 
present recovery, if by any means possible it may be pro- 
cured ; we wiU freely part with aU our other fortunes, sub- 
stance, endure any misery, drink bitter potions, swallow those 
distasteful pills, suffer our joints to be seared, to be cut off, 
anything for future health ; so sweet, so dear, so precious 

1 Silitis Italicos. * Lib. 29. s Hio ut TertuUisni verbis utar, orat. ad. mar- 
omnis imbonitas et insuaTitas consistit, tyr. * Plautus. 6 Vit. Herculis. 

72 Prognostics of Melanchofy, [Part. I. sec. 4. 

above all other things in this world is life ; 'tis that we chiefly 
desire, long life and happy days, ^ multos da, Jupiter, annos, 
increase of years all men wish ; but to a melancholy man, 
nothing so tedious, nothing so odious ; that which they so 
carefully seek to preserve * he abhors, he alone ; so intol- 
erable are his pains ; some make a question, graviores morhi 
corporis an animi, whether the diseases of the body or mind 
be more grievous, but there is no comparison, no doubt to be 
made of it, multd enim scevior longeque est aJbrocior anind, 
qudm corporis crticiattis {Lem. L 1, c. 12,) the diseases of the 
mind are far more grievous. — Totum hie pro vuln-ere corpus, 
body and soul is misaflPected here, but the soul especially. So 
Cardan testifies, de rerum var. lib. 8, 40. • Maximus Tyrius, 
a Platonist, and Plutarch, have made just volumes to prove 
it. * IHes adimit cegritudinem hominibus, in other diseases 
there is some hope likely, but these unhappy men are bom 
to misery, past all hope of recovery, incurably sick, the longer 
they live the worse they are, and death alone must ease 

Another doubt is made by some philosophers, whether it 
be lawful for a man, in such extremity of pain and grief, to 
make away himself; and how these men that so do are to be 
censured. The Platonists approve of it, that it is lawful in 
such cases, and upon a necessity; Plotinus, /. de beatitud. 
c. 7, and Socrates himself defends it, in Plato's Phaedon, 
" if any man labour of an incurable disease, he may des- 
patch himself, if it be to his good." Epicurus and his fol- 
lowers, the cynics and stoics in general, affirm it, Epictetus 
and ^ Seneca amongst the rest, quamcunque veram esse viam 
ad libertatem, my way is allowable that leads to liberty, 
^ " let us give God thanks, that no man is compelled to live 
against his will ; " "^ quid ad hominem claustra, career, cus- 
todia f liberum ostium kabet, death is always ready and at 

1 Peniug. 8 Quid est miserius ia tos ? De provid. cap. 8. ^ Agamug Deo 

▼ita. qnam velle mori? Seneca. ^ Tom. gratias, quod nemo invitus in vita teneri 

2, Libello. an graviores ponsiones, &c. potest. 7 Epist. 26, Seneca et de sacra 

* Ter. & Patet exihus ; si pugnare non 2, cap. 15| et epist. TO et 12. 
▼ultis, licet fugere ; quis tos tenet inri- 

Mem. 1.] Prognostics of Melancholy, 73 

hand. Vides ilium prtBcipitem locum, illud jlumen, dost 
thou see that steep place, that river, that pit, that tree, 
there's liberty at hand, effugia servitutis et doloris sunt, as 
that Laconian lad cast himself headlong (nan serviam, aiehcU 
puer) to be freed of his misery ; every pain in thy body, if 
these be nimis operosi exitus, will set thee free, quid tua 
refert finem founas an accipias f there's no necessity for a 
man to live in misery. Malum est necessitati vivere ; sed in 
necessitate vivere, necessitcu ntdla est. Ignavus qui sine causa 
moritur, et siukus qui cum dolore vivit, Idem epi, 58. Where- 
fore hath our mother the earth brought out poisons,* saith 
* Pliny, in so great a quantity, but that men in distress might 
make away themselves ? which kings of old had ever in a 
readiness, cui incerta fortunce venenum sub custode promptum, 
Livy writes, and executioners always at hand. Speusippes 
being sick was met by Diogenes, and, carried on his slaves' 
shoulders, he made his moan to the philosopher ; but I pity 
thee not, quoth Diogenes, qui cum talis vivere sustines, thou 
mayest be freed when thou wilt, meaning by death. * Seneca 
therefore commends Cato, Dido, and Lucretia, for their 
generous courage in so doing, and others that voluntarily die, 
to avoid a greater mischief, to free themselves from misery, 
to save their honour, or vindicate their good name, as Cleo- 
patra did, as Sophonisba, Syphax's wife did, Hannibal did, 
as Junius Brutus, as Vibius Virius, and those Campanian sena- 
tors in Livy (Dec. 3, lib. 6,) to escape the Eoman tyranny, 
that poisoned themselves. Themistocles drank bull's blood 
rather than he would fight against his country, and Demos- 
thenes chose rather to drink poison, Publius Crassi JUius, 
Censorius and Flancus, those heroical Eomans to make away 
themselves, than to fall into their enemies' hands. How 
many myriads besides in all ages might I remember, qui sibi 
lethum Insontes peperere manu f S^c. ' Rhasis in the Mac- 
cabees is magnified for it, Samson's death approved. So 
did Saul and Jonas sin, and many worthy men and women, 

1 Lib. 2, cap. 88. Terra mater ndstri miserta. s Epist. 24, 71, 22. > Mac. 14, 42^ 

74 Prognostics of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 4. 

quorum memoria celebratur in JScclesia, saith ^Lemincbus, 
for killing themselves to save their chastity and honour, when 
Rome was taken, as Austin instances, L 1, de Civit Dei, cap. 
1 6. Jerom vindicateth the same in lonam ; et Ambrose, L 
3, de virginitate commendeth Pelagia for so doing. Eu- 
sebius, lib J 8, cap. 15, admires a Roman matron for the same 
fact to save herself from the lust of Maxentius the Tyrant. 
Adelhelmus, abbot of Malmesbury, calls them Beaton vir- 
gines qua sic, S^c. Titus Pomponius Atticus, that wise, 
discreet, renowned Roman senator, TuUy's dear friend, when 
he h^ been long sick, as he supposed of an incurable dis- 
ease, vitamque produceret ad auge7idos dolores, sine spe salutis, 
was resolved voluntarily by famine to despatch himself to be 
rid of his pain ; and when as Agrippa, and the rest of his 
weeping friends earnestly besought him, oscvlantes ohsecrarent 
ne id quod natura cogeret, ipse acceleraret, not to offer vio- 
lence to himself, " with a settled resolution he desired again 
they would approve of his good intent, and not seek to dehort 
him from it ; " and so constantly died, precesque eorum taci' 
tumd sua ohstinatione depressit. Even so did C5orellius 
Rufus, another grave senator, by the relation of Plinius 
Secundus, epist. lib. 1, epist. 12, famish himself to death; 
pedibus correptus cum incredibiles cruciattis et indignissima 
tormenia pateretur, a cibis omnino abstinuit ; ^ neither he nor 
Hispilla his wife could divert him, but destinatus mori obsti- 
nate magis^ &c., die he would, and die he did. So did Ly- 
curgus, Aristotle, Zeno, Chrysippus, Empedocles, with 
myriads, &c. In wars, for a man to run rashly upon immi- 
nent danger, and present death, is accounted valour and 
magnanimity, 'to be the cause of his own, and many a 
thousand's ruin besides, to commit wilful murder in a man- 
ner, of himself and others, is a glorious thing, and he shall 
be crowned for it. The * Massagetae in former times, * Bar- 

1 Vindicatio Apoc. lib. >'' Finding gether." > As amongst Turks and others, 

that he would be destined to endure ex- * Bohemusi, de moribun gent. <^ iElian. 

cruciating pain of the feet, and addition- lib. 4, cap. 1, omnes 70 annum egressos 

al tortures, he abstained from food alto- interficiunt. 

Mem. 1.] Prognostics of Melancholy. 75 

bicdans, and I know not what nations besides, did stifle their 
old men after seventy years, to free them from those griev- 
ances incident to that age. So did the inhabitants of the 
island of Choa, because their air was pure and good, and 
the people generally long lived, antevertebant fatum suum, 
pritLsquam manci forerU aui imbedttitas accederety papavere 
vel ctctUd, with poppy or hemlock they prevented death. 
Sir Thomas More in his Utopia commends voluntary death, 
if he be sthi aut cdiis molestus, troublesome to himself or 
others (^" especially if to live be a torment to him), let him 
free himself with his own hands from this tedious life, as 
from a prison, or suffer himself to be freed by others." * And 
'tis the same tenet which Laertius relates of Zeno of old. 
Juste sapiens sibi mortem consciscit, si in acerMs dolorihus 
versetur, membrorum mutilattone avJt morbis cegre curandis, 
and which Plato, 9, de legibus approves, if old age, poverty, 
ignominy, &c., oppress, and which Fabius expresseth in effect 
{PrcefaU 7, InstitiU.) Nemo nisi sad culpa diu dolet It is 
an ordinary thing in China, (saith Mat. Riccius the Jesuit,) 
* " if they be in despair of better fortunes, or tired and tor- 
tured with misery, to bereave themselves of life, and many 
times, to spite their enemies the more, to hang at their door." 
Tacitus the historian, Plutarch the philosopher, much ap- 
prove a voluntary departure, and Aust de civ. Dei, I. 1, c. 
29, defends a violent death, so that it be undertaken in a 
good cause, nemo sic mortuus, qui non fuerat aliquando mch 
riturus ; quid atUem interest quo mortis genere vita istafinia- 
tur, quandd iUe cui finitur^ iterum mori non cogitur f S^c.,* 
no man so voluntarily dies, but volens nolens, he must die 
at last, and our life is subject to innumerable casualties, who 
knows when they may happen, vJbrum satius est unam perpeti 

I Lib. 2. Prsesertim quum iormentum malomm perpessione firacti et &tigati, 

ei vita sit, bon& spe fretus, aeerbSi viUL vel manuB Tiolentas sibi inferunt Tel ut 

yelnt k carceTe si eximat, vel ab aliis ex- inimicis suis aegre fiiciant, &c. ^ '^ No 

imi sua yoluntate patiatur. ^ Nam one ever died in this way, who would not 

quis amphoram exsiccans fbeoem exorbe- have died sometime or other; but what 

ret, (Seneca, epist. 58,) quis ia poenas et does it signify how life itself may be end- 

risum viveret ? stulti est manere in vitSL ed, since he who comes to the end is not 

cum sit miser. s Expedit. ad Sinas, 1. obliged to die a second time ? " 
1, c. 9. Vel bonorum desperatione, vel 

76 Prognostics of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 4. 

martendOf an omnes timere vivendo, * rather suffer one, than 
fear all " Death is better than a bitter life/' Ecclus. xxx. 
17, *and a harder choice to live in fear, than, by once d3ring, 
to be freed from all. Theombrotus Ambraciotes persuaded 
I know not how many hundreds of his auditors, by a lucu- 
lent oration he made of the miseries of this, and happiness 
of that other life, to precipitate themselves. And having 
read Plato's divine tract de anima, for example's sake led 
the way first That neat epigram of Callimachus will tell 
you as much, 

** Jamque vale Soli cum diceret Ambrociotes, 
In Stygios fertur desiluisse lacus, 
Morte nihil dignam passus : sed forte Platonis 
Divini eximium de nece legit opus." ^ 

^ Calenus and his Indians hated of old to die a natural death ; 
the Circumcellians and Donatists, loathing life, compelled 
others to make them away, with many such ; '^ but these are 
false and pagan positions, profane stoical paradoxes, wicked 
examples, it boots not what heathen philosophers determine 
in this kind, they are impious, abominable, and upon a wrong 
ground. " No evil is to be done that good may come of it ; " 
reclamat Ghristus^ rechmat Scriptura, God, and all good men 
are ^ against it ; He that stabs another can kill his body ; but 
he that stabs himself, kills his own soul. "^ Male meretur qui 
dot mendico qtiod edat ; nam et illud quod dot perit ; et illi 
producit vitam ad miseriam : he that gives a beggar an alms 
(as that comical poet saith) doth ill, because he doth but pro- 
long his miseries. But Lactantius, l. 6, c. 7, de vero ctUtUy 
calls it a detestable opinion, and fully confutes it, lib, 3, de 

1 So did Anthony, Galba, Vitellitis, read that divine work of Plato upon 
Otho, Aristotle himself, &c. Ajax in de- Death." ^ Gurtius^ 1. 16. ^Laquens 
spair ; Cleopatra to save her honour, preecisus, oont. 1, 1. 6, quidam naufiragio 
s Inertius deligitur diu vivere, qnam in Ihcto amissis tribus Uberis, et uxore, sus- 
timore tot morborom semel moriendo, pendit se; pnecidit illi quidam ex pne- 
nullum deinceps fomiidare. > " And tereuntibus laqneum ; A liberato reus fit 
now when Ambrociotes was bidding fiire- maleflcii. Seneca. o See Lipsius Ma- 
well to the light of day, and about to cast nuduc. ad Stoicam philoeophiam, lib. 8, 
himself into the Stygian pool, although dissert. 22. D. Kings 14 Lect. on Jonas, 
he had not been guilty of any crime that D. Abbot's 6 Lect. on the same prophet 
merited death : but, perhaps, he had f Plautns. 

Mem. 1.] Prognostics of Melancholy, 77 

8ap» cap, 18, and S. Austin, ep. 52, ad Macedanium, cap. 61, 
ad Dulcttium Trihunum: so doth Hierom to Marcella of 
Blesilla's death, Non recipio tales animas, ^c, he calls such 
men mariyres stidta Phihsopkice : so doth Cyprian de dupUci 
martyrio ; Si qui sic morianiur^ aut injirmitas, aut amhitioy 
aut dementia cogit eos ; 'tis mere madness so to do, ^ furor est 
ne moriare mori. To this effect writes Arist. 3, Ethic, Lip^ 
sius Manuduc. ad Stoicam Philosopkiam lib, 3, dissertat. 23, 
but it needs no confutation. This only let me add, that in 
some cases, those ^ hard censures of such as offer violence to 
their own persons, or in some desperate fit to others, which 
sometimes they do, by stabbing, slashing, &c, are to be miti- 
gated, as in such as are mad, beside themselves for the time, 
or found to have been long melancholy, and that in extrem- 
ity, they know not what they do, deprived of reason, judg- 
ment, all, * as a ship that is void of a pilot, must needs im- 
pinge upon the next rock or sands, and suffer shipwreck. 
* P. Forestus hath a story of two melancholy brethren, that 
made away themselves, and for so foul a fact, were accordingly 
censured to be infamously buried, as in such cases they use : 
to terrify others, as it did the Milesian virgins of old, but 
upon farther examination of their misery and madness, the 
censure was ^ revoked, and they were solemnly interred, as 
Saul was by David, 2 Sam. ii. 4, and Seneca well adviseth, 
Irascere interfectori, sed miserere interfecti ; be justly of- 
fended with him as he was a murderer, but pity him now as 
a dead man. Thus of their goods and bodies we can dis- 
pose ; but what shall become of their souls, God alone can 
tell ; his mercy may come inter pontepi et fontem, inter gla- 
dium etjugidum, betwixt the bridge and the brook, the knife 
and the throat. Quod cuiquam contigit, cuivis potest : Who 

1 Martial. * As to be buried out of eca, tract. 1, 1. 8. c. 4. Lex, Homicida in 

Christian burial with a stake. Idem, se insepultus aojiciatur, contradicitur ; 

Plato, 9, de legibus, vult separatim sepe- £o quod afferre sibi manus coactus sit as- 

llri, qui sibi ipsis mortem consciscunt, sidi^s malis ; summam infaelicitatem 

&c., lose their goods &c. 3 Xavis des- suam in hoc removit, quod ezistimabat 

titnta nauclero, in terribilem aliquem licere misero mori. 
scopulum impingit. '* Obserrat. ^ Sen- 


Prognostics of Melancholy, [Part. L sec. 4. 

knows how he may be tempted ? It is his case, it may be 
thine : ^ QtuB sua sors hodie est, eras fore vestra potest. We 
ought not to be so rash and rigorous in our censures, as 
some are ; charity will judge and hope the best ; God be 
merciful unto us all. 

1 Buchanaa. Eleg. lib. 



Cure of 
eholy is 

Sect. 1. 
to all, 

r Unlawful 


which are 


' Mem. 

1. From the devil, ma^cians, witches, &e., by 

charms, spells, incantations, inu^s, &c. 
Quest. 1. Whether they can cure this, or 

other such like diseases ? 
Quett. 2. Whether, if they can so cure, it be 

lawful to seek to them for help? 

2. Immediately from God, a Jove prineipiitm, by 

prayer, &c. 
8. Quest. 1. Whether saints and their relics can 
help this infirmity ? 
Quest. 2. Whether it be lawful hi this case to 
sue to them for aid? 
or 1. Physician^ in whom is required sci- 

ence, confidence, honesty, &c. 

4. Medi- 
ately by 
works by 

2. Patient, in whom is required obe- 

^ Sect. 2. 
in reform- 
ing those 
six non- 
things, as 

dience, constancy, willingness, pa- 
tience, confidence, bounty, &c., 
not to practise on himself. 
8. PAyiic, r Dietetical cp 
which < Pharmaceutical 3 
(.consists off Chirurgical n 
Particular to the three distinct species, o ^~1 H^ 

' Such meats as are easy of digestion, well-dressed, 
hot, sod, &c., young, moist, of good nourish- 
ment, &c. 
Bread of pure wheat, well-baked. 
Water clear from the fountain. 
' Matter Wine and drink not too strong, 
and qual- f Mountain birds, partridge, pheasant, 

**y- Flesh J quails, &c. 

1. Subs. I Hen, capon, mutton, veal, kid, rab- 

[ bit, &c. 

iThat lire in gravelly waters, as pike, 
perch, trout, sea-fish, solid, white, 
{Borage, bugloss, balm, succory, en- 
dive, violets, in broth, not raw, &o. 
€ Raisins of the sun, apples corrected 
} for wind, oranges, &c., parsnips, 
( potatoes, &c. 

2. Quan- l At seasonable and usual times of repast, in good 
tity. order, not before the first be concocted, spar- 

[ ing, not overmuch of one dish. 
2. Rectification of retention and evacuation, as coetiveness, venery, 

bleeding at nose, months stopped, baths, &c. 
8. Air, recti- ( Naturally in the choice and site of our country dwelling- 

IHet rec- 
1. Memb. 







fied, with a 
digression of' 
the air. 

place, to be hot and moist, light, wholesome, pleasant, &c. 
Artificially, by often change of air, avoiding winds, fogs, 

tempeste, opening windows, perfumes, &c. 
' Of body and mind, but moderate, as hawking, hunting, 
riding, shooting, bowling, fishing, fowling, walking in 
4. Exercise. - fisiir fields, galleries, tennis, bar. 

-Of mind, as chens, cards, tables, &c., to see plays, masks, 
&c., serious studies, business, all honest recreations. 
6. Rectification of wakiog and terrible dreams, &c. 
6. Rectification of passions and perturbations of the mind. ^ 


Synopgis of the Second Partition. 

and per- 
tions of 
the mind 

r Subseet. 
From J 1. By using all good means of help, confessing to a friend, &c. 
himself ] Avoiding all occasions of his infirmity. 

I, Not giving way to passions, but resisting to his utmost. 

2. By fldr and foul means, counsel, comfort, good persuasion, 
witty devices, fictions, and, if it be possible, to satisfy his mind, 
or 8. Music of all sorts aptly applied. 
4. Mirth and merry company. 

from his 

Sect. 4. 
or phys- 
ic which 
with a 
sion of 
this kind 
of physic 
is either, 
Subs. 1. 






Sleet. 8. 
A con- 
ing rem- 
edies to 
all dis- 
and pas- 
sions of 

C Memb. 

1. General discontents and grievances satisfied. 

2. Particular discontents, as deformity of body, sick- 

ness, baseness of birth, kc. 

8. Poverty and want, such calamities and adversi- 

4. Against servitude, loss of liberty, imprisonment, 
banishment, &c. 

6. Against vain fears, sorrows for death of friends, or 

6. Against envy, livor, hatred, malice, emulation, 

ambition, and self-love, &c. 

7. Against repulse, abuses, injuries, contempts, dis- 

graces, contumelies, slanders, and scoflEs, &c. 

8. A^nst all other grievances and ordinary symp- 

toms of this disease of melancholy. 

with a di- 
of exotic 
2. Subs. 

8. Subs. 

To the heart; borage,buglo6s,8corBonera,&c. 
To the head ; balm, hops, nenuphar, &c. 
Liver; eupatory, artemisla, &c. 
Stomach ; wormwood, centaury, pennyroyal. 
Spleen; ceterach, ash, tamarisk. 
To purify the blood ; endive, succory, &c. 
Against wind ; origan, fennel, anise-seed, &o* 
4. Precious stones, as smaragdes, chelidonies, &c. 
Minerals ; as gold, &c. 


with a di- 
of com- 










Wines ; as of hellebore, bugloei^ 
tamarisk, &c. 
I Syrups of borage, bugloss, hops, 
epithyme, endive, succory, &c. 

' Conserves of violets, maidenhair, 
borage, bugloss, roses, &o. 

Confoctions; treacle, mithridafee, 
eclegmes or linctures. 


solid, as 
cal con- ' 

ilMambra, dianthos. 
Diamargaritum calidum. 
DiamoBcum dulce. 
Electuarium de gemmis. 
LsBtiflcans Gkileni et Bhasis. 

' Diamargaritum frigidum. 
Diarrh<^on abbatis. 
DiacoroUi, diacodium with fheif 



Purging <r 
, Particular to the three distinct species, o ^1 VH^. 

Condltes of all sorts, &e. 

Oils of camomile, violets, roses, &c. 
Ointments, alablastritum, populeum. 

Liniments, plasters, cerates.cataplasms, 
ftvntals, fomentations, epithymes, 
sacks, bags, odoraments, posies, &c. 


Synapsis of the Second Partition. 


choly, are" 



Unwlud ( Aasarabacca, lanrel, white hellebore, scilla, or 
M ™Ste. j ""^nioD) antimony, tobacco. 

More gentle; as senna, epithyme, polipody, my- 
robflJanes, fumitory, &c. 


2. Subs. 


3. Subs, 



Stronger ; aloes, lapis Armenns, l^^is lanili, black 






Liquid; as potions, juleps, syrupSi 
wine of hellebore, bugloes, sc. 

Solid ; as lapis Armenus, and lazuli, 
piUs of Indie, pills of fumitory, &o. 

Electuaries, diaisena, coniSaction of 
hamech, hierologladium, &o. 

Not swallowed; as gaigaiisms, mastica- 
tories, &o. 

Nostrils, sneeiing powders, odonunents, perftunes* 

In&rior parts ; as clysters strong and weak, and suppositories 
of Castilian soap, honey boiled. See. 

n Chinirgical 

physic, which 
consists of 
Memb. 8. 

Phlebotomy, to all parts almost, and all the distlnet species. 

I'nth knife, horseleeches. 


Cauteries, and searing with hot irons, boring. 

Dropaz and sinapismus. 

Issues to seTeral parts, and upon seTenJ occasions. 

23 Sect. B. 
Cure of 

1. Subseet. 
Moderate diet, meat of good juice, moistening, easy of digestion. 
Good air. ' 

Sleep more than ordinary. 
Excrements daily to be voided by art or nature. 
Exereise of body and mind not too violent, or too remiss, passions of 

the mind, and perturbations to be aToided. 

2. Bloodletting, if there be need, or that the blood be corrupt, in the 
arm, forehead, &o., or with cupping-glasses. 

Preparatives ; as syrup of borage, bugloss, epithyme, hops, 
with their distilled waters, &c. 

Purgers ; as Montanus, and Matthiolus helleborismus, Quer- 
cetanus, syrup ot hellebore, extract of hellebore, pulvis 
Hali, antimony prepared, Kulandi aqua mirabilis ; which 
are used, if gentler medicines will not take place, with 
Arnoldus, vinum buglossatuniy senna, cassia, myrobalanes, 
aurum potabiU, or before Hamech, Pil. Indce, Hiera, Pil. de 
Utp. Armeno, lazuli. 

' Cardan's nettles, frictions, clysters, suppositories, sneezings, 

masticatories, nasals, cupping-glasses. 
To open the heemorrhoids with horseleeches, to apply horse- 
leeches to the forehead without scarification, to the shoul- 
ders, thighs. 
Issues, boring, cauteries, hot irons in the suture of the 

8. Pre- 


5. Cor- 
dials, re- 

' A cup of wine or strong drink. 
Bezars stone, amber, spice. 
Conserves of' borage, bugloss, roses, fumitory. 
Confection of alchermes. 
Electuarium latificans Galeni et Rhasis. ^e. 
^ XHamargaritum Jrig. diaboraginaiumy fc. 



Synopsis of the Second Partition. 

' Odoramenta of rooes, violets. 
Irrigations of the head, with the deooctions of nymphea, 

lettuce, mallows, &c. 
Epithymes, ointments, bagt3 to the heart. 
Fomentations of oil for the belly. 
Baths of sweet water, in which were sod mallows, violets, 

roses, water-lilies, borage flowers, ramsheads, &c. 

1 Poppy, nympfaea, lettace,rofle8, 
nightshade, opium, &c. 

6. Correctors 
of accidents, 







ly used, 

n 2. Memh. 
Cure of mel- 
ancholy over 
the body. 

of hypo- 
cal or 
8. Mtm, 

Inwardly f or Liquid; as syrups of poppy, 
taken, 1 verbasco, violets, roses. 

Com- < ^?olid ; as reguies Nicholai^ 
[pounds. Philoniumy Romanvm^Laud' 
\ anum Paracelsi. 
Oil of nymphea, poppy, violets, roses, 

mandrake, nutmegs. 
Odoraments of vinegar, rose-water, opium. 
Frontals of rose-cake, rose-vinegar, nut- 
Ointments, alablastritum, unguentum 
populeum,simple,or mixed with opium. 
Irrigations of the head, feet, sponges, 

music, murmur and noise of waters. 
Frictions of the head and outward parts, 
sacculi of henbane, wormwood at his 
pillow, &c. 

Against terrible dreams; not to sup late, or eat peas, 
cabbage, venison, meats heavy of digestion, use balm, 
hart's tongue, &c. 
Against ruddiness and blushing, inward and outward 
f Diet, preparatives, purges, averters, cordials, correctors, as before. 
Phlebotomy in this kind more necessary, and more frequent. 
To correct and cleanse the blood with fumitory, senna, succory, dan- 
delion, endive, &c. 
Svbsect. 1. 
Phlebotomy, if need require. 
Diet, preparatives, averters, cordials, purgers, as before, saving that they 

must not be so vehement. 
Use of pennyroyal, worm wood,centaury sod,which alone hath cured many. 
To provoke urine with anise-seed^ daucus, asarum, &c., and stools, if 

need be, by clysters and suppositories. 
To respect the spleen, stomach, liver, hyiKXshondries. 
To use treacle now and then in winter. 
To vomit after meals sometimes, if it be inveterate. 

iGalanga, gentian, enula, angelica, 
calamus aromaticus, sedoary, chi- 
na, condite ginger, &c. 
!Pennyroya1,rue,calamint,bay leaves 
and berries, scordium, bethany, lav 
ender, camomile, centaury, worm 
wood, cummin, broom, orange pills 

2. to ez- 
, pel wind. 









f Saffron, cinnamon, mace, nutmeg 
Spices, \ pepper, musk, zedoary, with wine 
( &c. 

i Aniseed, fennel-seed, ammi, oary 
cummin, nettle, bays, parsley, gra 
na paradisi. 
Dianisum, diagalanga, diaciminum, diacala- 
minthes, electuarium de baccis lauri, bene- 
£ \ dicta laxativa, &c., pulvis camiinativus, and 
pulvis descrip. Antidotario Florentino, aro- 
maticum, rosatum, Mithridate. 
Outwardly used, an cupping-glasses, to the hypochondries 
without scarification, oil of camomile, rue, anise-seed, their 
decoctions, &c. 




Unlawfvl Cures reeded. 

Inveterate Melancholy, howsoever it may seem to be a 
continuate, inexorable disease, hard to be cured, accompany- 
ing them to their graves, most part, as ^ Montanus observes, 
yet many times it may be helped, even that which is most 
violent, or at least, according to the same ^ author, " it may 
be mitigated and much eased.*' Nil desperandum. It may 
be hard to cure, but not impossible for him that is most griev- 
ously affected, if he be but willing to be helped. 

Upon this good hope I will proceed, using the same method 
in the cure, which I have formerly used in the rehearsing of 
the causes ; first general, then particular ; and those accord- 
mg to their several species. Of these cures some be lawful, 
some again unlawful, which though frequent, familiar, and 
often used, yet justly censured, and to be controverted. As 
first, whether by these diabolical means, which are commonly 
practised by the devil and his ministers, sorcerers, witches, 
magicians, &c, by spells, cabalistical words, charms, charac- 
ters, images, amulets, ligatures, philters, incantations, &c., this 
disease and the like may be cured ? and if they may, whether 

1 Consil. 286. pro Abbate Italo. ^ Consil. 23, aat cuiabitar, aut cert6 miniu 
afficietur, si rolet. 

84 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. i. 

it be lawful to make use of them, those magnetical cures, or 
for our good to seek after such means in any case ? The 
first, whether they can do any such cures, is questioned 
amongst many writers, some affirming, some denying. Va- 
lesius, corU. med, lib. 5, cap. 6, Malleus Maleficor, Heur- 
nius, /. 3, pract. med. cap. 28, Caelius, lib. 16, c. 16, Delrio, 
torn. 3, Wierus, lib. 2, de prcestig. dcem.^ Libanius, Lavater, 
de sped. pari. 2, cap. 7, Holbrenner the Lutheran in Pis- 
torium, Polydor Virg., I. 1, de prodig., Tandlerus, Lemnius 
(Hippocrates and Avicenna amongst the rest), deny that 
spirits or devils have any power over us, and refer all with 
Pomponatius of Padua to natural causes and humours. Of 
the other opinion are Bodinus, Dcemonomantice, lib. 3, cap. 2, 
Amoldus, Marcellus Empyricus, I. Pistorius, Paracelsus, 
Apodix. Magic, Agrippa, lib. 2, de occvU. Philos. cap. 36, 
69, 71, 72, et I. 3, c. 23 et 10, MarciUus Ficinus, de vit. 
ccelit. compar. cap. 13, 15, 18, 21, S^c, Galeottus, de promiscua 
doct. cap. 24, Jovianus Pontanus, torn. 2, Plin. lib. 28, c. 2, 
Strabo, lib. 15, Geog. Leo Suavius ; Goclenius, de iing. armar.j 
Oswoldus Crollius, Ernestus Burgraviiis, Dr. Flud, &c Car- 
dan, de sidft., brings many proofs out of Ars Notoria, and 
Solomon's decayed works, old Hermes, Artefius, C5ostaben 
Luca, Picatrix, &c., that such cures may be done. They can 
make fire it shall not burn, fetch back thieves or stolen goods, 
show their absent faces in a glass, mal?e serpents lie still, 
stanch blood, salve gouts, epilepsies, biting of mad dogs, 
toothache, melancholy, et omnia mundi mala, make men im- 
mortal, young again as the ^ Spanish marquess is said to have 
done by one of his slaves, and some which jugglers in ^ China 
maintain still (as Tragaltius writes) that they can do by their 
extraordinary skill in physic, and some of our modem chem- 
ists by their strange limbecs, by their spells, philosopher's 
stones and charms. ' " Many doubt," saith Nicholas Taurellus, 

1 Vide Renatum Morey , Animad. in sclio- fecit, alii negant, aed quotidiana experi- 

1am Salemit. c. 38, si ad 40 annos pos- entia confinnat, magos magno multoram 

jsent producere yitam, cur non ad cen- stupore morbos curare, singulas corporis 

turn? si ad centum, cur non ad mille? partes citra impedlmentum permeare, et 

2 Hist. Chinensum. s Alii dubitant an modis nobis ignotis curare, 
daemon possit morbos curare quos non 

Mem. 1.] Unlawful Cures defected. 85 

" whether the devil can cure such diseases he hath not made, 
and some flatly deny it, howsoever common experience con- 
firms to our astonishment, that magicians can work such feats^ 
and that the devil without impediment, can penetrate through 
all the parts of our bodies, and cure such maladies by means 
to us unknown." Daneus in his tract de Sortiariis subscribes 
to this of Taurellus ; Erastus, de Lamiisy maintaineth as much, 
and so do most divines, out of their excellent knowledge and 
long experience they can commit ^ agentes cum pattentibiASj ' 
coUigere semina reruniy eaque matericB appUcare, as Austin 
infers, ed Civ, Dei et de Tnnit, lib, 3, cap, 7 et 8, they can 
work stupendous and admirable conclusions; we see the 
effects only, but not the causes of them. Nothing so familiar 
as to hear of such cures. Sorcerers are too common ; cun- 
ning men, wizards, and white-witches, as they call them, in 
every village, which if they be sought unto, will help almost 
all infirmities of body and mind, Servatores in Latin, and 
they have commonly St. Catharine's wheel printed in the 
roof of their mouth, or in some other part about them, resis' 
tunt incantcUorum prtBstigiis (* Boissardus writes), morhos a 
sagis moios proptdsant, S^c, that to doubt of it any longer, 
* " or not to believe, were to run into that other skeptical ex- 
treme of incredulity," saith Taurellus. Leo Suavius in liis 
comment upon Paracelsus seems to make it an art, which 
ought to be approved ; Pistorius and others stiffly maintain 
the use of charms, words, characters, &c. Ars vera est, sed 
paud artifices reperiuntur ; the art is true, but there be but 
a few that have skill in it. Marcellus Donatus, lib, 2, de hist, 
mir, cap, 1, proves out of Josephus's eight books of antiqui- 
ties, that * " Solomon so cured all the diseases of the mind by 
spells, charms, and drove away devils, and that Eleazar did 
as much before Vespasian." Langius in his med, epist, holds 
Jupiter Menecrates, that did so many stupendous cures in his 

1 Agentia cum patientibue conjngunt. ^ Refert Solomonem mentis morbos cn- 

s Cap. 11, de Serrat. ^ Heec alii rident, rftsse, et daemones abegisse ipsos carmln- 

sed vereor ne dum nolnmus esse creduli, ibug, quod et coram Vespasiano fecit 

Titimn non effugiamuB incredulitatis. Eleassar. 


86 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. l. 

time, to have used this art, and that he was no other than a 
magician. Many famous cures are daily done in this kind, 
the devil is an expert physician, as Godelman calls him, lih, 1, 
cap, 18, and Grod permits oftentimes these witches and magi- 
cians to produce such effects, as Lavater, cap. 3, lib. 8, part. 
3, cap. 1, Polid. Virg., lib. 1, de prodtgiisy Delrio and others 
admit. Such cures may be done, and as Paracels., Tom. 4, 
de morb. ament. stiffly maintains, * " they cannot otherwise be 
cured but by spells, seals, and spiritual physic" ^ Amoldus, 
lib. de sigillis, sets down the making of them, so doth Bulan- 
dus and many others. 

Hoc posito, they can effect such cures, the main question 
is whether it be lawful in a desperate case to crave their help, 
or ask a wizard's advice. 'Tis a common practice of some 
men to go first to a witch and then to a physician, if one can- 
not the other shall, Flectere si nequearU superos Acheronta 
movebunt. * " It matters not," saith Paracelsus, " whether it 
be Grod or the devil, angels, or unclean spirits cure him, so 
that he be eased." If a man fall into a ditch, as he prose- 
cutes it, what matter is it whether a friend or an enemy help 
him out ? and if I be troubled with such a malady, what care 
I whether the devil hinLself, or any of his ministers by God's 
permission, redeem me ? He calls a * magician God*s minis- 
ter and his vicar, applying that of vos estis dii profanely to 
them, for which he is lashed by T. Erastus, j^ar^. l^fol. 45. 
And elsewhere he encourageth his patients to have a good 
faith, * " a strong imagination, and they shall find the effects ; 
let divines say to the contrary what they will." He proves 
and contends that many diseases cannot otherwise be cured. 
Jhcantatione orti incantaiione curari debenJt ; if they be 
caused by incantation, ® they must be cured by incantation. 
Constantinus, lib. 4, approves of such remedies ; Bartolus the 

1 Spiritnales morbi spiritualiter curari * Ma^e minister et Vioarlus Pel. 

debent. > Sigillum ex auro peculiari > Utere forti imaginatione et experleris 

ad Melancholiam, &c. * Ub. 1, de oc- eflfectum, (Ucant in adyeranm quicqnid 

cult. Philofl. nihil refert an Deus "n Tolunt Theolc^. > Idem Pliniua oonr 

diabolus, angeli an immundi spiritus teudit quoedam esse morbos qui incanta- 

aegro opem ferant, modo morbus curetur. tionibus solum curentur. 

Mem. 1.] Unlawful Cures EefectecL 87 

lawyer, Peter -^rodius, rerum Judic, lib. 3, tit 7. Salicetus 
Godefridus, with others of that sect, allow of them ; modd sint 
ad sanitatem, quce a magis jiunt, secus non, so they he for the 
parties' good, or not at all. But these men are confuted by 
Remigius, Bodinus, deem, lib. 3, cap. 2, Godelmanus, lib, 1, 
cap. 8, Wierus, Delrio, lib. 6, qucest. 2, torn. 3, mag. inquis., 
Erastus de Lamiis ; all our ^ divines, schoolmen, and such as 
write cases of conscience are against it, the Scripture itself 
absolutely forbids it as a mortal sin, Levit. cap. xviii. xix. 
XX., Deut. xviii. &c., Rom. viii. 19, " Evil is not to be done, 
that good may come of it." Much better it were for such 
patients that are so troubled, to endure a little misery in this 
life, than to hazard their souls* health forever, and as Delrio 
counselleth, ^"much better die, than be so cured." Some 
take upon them to expel devils by natural remedies, and 
magical exorcisms, whi«h they seem to approve out of the 
practice of the primitive church, as that above cited of Jose- 
phus, Eleazar, Iraeneus, TertuUian, Austin. Eusebius makes 
mention of such, and magic itself hath been publicly pro- 
fessed in some universities, as of old in Salamanca in Spain, 
and Cracow in Poland; but condemned anno 1318, by the 
chancellor and university of ^ Paris. Our pontifical writers 
retain many of these adjurations and forms of exorcisms still 
in the church ; besides those in baptism used, they exorcise 
meats, and such as are possessed, as they hold, in Christ's 
name. Read Hieron. Mengus, cap. 3, Pet. Tyreus, part. 3, 
cap. 8, what exorcisms they prescribe, besides those ordinary 
means of * " fire suffumigations, lights, cutting the air with 
swords," cap. 57, herbs, odours ; of which Tostatus treats, 
2 Reg. cap. 16, qtuBst. 43, you shall find many vain and friv- 
olous superstitious forms of exorcisms among them, not to be 
tolerated, or endured. 

1 Qui talibne crednnt, ant ad eomm olum, P. Blart. < Mori praestat quam 

domoB ennteg, aut suis domibus intro- superstitios^ sanari, Disquis. mag. I. 2, 

dncnnt, aat interrogant, aciant se fldem c. 2, sect. 1, quaeat. 1, Tom. 3. » P. 

Christianam et baptismum prssTaric&sRe, Lumbard. ^ Suffltus, gladiorum ictus, 

et Apostatas esse. Anstin de superstit. &c. 
obsenr. hoc pacto & Deo deflcitur ad diab- 

88 Cure of Melancholy* [Part. II. sec. 1. 


Lawful Cures, first from God, 

Being so clearly evinced, as it is, all unlawful cures are to 
be refused, it remains to treat of such as are to be admitted, 
and those are commonly such which God hath appointed, ^ by 
virtue of stones, herbs, plants, meats, &c., and the like, which 
are prepared and applied to our use, by art and industry of 
physicians, who are the dispensers of such treasures fot* our 
good, and to be ^ " honoured for necessities' sake," Grod*s inter- 
mediate ministers, to whom in our infirmities we are to seek 
for help. Yet not so that we rely too much, or wholly upon 
them : a Jove prindpium, we must first begin with * prayer, 
and then use physic; not one without the other, but both 
together. To pray alone, and reject ordinary means, is to do 
like him in JEsop, that when his cart was stalled, lay flat on 
his back, and cried aloud, help Hercules ! but that was to 
little purpose, except as his friend advised him, rotis tvte ipse 
annitaris, he whipped his horses withal, and put his shoulder 
to the wheel. Grod works by means, as Christ cured the 
blind man with clay and spittle : ^ Orandum est ut sit mens 
Sana in corpore sano^ As we must pray for health of body 
and mind, so we must use our utmost endeavours to preserve 
and continue it. Some kind of devils are not cast out but by 
fasting and prayer, and both necessarily required, not one 
without the other. For all the physic we can use, art, excel- 
lent industry, is to no purpose without calling upon God, nil 
juvat immensos Cratero promittere monies ; it is in vain to 
seek for help, run, ride, except God bless us. 

" non Siculi dapes 
4 Dalcem elaborabunt saporem, 
Non animam cytherseve cantus. 

1 The Lord hath created medicines of whole, Ecclus. xxzviii. 9. > Hue omne 

the earth, and he that is wise will not principium, hue refer ezitnm. Hor. 8 

abhor them, Ecclus. xxxTiii. 4. ^ My carm. Od. 6- ^ Music and flue &zo 

son, &il not in thy sickness, but pray can do no good, 
unto the Lord, and he will make thee 

Mem. 2.] Lawful Qure$ from God. 89 

1 Non domus et fandus, non sens acenms et anri 
i£groto possunt domino deducere febres/* 

3 " With house, with land, with money, and with gold, 
The master's fever will not be controll'd." 

We must use our prayer and physic both together ; and so 
no doubt but our prayers will be available, and our physic 
take effect. 'Tis that Hezekiah practised, 2 Kings xx., Luke 
the Evangelist ; and which we are enjoined, Coloss. iv. not 
the patient only, but the physician himself. Hippocrates, a 
heathen, required this in a good practitioner, and so did 
Galen, lib. de Plat, et Hipp. dog. lib. 9, cap. 15, and in that 
tract of his, an mores sequantur temp. cor. ca. 11, 'tis a rule 
which he doth inculcate, ^ and many others. Hyperius in his 
first book de sacr. script. lect.y speaking of that happiness and 
good success which all physicians desire and hope for in their 
cures, * tells them that " it is not to be expected, except with 
a true faith they call upon Grod, and teach their patients to do 
the like." The council of Lateran, Canon 22, decreed they 
should do so ; the fathers of the church have still advised as 
much : " whatsoever thou takest in hand (saith * Gregory) 
let God be- of thy counsel, consult with him ; that healeth 
those that are broken in heart (Fsal. cxlvii. 3), and bindeth 
up their sores." Otherwise as the prophet Jeremiah, cap. 
xlvi. 11, denounced to Egypt, In vain shalt thou use many 
medicines, for thou shalt have no health. It is the same 
counsel which ® Comineus, that politic historiographer, gives to 
all Christian princes, upon occasion of that unhappy over- 
throw of Charles, Duke of Burgundy, by means of which he 
was extremely melancholy, and sick to death ; insomuch that 
neither physic nor persuasion could do him any good, per- 

1 Hor. 1. 1, ep. 2. > Sint Oroesi et fselicitatem, sed hanc non est quod ez- 

Craasi licet, non hos Pactolua anreas nn- pectent, laisi Deum Teril fide invocent, 

das agens eripiet nnquam h miseriis. atque gegros similiter ad ardentem Toca- 

8 Scientia de Deo debet in medico infiza tionem excitent. ^ Lemnius 6 Gregor. 

ease, Mesne Arabs. Sanat omnes Ian- exbor. ad vltam opt. instit. cap. 48. 

guores Dens For you shall pray to your Quicquid meditaris aggredi aut perficere. 

Lord, that he would prosper that which Deum In consilium adhibeto. ^ Com- 

is given for ease, and then use physic for men tar. lib. 7, ob infelicem pugnam con- 

the prolonging of life, Ecclus. xxxyUi. 4. tristatus, in aegritudinem incidit, ita ut & 

« Omnes optant quandam in medicina medicis curari non posset. 

90 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 1. 

ceiving his preposterous error belike, adviseth all great men 
in sucli cases, ^ ^^ to pray first to God with all submission and 
penitency, to confess their sins, and then to use physic.*' 
The very same fault it was, which the prophet reprehends in 
Asa, king of Judah, that he relied more on physic than on 
God, and by all means would have him to amend it. And 
'tis a fit caution to be observed of all other sorts of men. 
The prophet David was so observant of this precept, that in 
his greatest misery and vexation of mind, he put this rule 
first in practice. Psal. Ixxvii. 3, " When I am in heaviness, 
I will think on G^d." Psal. Ixxxvi. 4, " Comfort the soul 
of thy servant, for unto thee I lift up my soul ; " and verse 
7, " In the day of trouble will I call upon thee, for thou 
hearest me." Psal. liv. 1, " Save me, O God, by thy name," 
&C., Psal. Ixxxii. Psal. xx. And 'tis the common practice 
of all good men, Psal. cvii. 13, " When their heart was hum- 
bled with heaviness, they cried to the Lord in their trouble, 
and he delivered them from their distress." And they have 
found good success in so doing, as David confesseth, Psal. 
XXX. 11, " Thou hast turned my mourning into joy, thou hast 
loosed my sackcloth, and girded me with gladness." There- 
fore he adviseth all others to do the like, Psal. xxxi. 24, "All 
ye that trust in the Lord, be strong, and he shall establish 
your heart" It is reported by * Suidas, speaking of Heze- 
kiah, that there was a great book of old, of King Solomon's 
writing, which contained medicines for all manner of diseases, 
and lay open still as they came into the temple ; but Heze- 
kiah, king of Jerusalem, caused it to be taken away, because 
it made the people secure, to neglect their duty in calling and 
relying upon God, out of a confidence on those remedies. 
'Minutius, that worthy consul of Rome, in an oration he 
made to his soldiers, was much offended with them, and 

1 In his anirai malis prlnoeps imprimis dt Ezeohias, quod populus neglecto Deo 

ad Deum precetur, et peccatis Teniam ex- oec inrocato, sanitatem inde petered, 

oret, inde ad medicinam, &c. * Oreg. > Liviud, 1. 23. Strepunt aures clamori- 

Tholoes. To. 2, 1. 28, c. 7, Syntax In bus plorantium sociorum, ssepius nos 

yestibulo templi Solomonis liber rcmedi- quam deorum inTOcantium opem. 
orum cujusque morbi fuit, quem revul- 

Mem. 8.] Saints* Cure refected, 91 

taxed their ignorance, that in their misery called more on 
him than upon Grod. A general fault it is all over the world, 
and Minutius's speech concerns us all, we rely more on 
physic, and seek oftener to physicians, than to Grod himself. 
As much faulty are they that prescribe, as they that ask, re- 
specting wholly their gain, and trusting more to their ordinary 
receipts and medicines many times, than to him that made 
them. I would wish all patients in this behalf, in the midst 
of their melancholy, to remember that of Siracides, Ecc. i. 
11 and 12, " The fear of the Lord is glory and gladness, and 
rejoicing. The fear of the Lord maketh a merry heart, and 
giveth gladness, and joy, and long life ; " and all such as pre- 
scribe physic, to begin in nomine Dei, as * M esue did, to imi- 
tate Laelius k Fonte Eugubinus, that in all his consultations, 
still concludes with a prayer for the good success of his busi- 
ness ; and to remember that of Creto one of their predeces- 
sors, fttge avaritiam, et sine orations et invocations Dei nihil 
faciaSy avoid covetousness, and do nothing without mvocation 
upon God. 


Whether it he lawjul to seek to Saints for Aid in this Disease. 

That we must pray to God, no man doubts ; but whether 
we should pray to saints in such cases, or whether they can 
do us any good, it may be lawfully controverted. Whether 
their images, shrines, relics, consecrated things, holy water, 
medals, benedictions, those divine amulets, holy exorcisms, 
and the sign of the cross, be available in this disease ? The 
papists, on the one side, stiffly maintain how many melan- 
choly, mad, demoniacal persons are daily cured at St. An- 
thony's Church in Padua, at St. Vitus's in Germany, by our 

1 Rnlandns adjunglt optimam oratlo- congil. 25, ita conclndit. Montanus pas- 
nemadflnemEmpyricorum. Mercurialis, siin, &c., et plures alii, &c. 

92 Oure of Melancholy* [Part. n. sec. 1. 

Lady of Loretto in Italy, our Lady of Sichem in the Low 
Countries ; ^ Qiub et ccecis lumen, cegris scUutem, mortuis v»- 
tam, claudu gressum reddity omnes morhos corporis, animi, 
curat, et in ipsos dcemones imperium exercet ; she cures halt, 
lame, blind, all diseases of body and mind, and commands 
the devil himself, saith Lipsius, " twenty-five thousand in a 
day come thither," ^ quis nisi numen in iUum locum sic in- 
duQcit ; who brought them ? in auribus, in oculis omnium 
gesta, nova novitia ; new news lately done, our eyes and ears 
are full of her cures, and who can relate them all ? They 
have a proper saint almost for every peculiar infirmity : for 
poison, gouts, agues, Fetronella; St. Romanus for such as 
are possessed ; Valentine for the falling-sickness ; St. Vitus 
for madmen, &c., and as of old ^ Pliny reckons up gods for 
all diseases {Febri fanum diccUum est), Lilius Giraldus re- 
peats many of her ceremonies ; all affections of the mind 
were heretofore accounted gods,* love, and sorrow, virtue, 
honour, liberty, contumely, impudency, had their temples, 
tempests, seasons. Crepitus Ventris, dea Vacuna, dea Gloa- 
cina, there was a goddess of idleness, a goddess of the 
draught, or jakes, Prema, Premunda, Priapus, bawdy gods, 
and gods for all * offices. Varro reckons up 30,000 gods ; 
Lucian makes Podagra the gout a goddess, and assigns her 
priests and ministers ; and melancholy comes not behind ; 
for as Austin mentioneth, lib. 4, de Civit, Dei, cap. 9, there 
was of old Angerona dea, and she had her chapel and feasts, 
to whom (saith ^Macrobius) they did offer sacrifice yearly, 
that she might be pacified as well as the rest. 'Tis no new 
thing, you see this of papists ; and in my judgment, that old 
doting Lipsius might have fitter dedicated his "^ pen after all 
his labours, to this our goddess of melancholy, than to his 
Virgo JSalensiSy and been her chaplain, it would have become 
him better; but he, poor man, thought no harm in that 

1 Lipsius. ' > Cap. 26. > lib. 2, « 12 Cal. Janoarii feriaa celebrant, at 

cap. 7, de Deo Morbisque in genera de- angores et animi solicitndines propitiata 

Kriptis deos reperimus. * Selden pro- depellat. 7 Hano diyae pennam coo 

log. cap. 3, de diis Syris. RofinuR. secrari, Lipsius. 
B See LiUi Giraldi syntagma de diis, &c. 

Mem. 3.] Satnts* Cure refected. 93 

which he did, and will not be persuaded but that he doth 
well, ne hath so many patrons, and honourable precedents in 
the like kind, that justify as much, as eagerly, and more than 
he there saith of his lady and mistress ; read but supersti- 
tious Coster and Gretser's Tract de Orucey Laur. Arcturus 
Fanteus de Invoc. Sanct., Bellarmine, Delrio, dts. mag. torn. 
3, L 6, qiUBSt. 2, sect, 3, Greg. Tolosanus, torn. 2, lib. 8, cap. 
24, Syntax, Strozius Cicogna, Ub. 4, cap. 9, Tyreus, Hie- 
ronymus Mengus, and you shall find infinite examples of 
cures done in this kind, by holy waters, relics, crosses, exor- 
cisms, amulets, images, consecrated beads, &c. Barradius 
the Jesuit boldly gives it out, that Christ's countenance, and 
the Virgin Mary's, would cure melancholy, if one had looked 
steadfastly on them. P. Morales the Spaniard, in his book 
de pvJck. Jes. et Mar. confirms the same out of Carthusianus, 
and I know not whom, that it was a common proverb in 
those days, for such as were troubled in mind to say, eamus 
ad videndum filium Marice, let us see the son of Mary, as 
they now do post to St. Anthony's in Padua, or to St. 
Hilary's at Poictiers in France. -^ In a closet of that church, 
there is at this day St. Hilary's bed to be seen, " to which 
they bring all the madmen in the country, and after some 
prayers and other ceremonies, they lay them down there to 
sleep, and so they recover." It is an ordinary thing in those 
parts, to send all their madmen to St. Hilary's cradle. They 
say the like of St Tubery in ^another place. Giraldus, Cam- 
brensis Itin. Gamh. c. 1, tells strange stories of St. Ciricius's 
staff, that would cure this and all other diseases. Others 
say as much (as * Hospinian observes) of the three kings of 
Cologne ; their names written in parchment, and hung about 
a patient's neck, with the sign of the cross, will produce like 
effects. Bead Lipomannus, or that golden legend of Ja^obm 
de Voraffine, you shall have infinite stories, or those new 

1 Jodocns Sincerua itin. Gallise. 1617. Gallia Narbonenfii. » lib. de orig. 

Hue mente captos deducunt, et statis Festorum. CoUo suspensa et pei^amena 

orationibus, sacrisque peractis, in ilium inscripta, cum signo crucis, &o. 
lectum dormitum ponunt, &c. * In 

94 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 1. 

relations of our ^ Jesuits in Japan and China, of Mat. Riccius, 
Acosta, Loyola, Xaverius's life, &c Jasper Belga, a Jesuit, 
cured a mad woman by hanging St. John's gospel about her 
neck, and many such. Holy water did as much in Japan, &c. 
Nothing so familiar in their works, as such examples. 

But we on the other side, seek to God alone. We say 
with David, Psal. xlvi. 1, " God is our hope and strength, 
and help in trouble, ready to be found." For their catalogue 
of examples, we make no other answer, but that they are false 
fictions, or diabolical illusions, counterfeit miracles. We 
cannot deny but that it .is an ordinary thing on St. Anthony's 
day in Padua, to bring divers madmen and demoniacal per- 
sons to be cured ; yet we make a doubt whether such par- 
ties be so affected indeed, but prepared by their priests, by 
certain ointments, and drams, to cozen the commonalty, as 
'Hildesheim well saith; the like is commonly practised in 
Bohemia as Mathiolus gives us to understand in his preface 
to his comment upon Dioscorides. But we need not run so 
far for examples in this kind ; we have a just volume pub- 
lished at home to this purpose. *"A declaration of egre- 
gious popish impostures, to withdraw the hearts of religious 
men under pretence of casting out of devils, practised by 
Father Edmunds, alias Weston, a Jesuit, and divers Romish 
priests, his wicked associates, with the several parties' names, 
confessions, examinations, &c. which were pretended to be 
possessed." But these are ordinary tricks only to get opin- 
ion and money, mere impostures. -3Esculapius of old, that 
counterfeit god, did as many famous cures ; his temple (as 
*Strabo relates) was daily full of patients, and as many 
several tables, inscriptions, pendants, donories, &c., to be seen 
in his church, as at this day our Lady of Loretto's in Italy. 
It was a custom long since, 

1 Eia. Acosta, com. rerum in Oriente snadeant tales cnrari & Sancto Antonio. 

I^t. & societat. Jesu, Anno, 1568. Epist 8 Printed at London, 4to. by J. Roberts, 

Gonsalvi. Fernandis, Anno 1560, 6 Japo- 1605. ^ Oreg. lib. 8. Cojus fiEinum 

nia. s Spicel. de morbis dsemoniacis, segrotantinm mnltitudine refertum, un- 

sic & sacriflculis parati unguentis Magicis diquaque et tabellis pendentibas, in qui- 

corpori illitis, ut staltee plebeculae per- bus sanati languores erant inscripti. 

Mem. 8.] Saints^ Cure rejected, 95 

** suspend isse potent! 
Vestimenta maris deo." ' — Hor, Od. 1 IU>. 6 Od. 

To do the like, in former times they were seduced and de- 
luded as they are now. 'Tis the same devil still, called here- 
tofore Apollo, Mars, Neptune, Venus, -^sculapius, &c., as 
^Lactantius, lib, 2, de orig. erraris, c. 17, observes. The 
same Jupiter and those bad angels are now worshipped and 
adored by the name of St. Sebastian, Barbara, &c., Chris- 
topher and George are come in their places. Our lady suc- 
ceeds Venus (as they use her in many offices), the rest are 
otherwise supplied, as ' Lavater writes, and so they are de- 
luded. ^ " And God often winks at these impostures, because 
they forsake his word, and betake themselves to the devil, as 
they do that seek after holy water, crosses," &c., Wierus, lib. 4, 
cap, 3. What can these men plead for themselves more than 
those heathen gods, the same cures done by both, the same 
spirit that seduceth ; but read more of the pagan gods' effects 
in Austin, de Civitate Dei, I, 10, cap. 6, and of ^sculapius 
especially in Cicbgna, I, 3, cap, 8, or put case they could 
help, why should we rather seek to them, than to Christ 
himself, since that he so kindly invites us unto him, ^' Come 
imto me all ye that are heavy laden, and I will ease you," 
Mat. xi., and we know that " there is one God, one Mediator 
between God and man, Jesus Christ " (1 Tim. ii. 5), who 
gave himself a ransom for all men. We know that "we 
have an ^advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ" (1 John ii. 
1), that " there is no other name under heaven, by which we 
can be saved, but by his," who is always ready to hear us, 
and sits at the right hand of God, and from ^ whom we can 
have no repulse, solus vuUf solus potest, curat universos tan- 
qvam singtUos, et '^ unumqtiemque nostrum ut solum., we are all 

1 " To offer the sailor's garments to the ginem IlCariam. ^ Ad haec ludibria 

deity of the deep/' > Mali angeli sump- Deus conniyet frequenter, ubi relicto yer- 

seruntoUm nomen Jovis, Junonis, Apol- bo Dei, ad Satanam curritur, quales hi 

linis, &c., quos Gentiles deos credebant, sunt, qui aquam lustralem, crucem, &c., 

nunc S. Sebastianij Barbaras, &c., no- lubricae fidei hominibus ofFerunt.^ sCha- 

men habent, et ahorum. * Part. 2, rior est ipsis homo quam sibi, Paul, 

eap. 9, de spect. Veneri substituunt Vir- * Bernard. 7 Austin. 

96 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 1. 

as one to him, he cares for us all as one, and why should we 
then seek to any other but to him ? 


SuBSECT. I. — Physician^ Patient^ Physic. 

Op those diverse gifts which our apostle Paul saith Grod 
hath bestowed on man, this of physic is not the least, but 
most necessary, and especially conducing to the good of man- 
kind. Next therefore to Grod in all our extremities (" for of 
the most high cometh healing," Ecclus. xxxviii. 2,) we must 
seek to, and rely upon the Physician, ^ who is Manus Dei, 
saith Hierophilus, and to whom he hath given knowledge, 
that he might be glorified in his wondrous works. " With 
such doth he heal men, and take away their pains," Ecclus. 
xxxviii. 6, 7. " When thou hast need of him, let him not go 
from thee. The hour may come that their enterprises may 
have good success," ver. 13. It is not therefore to be doubt- 
ed, that if we seek a physician as we ought, we may be eased 
of our infirmities, such a one I mean as is sufficient, and 
worthily so called ; for there be many mountebanks, quack- 
salvers, empirics, in every street almost, and in every village, 
that take upon them this name, make this noble and profitable 
art to be evil spoken of and contemned, by reason of these 
base and illiterate artificers ; but such a physician I speak of, 
as is approved, learned, skilful, honest, &c., of whose duty 
Wecker, Antid, cap, 2, et Syntax, med. Crato, Julius Alexan- 
drinus, medic, Heumius, prax. med. lib. 3, cap. 1, 4*^., treat at 
large. For this particular disease, him that shall take upon 
him to cure it, ^ Paracelsus will have to be a magician, a 
chemist, a philosopher, an astrologer ; Thumesserus, Se- 
verinus the Dane, and some other of his followers, require as 

1 Ecclus. xxxriii. In the sight of great multi non nisi ^ Magis curandi et Astrol- 
men he shall be in admiration. 2 Tom. ogis, quoniam origo ejus k coelis petenda 
4, Tract. 3, de morbia amentium, horum est. ' 

Mem. 4, subs. 1.] Patient. 97 

much : " many of them camiot be cured but by magic.** 
^ Paracelsus is so stiff for those chemical medicines, that in 
his cures he will admit almost of no other physic, deriding in 
the mean time Hippocrates, Gralen, and all their followers ; 
but magic and all such remedies I have already censured, 
and shall speak of chemistry ^ elsewhere. Astrology is re- 
quired by many famous physicians, by Ficinus, Crato, Fer- 
nelius ; ' doubted of, and exploded by others ; I will not take 
upon me to decide the controversy myself, Johannes Hossur- 
tus, Thomas Boderius, and Maginus in the preface to his 
mathematical physic, shall determine for me. Many phy- 
sicians explode astrology in physic (saith he), there is no use 
of it, unam artem ac quasi temerariam insectantur, ac gloriam 
sibi ah efus imperitia attcupari ; but I will reprove physicians 
by physicians, that defend and profess it, Hippocrates, Galen, 
Avicen., &c., that count them butchers without it, homiddas 
medicos Astrologia ignaros, S^c. Paracelsus goes farther, and 
will have his physician * predestinated to this man's cure, this 
malady ; and time of cure, the scheme of each geniture in- 
spected, gathering of herbs, of administering astrologically 
observed ; in which Thumesserus and some iatromathemat- 
ical professors, are too superstitious in my judgment. * " Hel- 
lebore will help, but not alway, not given by every physician,'* 
&c, but these men are too peremptory and self-conceited as T 
think. But what do I do, interposing in that which is beyond 
my reach ? A blind man cannot judge of colours, nor I per- 
adventure of these things. Only thus much I would require, 
honesty in every physician, that he be not over-careless or 
covetous, harpy-like to make a prey of his patient ; Camijicis 
namqm est (as • Wecker notes) inter ipsos cruciatus ingens 
precium exposcere, as a hungry chirurgeon often produces 
and wiredraws his cure, so long as there is any hope of pay, 
"iVb« missura ciUem, nisi plena cruoris hirudo,^ ' Many of 

1 Lib. de Podagra. > Sect. 6. > Lan- me^co Tannm est. > Antid. gen. lib. 

gins. J.CaeflarClandinug consult. *PraB- 8, cap. 2. 7 « The leech never releases 

destlnatum ad hnnc curandnm. fi Hel- the skin until he is filled with blood." 
leboms curat, sed quod ab omni datus 

VOL. II. 7 

98 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 1. 

them, to get a fee, will give physic to every one that comes, 
when there is no cause, and they do so irritare stlentem mor- 
hum, as ^ Heumius complains, stir up a silent disease, as it 
often falleth out, which by good counsel, good ^advice alone, 
might have been happily composed, or by rectification of those 
six non-natural things otherwise cured. This is Naturce heir 
lum inferre, to oppugn nature, and to make a strong body 
weaL Amoldus, in his 8 and 11 Aphorisms, gives cau- 
tions against, and expressly forbiddeth it. ^ " A wise phy- 
sician will not give physic but upon necessity, and first try 
medicinal diet, before he proceed to medicinal cure." * In 
another place he laughs those men to scorn, that think hngis 
syrupis expugtuire cUsmones et animt phant<ismatay they can 
purge fantastical imaginations and the devil by physic An- 
other caution is, that they proceed upon good grounds, if so 
be there be need of physic, and not mistake the disease ; they 
are often deceived by the * similitude of symptoms, saith 
Heumius, and I could give instance in many consultations, 
wherein they have prescribed opposite physic. Sometimes 
they go too perfunctorily to work, in not prescribing a just 
* course of physic ; To stir up the humour, and not to purge 
it, doth often more harm than good. Montanus, consiL 80, 
inveighs against such perturbations, " that purge to the 
halves, tire nature, and molest the body to no purpose." 
'Tis a crabbed humour to purge, and as Laurentius calls this 
disease, the reproach of physicians ; Bessardus, flageUum 
medicorum, their lash ; and for that cause, more carefully to 
be respected. Though the patient be averse, saith Lauren- 
tius, desire help, and refuse it again, though he neglect his 
own health, it behooves a good physician not to leave him 
helpless. But most part they offend in that other extreme, 

1 Quod ssepe evenit, lib. 8, cap. 1, cum morbum ezpellere satagat. 8 Brey. 1, 

non 8it necessitas. Frustra fiitigant re- c. 18. ^ SuuiUtudo safepe bonis medtcis 

mediis SBgros qui yictELs ratione curari imponit. ^ Qui melancholicis prsebent 

possunt. Heuraius. ^ Modeetus et remedia non fiatis valida, Longiores morbi 

sapiens medicus, nunquam properabit ad imprimis solertiam m^ci postulant et 

pharmacum, nisi cogente necessitate. 41 fldelitatem, qui enim tumultuari6 hos 

Aphor. prudens et plus medicus cibis tractant, Tires absque ullo commodo lie- 

prius medioinalibus quam medicinis puris dunt et franguiit, &c. 

Mem. 4, subs. 2.] Patient. 99 

they prescribe too mach physic, and tire out their bodies with 

continual potions, to no purpose, .^lus, tetrahih. 2, 2 $er. 

cap. 90, will have them by all means therefore * " to give 

some respite to nature," to leave off now and then ; and 

Laelius k Fonte' Eugubinus, in his consultations, found it (as 

he there witnesseth) often verified by experience, •"that 

after a deal of physic to no purpose, left to themselves, they 

have recovered." 'Tis that which Nic Piso, Donatus Alto- 

marus, still inculcate, dare requiem natura, to give nature 


SuBSECT. II. — Chnceming the Patient. 

When these precedent cautions are accurately kept, and 
that we have now got a skilful, an honest physician to our 
mind, if his patient will not be conformable, and content to 
be ruled by him, all his endeavours will come to no good end. 
Many things are necessarily to be observed and continued on 
the patient's behalf: First that he be not too niggardly 
miserable of his purse, or think it too much he bestows upon 
himself, and to save charges endanger his health. The Ab- 
derites, when they sent for • Hippocrates, promised him what 
reward he would, * " all the gold they had, if all the city were 
gold he should have it" Naaman the Syrian, when he went 
into Israel to Elisha to be cured of his leprosy, took with 
him ten talents of silver, six thousand pieces of gold, and 
ten change of raiments (2 Kings v. 5). Another thing is, 
that out of bashfulness he do not conceal his grief; if aught 
trouble his mind, let him freely disclose it, " StuUorum in- 
curata pudor malus ulcera celat : " by that means he pro- 
cures to himself much mischief, and runs into a greater in- 
convenience ; he must be willing to be cured, and earnestly 
desire it. Pars sanitatis veUe sanari fait (Seneca). 'Tis a 
part of his cure to wish his own health ; and not to defer it 
too long. 

1 Natum Temlraionem dare oportet. ^ Qnicquid auri apud noe est, libenter 

< Plerlque hoc morbo medicina nihil pro- penolyemns, etiamsi tota urbs nostra 

fecisse vis! sunt, et sibi demissi Invalae- anrum esset. 
runt. s Abderitani ep. Hlppoc. 

100 Owre of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 1. 

1 " Qai blandiendo dnlce nutrivit malam, 
Ser6 recusat ferre quod subiit jugum." 

** He that by cherishing a mischief doth provoke, 
Too late at last refoseth to cast off his yoke." 

2 " Helleborum frustra cum jam cutis segra tumebit, 
Poscentes videas; venienti occurrite morbo." 

" When the skin swells, to seek it to appease 
With hellebore, is vain; meet your disease." 

By this means many times, or tbrough their ignorance in not 
taking notice of their grievance and danger of it, contempt, 
supine negligence, extenuation, wretchedness and peevishness ; 
they undo themselves. The citizens, I know not of what 
city now, when rumour was brought their enemies were com- 
ing, could not abide to hear it; and when the plague begins 
in many places and they certainly know it, they command 
silence and hush it up; but afler they see their foes now 
marching to their gates, and ready to surprise them, they be- 
gin to fortify and resist when 'tis too late ; when the sickness 
breaks out and can be no longer concealed, then they lament 
their supine negligence ; 'tis no otherwise with these men. And 
often out of prejudice, a loathing and distaste of physic, they 
had rather die or do worse, than take any of itw " Barbarous 
immanity (' Melancthon terms it) and folly to be deplored, so 
to contemn the precepts of health, good remedies, and vol- 
untarily to puU death, and many maladies upon their own 
heads." Though many again are in that other extreme too 
profuse, suspicious, and jealous of their health, too apt to take 
physic on every small occasion, to aggravate every slender 
passion, imperfection, impediment ; if their j&nger do but ache, 
run, ride, send for a physician, as many gentlewomen do, that 
are sick, without a cause, even when they will themselves, upon 
every toy or small discontent, and when he comes, they make 
it worse than it is, by amplifying that which is not. ^ Hier. 

1 Seneca. s Pen. 8 Sat. 3 De oersnnt. ^ Consul. 178, k Scoltno Me- 

anima. Barbarft tamen immanitate, et lanch. .£g:roram hoc fere proprium est, 

deplorandSL inscitiSL contemnunt prtecep- ut grayiora dicant esse syinptomata,quani 

ta sanitatis, mortem et morbos ultro ac- revera sunt. 

Mem. 4, subs. 2.] Patient. 101 

Cappivaccius sets it down as a eommob faJfltdf'ail "m^ak-?- 
choly persons to say their symptom^ ^are greater than they 
are, to help themselves." And Wbi«b-^^Xlercari^lis"ijb?e^ :: 
coTml, 53, " to be more troublesome to their physicians, than 
other ordinary patients, that they may have change of physic" 
A third thing to be required in a patient, is confidence, to 
be of good cheer, and have sure hope that his physician can 
help him. ^ Damascen the' Arabian requires likewise in the 
physician himself, that he be confident he can cure him, 
otherwise his physic will not be effectual, and promise withal 
that he will certainly help him, make him believe so at 
least *Galeottu8 gives this reason, because the form of 
health is contained in the physician's mind, and as Galen 
holds ^ " confidence and hope to be more good than physic," 
he cures most in whom most are confident. Axiochus, sick 
almost to death, at the very sight of Socrates recovered his 
former health. Paracelsus assigns it for an only cause, why 
Hippocrates was so fortunate in his cures, not for any extra- 
ordinary skill he had ; * but " because the common people 
had a most strong conceit of his worth." To this of con- 
fidence we may add perseverance, obedience, and constancy, 
not to change his physician, or dislike him upon every toy ; 
for he that so doth (saith ^ Janus Damascen) ^ or consults 
with many, falls into many errors ; or that useth many medi- 
cines." It was a chief caveat of ' Seneca to his friend Luci- 
lius, that he should not alter his physician, or prescribed 
physic : " Nothing hinders health more ; a wound can never 
be cured that hath several plasters." Crato, consil, 186, 
taxeth all fhelancholy persons of this fault : ® " 'Tis proper to 
them, if things fall not out to their mind, and that they have 

1 Melancholici plerumqne medids sunt fidem Ethnicorum. ^ Aphoris. 89. 

molesti, ut alia aliis adjnngant. sOpor- .^er qui plurimos consulit medicos, 

tet infinno imprimere salutem, atcunque plerumque in errorem singulorum oadit. 

promittere, etsi ipse desperet. Nullum ? Nihil ita sanitatem impedit, ac remedi- 

medicamentum efflcax, nisi medicus eti- orumcrebiamutatio, necyenitvulnusad 

am faerit fortis imafflnadonis. ^ De cicatricem in quo diyersa medicameuta 

promise, doct. cap. 15. Quoniam sanita- tentantur. ^ Melancholicorum propri- 

tis formam animi medioi continent, imi quum ex eorum arbitrio non fit subi- 

* Spes et confldentia plus Talent quam ta mutatio in melius, alterare medicos 

medicina. & Faelicior in medicina ob qui quidyis, &c. 

102 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. 11. sec. l. 

• • 

•I)<[tjpreseiftj^{/fols^k another and another;" (as they do 
commonly that have .soje -eyes) twenty, one after another, and 
•V. ttt^^^fi? P^"°j4^§?5 jM»^,«ftire them, try a thousand remedies; 
* * and by this means they increase their malady, make it most 
dangerous and difficult to be cured. " They try many (saith 
^Montanus) and profit by none ; " and for this cause, consiL 
24, he enjoins his patient before he take him in hand, ^ '* per- 
severance and sufferance, for in such a small time no great 
matter can be effected, and upon that condition he will ad- 
minister physic, otherwise all his endeavour and counsel 
would be to small purpose/' And in his 31 counsel for a 
notable matron, he tells her, * " if she will be cured, she must 
be of a most abiding patience, faithful obedience, and singular 
perseverance; if she remit, or despair, she can expect or 
hope for no good success." CormL 230, for an Italian abbot, 
he makes it one of the greatest reasons why this disease is so 
incurable, ^ " because the parties are so restless and impatient, 
and will therefore have him that intends to be eased, * to take 
physic, not for a month, a year, but to apply himself to their 
prescriptions all the days of his life." Last of all, it is re- 
quired that the patient be not too bold to practise upon him- 
self, without an approved physician's consent, or to try con- 
clusions, if he read a receipt in a book ; for so, many grossly 
mistake, and do themselves more harm than good. That 
which is conducing to one man, in. one case, the same time is 
opposite to another. ® An ass and a mule went laden over 
a brook, the one with salt, the other with wool ; the mule's 
pack was wet by chance, the salt melted, his burden the 
lighter, and he thereby much eased ; he told the ass, who, 
thinking to speed as well,' wet his pack likewise at the next 
water, but it was much the heavier, he quite tired. So one 
thing may be good and bad to several parties, upon diverse 

1 Consil. 81. Dum ad Yaria se oonfe- ant desperet, nullum habebit e^ctum. 
ruut, nullo proeunt. * Imprimis hoe * Mgdindine amittunt patientiam, et in- 
statuere oportet, requiri perseTerantiam, de morbi incurabllefl. ^ Non ad men- 
et tolerantinm. Exiguo enim tempore aem aut annum, sed oport«t toto vitn 
nihil ex, &c. 3 g{ curari vult. opus curriculo curationi operam dare, o earn- 
est pertinaci perfieverantia, fldeli obe- erarius, emb. 56, cent. 2. 
dientia, et patieutia singulari, si tsedet 

Mem. 4, snbs. 8.] Physic, 103 

occasions. "Many things (saith ^Penottus) are written in 
our books, which seem to the reader to be excellent remedies, 
but they that make use of .them are often deceived, and take 
for physic poison.'* I remember in Valleriola's observations, 
a story of one John Baptist, a Neapolitan, that finding by 
chance a pamphlet in Italian, written in praise of hellebore, 
would needs adventure on himself, and took one dram for 
one scruple, and had not he been sent for, the poor fellow had 
poisoned himself. From whence he concludes out of Damas- 
cenus, 2 c^ 3 Aphorism, * " that without exquisite knowledge, 
to work out of books is most dangerous ; how unsavoury a 
thing it is to believe writers, and take upon trust, as this 
patient perceived by his own peril.*' I could recite such 
another example of mine own knowledge, of a friend of 
mine, that finding a receipt in Brassivola, would needs take 
hellebore in substance, and try it on his own person ; but had 
not some of his familiars come to visit him by chance, he had 
by his indiscretion hazarded himself; many such I have ob- 
served. These are those ordinary cautions, which I should 
think fit to be noted, and he that shall keep them, as ' Mon- 
tanus saith, shall surely be much eased, if not thoroughly 

SuBSECT. III. — Concerning Physic, 

Physic itself in the last place is to be considered ; " for 
the Lord hath created medicines of the earth, and he that is 
wise will not abhor them.*' Ecclus. xxxviii. 4, ver. 8, " of 
such doth the apothecary make a confection,*' &c. Of these 
medicines there be diverse and infinite kinds, plants, metals, 
animals, &c., and those of several natures, some good for 
one, hurtful to another; some noxious in themselves, cor- 
rected by art, very wholesome and good, simples, mixed, &c., 
and therefore left to be managed by discreet and skilful 

1 Prtefikt. de nar. med. In libellis quse est. Unde monemtir, quam insipidum 

yulgo versantur apud literatos, incauti- scriptis atictoribus credere, quod hie suo 

ores multa legunt, ^ quibus decipiuntur, didicit periculo. s Consil. 23, haec om- 

eximia illis, eed portentosum hanriunt nia si quo ordine decet, egerit, vel carab« 

Tenenum. > Operari ex libris, absque Itur, yel certe minus afflcietur. 
cogoitione et solerti ingenio, periculosom 

104 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 1. 

physicians, and thence applied to man's use. To this pur- 
pose they have invented method, and several rules of art, to 
put these remedies in order, for their particular ends. 
Physic (as Hippocrates defines it) is nought else but ^ '* ad- 
dition and subtraction ; " and as it is required in all other 
diseases, so in this of melancholy it ought to be most accu- 
rate, it being (as ^Mercurialis acknowledgeth) so common 
an affection in these our times, and therefore fit to be 
understood. Several prescripts and methods I find in sev- 
eral men, some take upon them to cure all maladies with 
one medicine, severally applied, as that Panacea Aurum 
potaMle^ so much controverted in these days, Herha solis, S^c. 
Paracelsus reduceth all diseases to four principal heads, to 
whom Severinus, Ravelascus, Leo Suavius, and others ad- 
here and imitate; those are leprosy, gout, dropsy, falling- 
sickness. To which they reduce the rest; as to leprosy, 
ulcers, itches, furfurs, scabs, &c. To gout, stone, colic, 
toothache, headache, &c. To dropsy, agues, jaundice, ca- 
chexia, &c. To the falling-sickness, belong palsy, vertigo, 
cramps, convulsions, incubus, apoplexy, &c. '"If any of 
those four principal be cured (saith Ravelascus) all the 
inferior are cured," and the same remedies commonly serve ; 
but this is too general, and by some contradicted ; for this 
peculiar disease of melancholy, of which I am now to speak, 
I find several cures, several methods and prescripts. They 
that intend the practic cure of melancholy, saith Duretus in 
his notes to HoUerius, set down nine peculiar scopes or ends ; 
Savan£irola prescribes seven especial canons.. JElianus 
Montaltus, cap, 26, Faventinus in his empirics, Hercules de 
Saxonia, &c., have their several injunctions and rules, all 
tending to one end. The ordinary is threefold, which I 
mean to follow. AuunjTuc^, Pharmaceutical and Chirurgicay 
diet, or living, apothecary, chirurgery, which Wecker, Crato, 
Guianerius, &c., and most prescribe ; of which I will insist, 
and speak in their order. 

1 Fuchsiug, cap. 2, lib. 1. s In pract. nos hujtis ourationem intelligere. ' Si 
med. haec a£Fectio noetris temporibus aliquis horum morborum summos sana- 
frequentissima, ergo maxima pertinet ad tur, sanantur omnes inferiores. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] J}iet rectified. 105 

SECT. 11. MEMB. I. 

SuBSECT. L — Diet rectified in Substance. 

Diet, AuunjTiKii, victits, or living, according to ^ Fuchsias 
and others, comprehend those six non-natural things, which 
I have before specified, are especial causes, and being recti- 
fied, a sole or chief part of the cure. ^ Johannes Arculanus, 
cap. 16, in 9 Hhasis, accounts the rectifying of these six a 
sufficient cure. Guianerius, tract. 15, cap. 9, calls them, 
propriam et primam curam, the principal cure; so doth 
Montanus, Crato, Mercurialis, Altomarus, &c., first to be 
tried, Lemnius, instit. cap. 22, names them the hinges of our 
health, * no hope of recovery without them. Reinerius Sol- 
enander, in his seventh consultation for a Spanish young 
gentlewoman, that was so melancholy she abhorred all com- 
pany, and would not sit at table with her familiar friends, 
prescribes this physic above the rest, ^no good done 
without it. * Areteus, lib. 1, cap. 7, an old physician, is of 
opinion, that this is enough of itself, if the party be not too 
far gone in sickness. ^ Crato, in a consultation of his for a 
noble patient, tells him plainly, that if his highness will keep 
but a good diet, he will warrant him his former health. 
^ Montanus, consiL 27, for a nobleman of France, admonish- 
eth his lordship to be most circumspect in his diet, or else 
all his other physic will ® be to small purpose. The same 
injunction I find verbatim in J. Oaisar Okmdinus, Respon. 
34, Scoltzii, consil. 183, TraUianm, cap. 16, lib. 1, Lcelius a 
fonte ^ugtibinus often brags, that he hath done more cures 

1 Instit. cap. 8, sect. 1. Tictds nomine perandum alift medel& non est opus, 

non tarn cibus et potus, sed a6r, exercita- o Consil. 99, lib. 2, si celsitudo tua, rec- 

tio, 8omna8,yigilia, et reliquffi res sex non- tarn Tictds rationem, &c. f Moneo, 

naturales continentur. ^ Sufficit plo- Domine, ut sis prudens ad vietum, sine 

rumqne r^men rerum sex non-natuia- qno csetera remedia frustra adhibeutur. 

lium. s Etinhispotissimasanitascon- 8 Omnia remedia irrita et vana sine his. 

sistit. * Nihil hie agendum sineexquis- Novistis me plerosque ita laborantes, vic- 

ita TiTendi ratione, &c. ^ Si recens tu potius qoam medioamentis curdsse. 
malum sit, ad pristinum habitum recu- 

106 Cure of Mdmichohf, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

in this kind by rectification of diet, than all other physic 
besides. So that in a word I may say to most melancholy 
men, as the fox said to the weasel, that could not get out of 
the garner, Macra cavum repetes, quern macra suMstiy ^ the 
six non-natural things caused it, and they must cure it. 
Which howsoever I treat of, as proper to the meridian of 
melancholy, yet nevertheless, that which is here said with 
him in * TuUy, though writ especially for the good of his 
friends at Tarentum and Sicily, yet it will generally serve 
^most other diseases, and help them likewise, if it be ob- 

Of these six non-natural things, the first is diet, properly 
so called, which consists in meat and drink, in which we must 
consider substance, quantity, quality, and that opposite to the 
precedent. In substance, such meats are generaUy com- 
mended, which are * " moist, easy of digestion, and not apt to 
engender wind, not fried, nor roasted, but sod (saith Vales- 
cus, Altomarus, Piso, &c), hot and moist, and of good nour- 
ishment j" Crato, consil. 21, lib, 2, admits roast meat, *if the 
burned and scorched superficies, the brown we call it, be 
pared off. Salvianus, lib, 2, cap. 1, cries out on cold and dry 
meats ; ' young flesh and tender is approved, as of kid, rab- 
bits, chickens, veal, mutton, capons, hens, partridge, pheasant, 
quails, and all mountain birds, which are so familiar in some 
parts of Africa, and in Italy, and as ^ Dublinius reports, the 
common food of boors and clowns in Palestine. Galen 
takes exception at mutton, but without question he means 
that rammy mutton, which is in Turkey and Asia Minor, 
which have those great fleshy tails, of forty-eight pounds 
weight, as Vertomannus witnesseth, navig, lib. 2, cap. 5. The 
lean of fat meat is best, and all manner of broths, and pot- 
tage, with borage, lettuce, and such wholesome herbs, are 

1 ** When yon are again lean, seek an exortes, ellxi non assi, neqne frizi dnt. 

exit through that hole by which lean yon 6 Si interna tantom pulpa deyoretur, non 

entered." * 1, de flnibus Tarentinis et superficies torrida ab igne. ^ Bene nn- 

Siculis. s Modo non multum elongen- trientes dbi, tenella setas mnltum Yalet, 

tur. * Lib. If de melan. cap. 7. Oali- carnes non yiroste, nee pingues. ' Hoe- 

di et humidi cibi, concoctu fkciles, flatils doper. peregr. Hierosol. 


Mem. 1, subs. 1.] IHet rectified, 107 

excellent gocnl, especially of a cock boiled ; all spoon meat. 

Arabians commend brains, but ^Laurentius, c. 8, excepts 

against them, and so do many others ; ^ eggs are justified as 

a nutritive wholesome 'meat, butter and oil may pass, but 

with some limitation ; so ' Crato confines it, and ^' to some 

men sparingly at set times, or in sauce," and so sugar and 

honey are approved. ^ All sharp and sour sauces must be 

avoided, and spices, or at least seldom used ; and so safiron 

sometimes in broth may be tolerated ; but these things may 

be more freely used, as the temperature of the party is hot 

or cold, or as he shall find inconvenience by them. The 

thinnest, whitest, smallest wine is best, not thick, nor strong ; 

and so of beer, the middling is fittest. Bread of good wheat, 

pure, well purged fh)m the bran, is preferred ; Laurentius, . 

cap. 8, would have it kneaded with rain water, if it may be . N 


Water,'] Pure, thin, light water by all means use, of good 
smell and taste, like to the air in sight, such as is soon hot, 
soon cold, and which Hippocrates so much approves, if at 
least it may be had. Eain water is purest, so that it fall not 
down in great drops, and be used forthwith, for it quickly 
putrefies. Next to it, fountain water that riseth in the east, 
and runneth eastward, from a quick-running spring, from 
flinty, chalky, gravelly grounds ; and the longer a river run- 
neth, ft is commonly the purest, though many springs do 
yield the best water at their fountains. The waters in hotter 
countries, as in Turkey, Persia, India, within the tropics, are 
frequently purer than ours in the north, more subtile, thin, 
and lighter, as our merchants observe, by four ounces in. a , 

pound, pleasanter to drink, as good as our beer, and some of 
them, as Ohoaspis in Persia, preferred by the Persian kings 
before wine itself. 

6 " Clitorio quicunque sitim de fonte levftrit 
Vina fiigit gaudetque meris abstemius undis.** 

1 Inimlca stomacho. s Not fried or datur : sacchari et melUs nsus, utiliter 

buttered, but potched. « CoDsil. 16. ad ciborum condimenta comprobatur. 

Non improbatux butyrum et oleum, si * Mercurlalia, consil. 88, acerba omnia 

tamen plus quam par sit, non profna- eviteatur. 6 Oyid. Met. lib. 15. " Who- 



108 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

Many rivers I deny not axe muddy still, white, thick, like 
those in China, Nile in Egypt, Tiber at Rome, but after they 
be settled two or three <iays, defecate and clear, very commo- 
dious, useful, and good. Many make use of deep wells, as 
of old in the Holy Land, lakes, cisterns, when they cannot be 
better provided ; to fetch it in carts or gondolas, as in Venice, 
or camels' backs, as at Cairo in Egypt, ^ Radzivilus observed 
8,000 camels daily there, employed about that business ; some 
keep it in trunks, as in the East Indies, made four square 
with descending steps, and 'tis not amiss; for I would not 
have any one so nice as that Grecian Calis, sister to Niceph- 
orus, emperor of Constantinople, and * married to Domini- 
tus Silvius, duke of Venice, that out of incredible wanton- 
ness, communi aqua uti nolehat, would use no vulgar water ; 
but she died tantd (saith mine author) fostidissimi puris 
copid, of so fulsome a disease, that no water could wash her 
clean. ' Plato would not have a traveller lodge in a city 
that is not governed by laws, or hath not a quick stream run- 
ning by it ; iUud enim animum, hoc corrumpit valetudinem, 
one corrupts the body, the other the mind. But this is more 
than needs, too much curiosity is nought, in time of necessity 
any water is allowed. Howsoever, pure water is best, and 
which (as Findarus holds) is better than gold; an especial 
ornament it is, and " very commodious to a city (according to 
^ Vegetius) when fresh springs are included within the walls," 
as at Corinth, in the midst of the town almost, there was arx 
aUissima scatens fontibus, a goodly mount full of fresh-water 
springs; "if nature afford them not they must be had by 
art" It is a wonder to read of those ^ stupend aqueducts, 
and infinite cost hath been bestowed in Some of old, Con- 
stantinople, Carthage, Alexandria, and such populous cities, 
to convey good and wholesome waters; read ^ Frontinus, 
Lipsius de admir. "^ Plinim, lib. 3, cap, 11, Strabo in his 

ever has allayed hia thirst with the water Legibus. '* Lib. 4, cap. 10. Ifagna 

of the Olitonus, avoids wine and abste- urbis utilitas cum perennes fontes mniis 

mioas delights in pure water only." includuntur, quod si natura non prsestat, 

1 Peregr. Hier. s The Dukes of Venice efibdiendi, &c. & Opera gigantum dicit 

were then permitted to marry. 3 De idiquls. o De aqueeduct. 7 Curtius 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Diet rectified, 109 

Geogr. That aqueduct of Claudius was most eminent, 
fetched upon arches fifteen miles, every arch 109 feet high ; 
thej had fourteen such other aqueducts, besides lakes and 
cisterns, 700 as I take it ; ^ every house had private pipes 
and channels to serve them for their use. Peter Gillius, in 
his accurate description of Constantinople, speaks of an old 
cistern which he went down to see, 336 feet long, 180 feet 
broad, built of marble, covered over with archwork, and sus- 
tained by 336 pillars, twelve feet asunder, and in eleven 
rows, to contain sweet water. Infinite cost in channels and 
cisterns, from NUus to Alexandria, hath been formerly be- 
stowed, to the admiration of these times ; ^ their cisterns so 
curiously cemented and composed, that a beholder would 
take them to be all of one stone ; when the foundation is laid, 
and cistern made, their house is half built. That Segovian 
aqueduct in Spain, is much wondered at in these days, * upon 
three rows of pillars, one above another, conveying sweet 
water to every house ; but each city almost is full of such 
aqueducts. Amongst the rest ^he is eternally to be com- 
mended, that brought that new stream to the north side of 
London at his own charge ; and Mr. Otho Nicholson, founder 
of our waterworks and elegant conduit in Oxford. So 
much have all times attributed to this element, to be conven- 
iently provided of it ; although Galen hath taken exceptions 
at such waters, which run through leaden pipes, oh cerussam 
qu4E in iis generatur, for that unctuous ceruse, which causeth 
dysenteries and fiuxes ; ' yet as Alsarius Cruciu» of G^nna 
well answers, it is opposite to common experience. If that 
were true, most of our Italian cities, Montpelier in France, 
with infinite others, would find this inconvenience, but there 
is no such matter. For private families, in what sort they 
should furnish themselves, let them consult with P. Cres- 

Eona k qnadzagesimo lapide in xurbem luens inde in omnes fer^ domos ducitnr, 

opere arcoato perdnctus. Plin. 86, 15. In pnteis quoque aastiyo tempore frigidis- 

1 Quieqne domus Romse fistnlas habebat sima conservatur. * Sir Hugh Middle- 

et canales, &c. * Lib. 2, ca. 20, Jod. ton, Baronet. & De quttsitis med. cent. 

& Meggen. cap. 15, per^. Hier. Bellonius. fol. 854. 
s Cypr. Echovius delit. HLsp. Aqna prof- 

110 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

centius, de Agric. L 1, c, 4, Pamphilius Hirelacus and the 

Amongst fishes, those are most allowed of, that live in 
gravelly or sandy waters, pikes, perch, trout, gudgeon, smelts, 
flounders, &c HippoUtus Salvianus takes exception at carp ; 
but I dare boldly say with iDubravius, it is an excellent 
meat, if it come not from 'muddy pools, that it retain not an 
imsavoury taste. Urinacius Marinus is much commended by 
Oribasius, JEtius, and most of our late writers. 

' Crato, cormL 21, UK 2, censures all manner of fruits, as 
subject to putrefaction, yet tolerable at some times, afler meals, 
at second course, they keep down vapours, and have their 
use. Sweet fruits are best, as sweet cherries, plums, sweet 
apples, pearmains, and pippins, which Laurentius extols, as 
having a peculiar property against this disease, and Plater 
magnifies, omnihus modis appropriaia conveniunt^ but they 
must be corrected for their windiness ; ripe grapes are good, 
and raisins of the sun, musk-melons well corrected, and 
sparingly used. Figs are allowed, and almonds blanched. 
TraUianus discommends figs, ^Salvianus olives and capers, 
which ^others especially like of, and so of pistick nuts. 
Montanus and Mercurialis out of Avenzoar, admit peaches, 
•pears, and apples baked after meals, only corrected with 
sugar and anise-seed, or fennel-seed, and so they may be prof- 
itably taken, because they strengthen the stomach, and keep 
down vapours. The like may be said of preserved cherries, 
plums, marmalade of plums, quinces, &c., but not to drink 
after them. ' Pomegranates, lemons, oranges are tolerated, 
if they be not too sharp. 

' Crato will admit of no herbs, but borage, bugloss, endive, 

1 De piscibos lib. habent omiies in an- 1. 6 Montanus, consil. 24. * Pyn 
titiis, modd non sint h csenoso loco, quae grato sunt sapore, cocta mala, poma 
3 De pise. c. 2, 1. 7. Plurimum pnestat tosta, et saccharo, vel anisi semine con- 
ad utilitatem et jucunditatem. Idem spena, utiliter statim k prandio yel k ooe- 
TraUianus, lib. 1, c. 16, pisoes petrosi, et na sumi possunt, eo quod yentriculum 
moUes came. * Etsi omnes putreoini roborent et rapoxes caput petentes repri- 
sunt obnoxil, ubi secundis mensis, incep- mant. Mont. 7 Punica mala auran- 
to jam priore, devorentur, commodi sued tia commode permittuntur mod6 non sint 
prosunt, qui dulcedine sunt prsediti. Ut austera et acida. ^ Olera omnia pneter 
dulcia cerask, poma, &c. * Lib. 2, cap. boraginem, buglossum, intybum, fenicu- 

Mem. 1, 8ub8. 2.] Diet rectified* 111 

fennel, anise-seed, balm ; Callenius and Arnoldus tolerate let- 
tuce, spinach, beets, &c. The same Crato will allow no 
roots at all to be eaten. Some approve of potatoes, parsnips, 
but all corrected for wind. No raw salads ; but as Lauren- 
tius prescribes, in broths ; and so Crato commends many of 
them ; or to use borage, hops, balm, steeped in their ordinary 
drink. ^ Avenzoar magnifies the juice of a pomegranate, if 
it be sweet, and especially rose-water, which he would have 
to be used in every dish, which they put in practice in those 
hot countries about Damascus, where (if we may believe the 
relations of Vertomannus) many hogsheads of rose-water 
are to be sold in the market at once, it is in so great request 
with them. 

SuBSECT. IL — Diet rectified in Quantity, 

Man alone, saith ^ Cardan, eats and drinks without ap- 
petite, and uscth all his pleasure without necessity, animce 
vitioy and thence come many inconveniences unto him. For 
there is no meat whatsoever, though otherwise wholesome 
and good, but if unseasonably taken, or immoderately used, 
more than the stomach can well bear, it will engender crudity, 
and do much harm. Therefore * Crato adviseth his patient 
to eat but twice a day, and that at his set meals, by no means 
to eat without an appetite, or upon a full stomach, and to put 
seven hours* difference between dinner and supper. Which 
rule if we did observe in our colleges, it would be much 
better for our healths ; but custom, that tyrant, so prevails, 
that, contrary to all good order and rules of physic, we scarce 
admit of ^ve. If after seven hours' tarrying he shall have 
no stomach, let him defer his meal, or eat very little at his 
ordinary time of repast. This very counsel was given by 
Prosper Calenus to Cardinal Caesius, labouring of this dis- 
ease ; and * Platerus prescribes it to a patient of his, to be 

lam, anisum, meliasam, vitari debent. par est, et yentricalus tolerare posset, 

1 Mercurialis, pract. Med. ^ Lib. 2, de nocet, et cruditates generat, &c. * Ob- 

com. Solus homo edit bibitqtie, &c. servat. lib. 1. Assuesr^at bis in die cibos 

9 Consil. 21, 18, si plus ingeratur quam sumere, certft semper horft. 

112 Oare of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

most severely kept. Guianerius admits of three meals a 
day, but Montanus, consiL 23, pro Abb. Italo, ties him pre- 
cisely to two. And as he must not eat overmuch, so he may 
not absolutely fast ; for as Celsus contends, lib, 1, JacchinuSy 
15, in 9 Hhcms, * repletion and inanition may both do harm 
in two contrary extremes. Moreover, that which he doth eat 
must be well f chewed, and not hastily gobbled, for that 
causeth crudity and wind ; and by all means to eat no more 
than he can well digest " Some think (saith % Trincavellius, 
lib, 11, cap, 29, de curand, part, hum,) the more they eat the 
more they nourish themselves ; " eat and live, as the proverb 
is, <' not knowing that only repairs man which is well con- 
cocted, not that which is devoured." Melancholy men most 
part have good ^ appetites, but ill digestion, and for that cause 
they must be sure to rise with an appetite ; and that which 
Socrates and Disarius the physicians in ^ Macrobius so much 
require, St Hierom enjoins Rusticus to eat and drink no 
more than will 'satisfy hunger and thirst ^Lessius, the 
Jesuit, holds twelve, thirteen, or fourteen ounces, or in our 
northern countries, sixteen at most, for all students, weaklings, 
and such as lead an idle sedentary life, of meat, bread, &c., 
a fit proportion for a whole day, and as much or little more 
of drink. Nothing pesters the body and mind sooner than 
to be still fed, to eat and ingurgitate beyond all measure, as 
many do. * " By overmuch eating and continual feasts they 
stifle nature, and choke up themselves ; which, had they lived 
coarsely, or like galley slaves been tied to an oar, might have 
happily prolonged many fe,ir years." 

A great inconvenience comes by variety of dishes, which 

'* Ne plus ingerafccayendnm quiim yen- lib. 7, cap. 4. > Modicas et temperatns 

triculus ferre potest^ semperqae surifat k cibus et oarni et animee ntilis est. * Hy- 

mensa non satur. f Siqnidem qui sem- giasticon reg. Unciae 14 Tel 16 per diem 

imansum velociter ingerunt cibum, suflBciant, computato pane, carne otIs. 

▼entriculo laborem inferunt, et flatus yel aliis obsoniis, et toUdem Tel paulo 

mazimos promoTeut, Crato. t Quidam plures uncise potlis. ^ Idem, reg. 27. 

maxima comedere nituntur, putantes eft Plures in domibus suis breTi tempore 

ratione se Tires refecturos; ignorantes, pascentes extinguuntur, qui si triremi- 

non ea quae ingerunt posse Tires reflcere, bus Tincti fuissent, aut gregario pane 

sed qusB prob^ concoquunt. i Multa pasti, sani et incolumes in longam sb ta- 

appetunt, pauca digerunt. s Satumal. tern Titam prorogdMent. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Diet rectified, 113 

causeth the precedent distemperature, ^"than which (saith 
Avicenna) nothing is worse ; to feed on diversity of meats, 
or overmuch," Sertorius-like, in hicem coenarey and as com- 
monly they do in Muscovy and Iceland, to prolong their 
meals all day long, or all night Our northern countries 
offend especially in this, and we in this island (ampliter 
viventes in prandiis et canis, as ^ Polydore notes,) are most 
liberal feeders, but to our own hurt. ' Persicos odi puer ajh 
paratvs; "Excess of meat breedeth sickness, and gluttony 
causeth choleric diseases : by surfeiting many perish, but he 
that dieteth himself prolongeth his life," Ecclus. xxxvii. 29, 30. 
We account it a great glory for a man to have his table daily 
furnished with variety of meats ; but hear the physician, he 
pulls thee by the ear as thou sittest, and telleth thee, * " that 
nothing can be more noxious to thy health than such variety 
and plenty." Temperance is a bridle of gold, and he that 
can use it aright, ^ ego non summis viris comparo, sed similr 
limum Deo judico, is liker a god than a man ; for as it will 
transform a beast to a man again, so will it make a man a god. 
To preserve thine honour, health, and to avoid therefore all 
those inflations, torments, obstructions, crudities, and diseases 
that come by a full diet, the best way is to * feed sparingly 
of one or two dishes at most, to have ventrem bene moratum, 
as Seneca calls it, ^ " to choose one of many, and to feed on 
that alone," as Crato adviseth his patient. The same counsel 
'Prosper Calenus gives to Cardinal Caesius, to use a moderate 
and simple diet ; and, though his table be jovially furnished 
by reason of his state and guests, yet for his own part to 
single out some one savoury dish, and feed on it. The same 
is inculcated by ® Crato, consiL 9, Z. 2, to a noble personage 
affected with this grievance ; he would have his highness to 

1 Nihil deterius qu4m diyersa nntrien- c. 11. 7 e mtiltis edaliis nnam elige, 

tia simnl ac^ungere, et comedendi tempus relictisque cseteris, ex eo comede. ^ L. 

prorogare. * Lib. 1, hist. * Hor. ad de atra bile. Simplex sit dbus et non 

lib. 5, ode ult. * Ciborum yarietate et yarius ; quod licet digaitati tu8e ob con- 

copiSl in eadem mensa nihil nocentius yivas difficile videatur, &c. * Celsi- 

homini ad salutem, Fr. Valeriola, observ. tudo tua p^andeat sola, absque ap- 

1. 2, cap. 6. ^ Tul. orat. pro M. Marcel, paratu aulico, contentus sit illustrissi* 

Nullns cibnm somere debet, nisi stem- mus princeps duobus tan turn ferculis, 

achus sit yacuus. Gordon, lib. med. 1. 1, yinoque Rhenano solum in mensa utatur. 

VOL. II. 8 

114 Cure of Mdamduibf. [Part. n. sec s. 

dine or sop akme, without all ids honounible attendance and 
eonrtlj oompanj, with a private friend <Mr so, i a dish or two^ 
a cop of Rhenish wine, &c. Montanos, consiL 24, for a 
noble matron enjoins her <me dish, and bj no means to drink 
between meals. The like, contiL 229, or not to eat till he 
be an hungry, which rule Berengarius did most strictly ob- 
serve, as Hilbertus, Omamecensis Episc. writes in his life, 

** cnl Don fuit nnqiuun 
Ante ftitim potus, nee cibns tote fiuneni," 

and which all temperate men do constantly keep. It is a 
frequent solemnity still used with us, when friends meet, to 
go to the alehouse or tavern, they are not sociable other- 
wise ; and if they visit one another's houses, they must both 
eat and drink. I reprehend it not, moderately used ; but to 
some men nothing can be more ofifensive ; they had better, I 
speak it with Saint ^ Ambrose, pour so much water in their 

It much avails likewise to keep good order in our diet, 
'^ to eat liquid things first, broths, fish, and such meats as 
are sooner corrupted in the stomach ; harder meats of diges- 
tion must come last" Crato would have the supper less than 
the dinner, which Cardan, Contradict, lib. 1, Tr<ict, 5, con- 
tradict. 18, disallows, and that by the authority of Galen, 7, 
art. curat, cap. 6, and for four reasons he will have the sup- 
per biggest ; I have read many treatises to this purpose, I 
know not how it may concern some few sick men, but for 
my part generally for all, I should subscribe to that custom 
of the Romans, to make a sparing dinner, and a liberal sup- 
per ; all their preparation and invitation was still at supper, 
no mention of dinner. Many reasons I could give, but when 
all is said pro and con, ^ Cardan's rule is best, to keep that 
we are accustomed unto, though it be nought, and to follow 
our disposition and appetite in some things is not amiss ; to 

1 Semper intra satietatem k menBa rece- non ignorate qui cibi priores, &c. , liquida 

dat, ano ferculo contentas. s Lib. de pnecedant carnium jura, pisoes, frnctns , 

Hel. et Jejunio. Multd melius in terrain &c. Coenabreyiorsitprandio. ^ Tract. 

Tinafudlsses. * Crato. Multumrefert 6, contradict. 1, lib. 1. 

Mem. 1, sabs. 2.] Diet rectified, 115 

eat sometimes of a dish which is hurtful, if we have an extraor- 
dinary liking to it Alexander Severus loved hares and 
apples above all other meats, as ^ Lampridius relates in his 
life ; one pope pork, another peacock, &c. ; what harm came 
of it ? I conclude our own experience^ is the best physician ; 
that diet which is most propitious to one, is often pernicious 
to another, such is the variety of palates, humours, and tem- 
peratures, let every man observe, and be a law unto himself. 
Tiberius, in ^ Tacitus, did laugh at all such, that thirty years 
of age would ask counsel of others concerning matters of 
diet; I say the same. 

These few rules of diet he that keeps, shall surely find 
great ease and speedy remedy by it It is a wonder to re- 
late that prodigious temperance of some hermits, anchorites, 
and fathers of the church ; he that shall but read their 
lives, written by Hierom, Athanasius, &c., how abstemious 
heathens have been in this kind, those Curii and Fabritii, 
those old philosophers, as Pliny records, lib, 11, Xenophon, 
UK 1, de vit. Socrat, emperors and kings, as Nicephorus 
relates, Ecdes. hist lib, 18, cap, 8, of Mauritius, Ludovicus 
Pius, &C., and that admirable * example of Ludovicus Cor- 
narus, a patrician of Venice, cannot but admire them. This 
have they done voluntarily and in health ; what shall these 
private men do that are visited with sickness, and neces- 
sarily * enjoined to recover, and continue their health ? It is 
a hard thing to observe a strict diet, et qui medice vimt, 
misere vivit,* as the saying is, qtuxle hoc ipsum erit vivere^ 
his si privatus fueris f as good be buried, as so much de- 
barred of his appetite ; excessit medicina malum, the physic 
is more troublesome than the disease, so he complained in the 
poet, so thou thinkest ; yet he that loves himself will easily 
endure this little misery, to avoid a greater inconvenience ; 
e mcdis minimum, better do this than do worse. And as 

1 Super omnia qnotidianuxn leporem > A Leasio edit. 1614. * I^ptii olim 

habult, et pomis indulsit. * Annal. 6. omnes morbos curabant Tomitu et jc|ja- 

Ridere solebat eos, qui poet 80 8etatis an- nio. Bobemus, lib. 1, cap. 5. * '' He 

nnm, ad cognoscenda corpori 8uo noxia who liyes medically lives miserably." 
Tel utHia, alict^as connlii indigerent. 


116 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

^ Tully holds, " better be a temperate old man than a lascivi- 
ous youth." 'Tis the only sweet thing (which he adviseth) 
so to moderate ourselves, that we may have senectutem injvr- 
verUute, et injuventiUe senectutem, be youthful in our old age, 
staid in our youth, discreet and temperate in both. 

MEMB. n. 

ReterUion and EvacvMion rectified, 

I HAVE declared in the causes what harm costiveness hath 
done in procuring this disease ; if it be so noxious, the oppo- 
site must needs be good, or mean at least, as indeed it is, and 
to this cure necessarily required ; maxime condudt, saith 
Montaltus, cap, 27, it very much avails. ^ Altomarus, cap, 
7, '^ commends walking in a morning into some fair green 
pleasant fields, but by all means first by art or nature, he will 
have these ordinary excrements evacuated." Piso calls it 
Benefidum Ventris, the benefit, help or pleasure of the belly, 
for it doth much ease it. Laurentius, cap. 8, Crato, coofLsiL 
21, L 2, prescribes it once a day at l^ast; where nature is 
defective, art must supply, by those lenitive electuaries, sup- 
positories, condite prunes, turpentine clysters, as shall be 
shown. Prosper Calenus, Ub, de atra bile, eommends clys- 
ters in hypochondriacal melancholy, still to be used as occa- 
sion serves; 'Peter Cnemander, in a consultation of his 
pro hypochondriaco, will have his patient continually loose, 
and to that end sets down there many forms of potions and 
clysters. Mercurialis, consiL 88, if this benefit come not of 
its own accord, prescribes * clysters in the first place; so 
doth Montanus, consil 24, consil. 31 et 229, he commends 
turpentine to that purpose ; the same he ingeminates, consil, 

1 Cat. llajor : Melior •onditio senis t1- 8 Hfldeeheixn, spicel. 2, de mel. Primum 

rentis ex prseseripto artis medicse, quam omnium operam dabis ut singulis diebus 

adolescentis luxuriosl. > Debet per habeas beneflcium ventris, semper caven* 

amoena exerceri, et loca yiridia, excretts do ne alvus sit diutius astricta. * Si 

prius arte rel aatura alri exdkrementis. non sponte, clisteribus purgetur. 

Mem. 2.] detention and EvacuaJtion rectified. 117 

230, for an Italian abbot 'Tis very good to wash his hands 
and face oflen, to shifl his clothes, to have fair linen about 
him, to be decently and comely attired, for sordes vitiant, 
nastiness defiles and dejects any man that is so voluntarily^ 
or compelled by want, it duUeth the spirits. 

Baths are either artificial or natural, both have their 
special uses in this malady, and as ^Alexander supposeth, 
lib, 1, cap, 16, yield as speedy a remedy as any other physic 
whatsoever, ^tius would have them daily used, assidua 
balnea, Tetra. 2, sect 2, cap, 9. Galen cracks how many 
several cures he hath performed in this kind by use of baths 
alone, and Rufus pills, moistening them which are otherwise 
d^. Rhasis makes it a principal cure, Tota cura sit in 
humectando, to bathe and afterwards anoint with oil. Jason 
Pratensis, Laurentius, cap, 8, and Montanus set down their 
peculiar forms of artificial baths. Crato, consiL 17, lib. 2, 
commends mallows, camomile, violets, borage to be boiled in 
it, and sometimes fair water alone, and in his following 
counsel. Balneum aqucB dulcis solum stBpissime profuisse 
compertum hahemus. So doth Fuchsius, lib. 1, cap, 33, 
Frisimelica, 2, consil. 42, in Trincavellius. Some beside 
kerbs prescribe a ram's head and other things to be boiled. 
^Femelius, consil. 44, will have them used ten or twelve 
days together ; to which he must enter fasting, and so con- 
tinue in a temperate heat, and after that frictions all over the 
body. Lselius -ZEugubinus, consil. 142, and Christoph. JEre- 
ms, in a consultation of his, hold once or twice a week 
sufficient to bathe, the * " water to be warm, not hot, for fear of 
sweating." Felix Plater, observ. Ub. 1, for a melancholy 
lawyer, * " will have lotions of the head still joined to these 
baths, with a lee wherein capital herbs have been boiled." 
• Laurentius speaks of baths of milk, which I find approved 
by many others. And still after bath, the body to be anointed 

1 BaJneomm nsus dulcium, (dquid ali- manifestum teporem, sed qnadam reftig- 

nd, ipsls opitulatur. Credo haec did cum eratlone humectent. ^ Aqua noa sit 

allqua Jactantia, inqult Montanus, ecu- calida, fied tepida, ne sudor sequatur. 

tdl. 26. s In quibus J<^unus diu sedeat < Lotiones capitis ex lixivio, in quo lierbas 

eo tempore, ne sudorem ezcitent aut capitales coxerint. 6 Cap. 8, de mel. 

118 Curt of Melancholy, [Part. U. sec. 2. 

with oil of bitter almonds, of violets, new or fresh butter, 
^ capon's grease, especially the backbone, and then lotions of 
the head, embrocations, &c. These kinds of baths have been 
in former times much frequented, and diversely varied, and 
are still in general use in those eastern countries. The 
Romans had their public baths very sumptuous and stupend, 
as those of Antoninus and Diocletian. Flin. 36, saith there 
were an infinite number of them in Rome, and mightily 
frequented ; some bathed seven times a day, as Commodus 
the emperor is reported to have done ; usually twice a day, 
and they were after anointed with most costly ointments ; rich 
women bathed themselves in milk, some in the milk of five 
hundred she-asses at once; we have many ruins of such 
baths found in this island, amongst those parietines and rub- 
bish of old Roman towns. Lipsius, de mag, Urh, Rom, I, 3, 
c. 8, Rosinus, Scot of Antwerp, and other antiquaries, tell 
strange stories of their baths. Gillius, /. 4, cap, vU, Topogr, 
Constant, reckons up one hundred and fifty-five public ^ baths 
in Constantinople, of fair building ; they are 5till ' frequented 
in that city by the Turks of all sorts, men and women, and 
all over Greece and those hot countries ; to absterge belike 
that fulsomeness of sweat, to which they are there subject 
* Busbequius, in his epistles, is very copious in describing the 
manner of them, how their women go covered, a maid fol- 
lowing with a box of ointment to rub them. The richer sort 
have private baths in their houses ; the poorer go to the com- 
mon, and are generally so curious in this behalf, that they 
will not eat nor drink until they have bathed, before and 
after meals some, * " and will not make water (but they will 
wash their hands) or go to stool." Leo Afer, I, 3, makes 
mention of one hundred several baths at Fez in Africa, most 
sumptuous, and such as have great revenues belonging to 
them. Buxtorf. cap, 14, Synagog, Jud, speaks of many 

1 Aut axungia pulli, Piao. SThermas oernunt, quia aquam seeum portent qaft 

Nympheae. ^ Sandes, lib. 1, saith, that partes obsctenas larent. Busbequius, ep. 

women g^ twice a week to the baths at 8. Leg. Turcise. 
least. 4 Epist. 3. ^ Nee alvum ex- 

Mem. 2.] detention and Evcumaiion rectified. 119 

ceremonies amongst the Jews in this kind; they are very 
superstitious in their baths, especially women. 

Natural baths are praised by some, discommended by oth- 
ers ; but it is in a diverse respect. ^ Marcus, de Oddts in 
Hip. affect consulted about baths, condenms them for the 
heat of the liver, because they dry too fast ; and yet by and 
by, ^in another counsel for the same disease, he approves 
them because they cleanse by reason of the sulphur, and 
would have their water to be drunk. Areteus, c. 7, com- 
mends alum baths above the rest ; and ' Mercurialis, consiL 
88, those of Lucca in that hypochondriacal passion. ^' He 
would have his patient tarry there fifteen days together, and 
drink the water of them, and to be bucketed, or have the 
water poured on his head." John Baptista, SylvatictLS cont, 
64, commends all the baths in Italy, and drinking of their 
water, whether they be iron, alum, sulphur ; so doth * Her- 
cules de Saxoniiu But in that they cause sweat and dry 
so much, he confines himself to hypochondriacal melancholy 
alone, excepting that of the head and the other. Trincavel- 
lius, consiL 14, lib. 1, prefers those ^Porrectan baths before 
the rest, because of the mixture of brass, iron, alum, and, 
consiL 35, L 3, for a melancholy lawyer, and, consiL 36, in 
that hypochondriacal passion, the * baths of Aquaria, and, 36 
consiL the drinking of them. Frisimelica, consulted amongst 
the rest in Trincavellius, consiL 42, lib. 2, prefers the waters 
of "^ Apona before all artificial baths whatsoever in this dis- 
ease, and would have one nine years affected with hypochon- 
driacal passions fiy to them as to a ^ holy anchor. Of the 
same mind is Trincavellius himself there, and yet both put a 
hot liver in the same party for a cause, and send him to the 
waters of St. Helen, w^hich are much hotter. Montanus, 

1 ffildeshdm, spicel. 2, de mel. Hjpo- b Aqu8e Porrectanse. > Aquee AquarisB. 

con. si noa adeemt jecoris oaliditas, Ther- 7 Ad aquas Aponenses Telut ad sacram 

mas laudarem, et si non nimia hnmoris anchoram confugiat. 8joh. Baubinus, 

exsiccatio esset metuenda. * Fol. 141. li. 3, c. 14, hist, admir. Fontis BoUensis 

* Tiiermas Lucenses adeat, ibique aquas in ducat. Wittemberg laudat aquas Bol- 

«gu8 per 15 dies potet, et calidarum aqua- lenses ad melancholicos morboe. moero- 

rum stillicidiis turn caput turn ventricu- rem, ftscinationem, aliaque animi pathe- 

lam de more sulgiciat. ^ In panth. mata. 

120 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec 2 

constL 230, magnifies the ^ Chalderinian baths, and, consiL 237 
et 239, he exhorteth to the same, but with this caution, * " that 
the liver be outwardly anointed with some coolers that it be 
not overheated." But these baths must be warily frequented 
by melancholy persons, or if used, to such as are very cold 
of themselves, for as Gabelius concludes of all Dutch baths, 
and especially of those of Baden, " they are good for all cold 
diseases, * nought for choleric, hot and dry, and all infirmities 
proceeding of choler, inflammations of the spleen and liver." 
Our English baths, as they are hot, must needs incur the 
same censure ; but D. Turner of old, and D. Jones have 
written at large of them. Of cold baths I find little or no 
mention in any physician, some speak against them ; * Cardan 
alone out of Agathinus " commends bathing in fresh rivers 
and cold waters, and adviseth all such as mean to live long to 
use it, for it agrees with all ages and complexions, and is most 
profitable for hot temperatures." As for sweating, urine, 
bloodletting by haemrods, or otherwise, I shall elsewhere 
more opportunely speak of them. 

Immoderate Venus in excess, as it is a cause, or in defect ; 
so moderately used to some parties an only help, a present 
remedy. Peter Forestus calls it aptissimum remedium, a 
most apposite remedy, ^"remitting anger, and reason, that 
was otherwise bound." Avicenna, Fen. 3, 20, Oribasius, 
med. collect, lib, 6, cap, 37, contend out of Rufus and others, 
• " that many madmen, melancholy, and labouring of the fall- 
ing-sickness, have been cured by this alone." Montaltus, cap. 
27, de melan, will have it drive away sonx)w, and all illusions 
of the brain, to purge the heart and brain from ill smokes 
and vapours that ofiend them ; ^ " and if it be omitted," as 
Valescus supposeth, " it makes the mind sad, the body dull 
and heavy." Many other inconveniences are reckoned up by 

1 Balnea Chalderina. s Hepar ex- bent, nuUi setati cnm sit incongrua, cal- 

terne ungafcur ne caleflat. * Nocent idis Imprimici utilis. ^ Solvit Venus 

ealidis et siccift, cholericis, et omnibus rationis vim impeditam, ingentes iras re- 

morbis ex cholera, hepatis, splenisque mittit, &c. ^ Multi comitiales, melan- 

affectionibus. * Lib. de aqua. Qui cholici, insani, hujus usu solo sanati. 

breve hoc vitse curriculum cupiunt sani 7 gi omittatur coitus, contristat, et pluil- 

transigere, frigidis aquis stepe lavare de- mum gravat corpus et animum. 

Mem. 2.] ReterUion and EvoftLotion rectified, 121 

Mercatus, and by Rodericus k Castro, in their tracts de mel- 
ancholid virginum et monialium ; oh semtnis retentionem stsm- 
utU saepe montales et vtrgines, but as Platenis adds, si nubant, 
sanantur, they rave single, and pine away, much discontent, 
but marriage mends all. Marcellus Donatus, lib, 2, med, hist, 
cap, 1, tells a story to confirm this out of Alexander Bene- 
dictus, of a maid that was mad, ob menses inkibiios, cum in 
officinam meritoriam incidisset, a quindecim viris eddem nocte 
compressor mensium largo projluvioy quod pluribiis annis ante 
constiterat, non sine magno pudore mane menti restiiuta dis- 
cessit. But this must be warily understood, for as Amoldus 
objects, lib, 1, breviar, 18 cap. Quid coitus ad melanchoUcum 
succum f What affinity have these two ? ^ " except it be 
manifest that superabundance of seed, or fulness of blood be 
a cause, or that love, or an extraordinary desire of Venus, 
have gone before," or that as Lod. Mercatus excepts, they be 
very fiatuous, and have been otherwise accustomed unto it. 
Montaltus, cap, 27, will not allow of moderate Venus to such 
as have the gout, palsy, epilepsy, melancholy, except they be 
very lusty, and full of blood. * Lodovicus Antonius, lib, med, 
miscel, in his chapter of Venus, forbids it utterly to all wres- 
tlers, ditchers, labouring men, &c, ' Ficinus and ^ Marsilius 
Cognatus put Venus one of the five mortal enemies of a stu- 
dent: "it consumes the spirits, and weakeneth the brain." 
Halyabbas the Arabian, 5 Theor, cap, 86, and Jason Pra- 
tensis make it the fountain of most diseases, ^ " but most per- 
nicious to them who are cold and dry ; " a melancholy man 
must not meddle with it, but in some cases. Plutarch in his 
book de san, tuend, accounts of it as one of the three princi- 
pal signs and preservers of health, temperance in this kind : 
• " to rise with an appetite, to be ready to work, and abstain 
from venery," iria saluberrimay are three most healthful 

1 Nisi oerto oonatet nimum semen hibitum. * De sanit. tuend. lib. 1. 

ant sai^nlnem causam esse, aut amor * Lib. 1, ca. 7, ezhaurit enim spiritus an- 

pneoemerit, ant, &c. > Athletis, imumqne debilitat. ^ Frigidis et slccis 

Arthriticis, podagiicis nocet, nee oppor^ corporibus inimicissima. * Vescl intra 

tuna prodest, nisi fortibus et qui multo satietatem, impigrum esse ad laboremi 

sanguine abundant. Idem Scaliger, ex- vitale semen conseryare. 
ere. 260. Turds ideo luctatoribus pro- 

122 Cure of Melancholy. [Part n. sec. 2. 

things. We see their opposites how pernicious they are to 
mankind, as to all other creatures they bring death, and many 
feral diseases : Immodicis hrevis est cetas et rara senectus, 
Aristotle gives instance in sparrows, which are parum vivaces 
oh salacitatem, ^ short-lived because of their salacity, which is 
very frequent, as Scoppius in Priapiis will better inform you. 
The extremes being both bad, ^ the medium is to be kept, 
which cannot easily be determined. Some are better able to 
sustain, such as are hot and moist, phlegmatic, as Hippocrates 
insinuateth, some strong and lusty, well fed like * Hercules, 
* Proculus the emperor, lusty Laurence, ^ prostibvlum fcemincB 
Messalina the empress, that by philters, and such kind of las- 
civious meats, use all means to • enable themselves ; and brag 
of it in the end, confodi mukcu entm, occidi vero paucas per 
ventrem vidisti, as that Spanish "^ Celestina merrily said ; oth- 
ers impotent, of a cold and dry constitution, cannot sustain 
those gynmics without great hurt done to their own bodies, 
of which number (though they be very prone to it) are 
melancholy men for the most part 

MEMB. m. 

Air rectified. With a Digression of the Air. 

As a long-winged hawk, when he is first whistled off the 
fist, mounts aloft, and for his pleasure fetcheth many a circuit 
in the air, still soaring higher and higher till he be come to 
his full pitch, and in the end, when the game is sprung, 
comes down amain, and stoops upon a sudden; so will I, 
having now come at last into these ample fields of air, wherein 

1 Nequitia est quae te non slnit esse 8, 11, Lemniam, lib. 2, cap. 16, Catullum 

senem. * Vide Montanum, Pet. Oode- ad Ipsiphilam, &c., Ovid. Eleg. lib. 8 et 

fridum, Amorum, lib. 2, cap. 6, ouriosum 6, &c., qnot itiDera una nocte confecis- 

de his, nam et numerum definite Talimu- sent, tot coronas ludicro deo puta Tri- 

distis, uniculque sciatis assignari suum phallo, Siarsiae, Hermse, Priapo donarent, 

tempus, &c. s Thespiadas genoit. Cingeinns tibi mentuuun coronis, &c. 

* Vide Lampridium, vit. ^us, 4. a Et ' Perooboscodid. Oasp. Barthii. 
lassata Tiris, &c. « Vid. Mixald. cent. 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air. 123 

I may freely expatiate and exercise myself for my recrea- 
tion, awhile rove, wander round about the world, mount aloft 
to those ethereal orbs and celestial spheres, and so descend to 
my former elements again. In which progress I will first see 
whether that relation of the friar of ^ Oxford be true, con- 
cerning those northern parts under the Pole (if I meet obiter 
with the wandering Jew, Eiias Artifex, or Lucian's learome" 
nippus, they shall be my guides) whether there be such 
4 Euripes, and a great rock of loadstones, which may cause 
the needle in the compass still to bend that way, and what 
should be the true cause of the variation of the compass, ^ is 
it a magnetical rock, or the pole-star, as Cardan will; or 
some other star in the bear, as Marsilius Ficinus ; or a mag- 
netical meridian, as Maurolicus ; Vd situs in vend terra, as 
Agricola ; or the nearness of the next continent, as Cabeus 
will ; or some other cause, as Scaliger, Cortesius, Conimbri- 
censes, Peregrinus contend ; why at the Azores it looks di- 
rectly north, otherwise not ? In the Mediterranean or Levant 
(as some observe) it varies 7 grad. by and by 12, and then 
22. In the Baltic Seas, near Rasceburg in Finland, the nee- 
dle runs round, if any ships come that way, though ' Martin 
Ridley write otherwise, that the needle near the Pole will 
hardly be forced from his direction. *Tis fit to be inquired 
whether certain rules may be made of it, as 11 grad. Lond. 
varied, alibi 36, &c., and that which is more prodigious, the 
variation varies in the same place, now taken accurately, 'tis 
so much after a few years quite altered from that it was ; till 
we have better intelligence, let our Dr. Gilbert, and Nicholas 
* Cabeus the Jesuit, that have both written great volumes of 
this subject, satisfy these inquisitors. Whether the sea be 
open and navigable by the Pole arctic, and which is the like- 
liest way, that of Bartison the Hollander, under the Pole 
itself, which for some reasons I hold best; or by Fretum 

1 Nich. de Lynna, cited by M^Tcaior in 26, in his Treatise of Magnetic Bodies, 

his map. * Mods Sloto. Some call it « Lege, lib. 1, cap. 23 et 24, de magnetica 

the highest hill in the world, next Tene- phUosophia, et lib. 8, cap. 4. 
rifle in the Canaries. Lat. 81. ^ Oap. 

124 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

Davis, or Nova Zembla. Whether * Hudson's discovery be 
true of a new found ocean, any likelihood of Button's Bay 
in fifty degrees, Hubberd's Hope in sixty, that of ut ultra, 
near Sir Thomas Eoe's welcome in Northwest Fox, being 
that the sea ebbs and flows constantly there fifteen foot in 
twelve hours, as our ^ new cards inform us that California is 
not a cape, but an island, and the west winds make the neap 
tides equal to the spring, or that thete be any probability to 
pass by the straits of Anian to China, by the promontory of 
Tabin. If there be, I shall soon perceive whether ® Marcus 
Polus the Venetian's narration be true or false, of that great 
city of Quinsay and Cambalu ; whether there be any such 
places, or that as ^ Matth. Riccius the Jesuit hath written, 
China and Cataia be all one, the great Cham of Tartary, and 
the king of China be the same ; Xuntain and Quinsay, and 
the city of Cambalu be that new Peking, or such a wall 400 
leagues long to part China from Tartary ; whether * Presby- 
ter John be in Asia or Africa ; M. Polus Venetus puts him 
in Asia, ® the most received opinion is, that he is emperor of 
the Abyssines, which of old was Ethiopia, now Nubia, under 
the equator in Africa. Whether ^ Guinea be an island or 
part of the continent, or that hungry * Spaniard's discovery 
of Terra Australis Incognita, or Magellanica, be as true as 
that of Mercurius Britannitis, or his of Utopia, or his of 
Lucinia. And yet in likelihood it may be so, for without all 
question it being extended from the tropic of Capricorn to 
the circle Antarctic, and lying as it doth in the temperate zone, 
cannot choose but yield in time some flourishing kingdoms to 
succeeding ages, as America did unto the Spaniards. Shouten 
and Le Meir have done well in the discovery of the Straits 
of Magellan, in finding a more convenient passage to Mare 
pacificum ; methinks some of our modern argonauts should 
prosecute the rest As I go by Madagascar, I would see 

11612. s M. Brigs, his map, and Asia Preab. Joh. memlnit, lib. 2, cap. 90. 

Northwest Fox. < Ub. 2, ca. 64, de • AUuaresius et alii. 7 Lat. 10, Gr. 

nob. civitat. Quinsay, et cap. 10, de Aust. 8 Ferdinando de Quir. Anno 

Cambalu. « Lib. 4, exped. ad Sinas, 1612. 
ca. 8, et lib. 6, c. 18. & M. Polus in 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air. 125 

that great bird ^ ruck, that can carry a man and horse or an 
elephant, with that Arabian phoenix described by ^Adrico- 
mius ; see the pelicans of Egypt, those Scythian gryphes in 
Asia; and afterwards in Africa examine the fountains of 
Nilus, whether Herodotus, * Seneca, Plin. lib, 5, cap. 9, 
Strabo, lib, 5, give a true cause of his annual flowing, * Pa- 
gaphetta discourse rightly of it, or of Niger and Senegal; 
examine Cardan, ^ Scaliger's reasons, and_the rest. Is it from 
* those Etesian winds, or melting of snow in the mountains 
under the equator (for Jordan yearly overflows when the 
snow melts in Mount Libanus), or from those great dropping 
perpetual showers which are so frequent to the inhabitants 
within the tropics, when the sun is vertical, and cause such 
vast inundations in Senegal, Maragnan, Oronoco and the rest 
of those great rivers in Zona Torrida, which have all com- 
monly the same passions at set times ; and by good husbandry 
and policy hereafter no doubt may come to be as populous, 
as well tilled, as fruitful, as Egypt itself or Cauchinthina ? I 
would observe all those motions of the sea, and from what 
cause they proceed, from the moon (as the vulgar hold) or 
earth's motion, which Galileus, in the fourth dialogue of his 
system of the world, so eagerly proves, and firmly demon- 
strates ; or winds, as • some will. Why in that quiet ocean 
of Zur, in mari pacifico, it is scarce perceived, in our British 
seas most violent, in the Mediterranean and Red Sea so ve- 
hement, irregular, and diverse? Why the current in that 
Atlantic Ocean should still be in some places from, in some 
again towards the north, and why they come sooner than go ? 
and so from Moabar to Madagascar in that Indian Ocean, the 
merchants come in three weeks, as ^ Scaliger discusseth, they 
return scarce in three months, with the same or like winds ; 
the continual current is from east to west. Whether Mount 

1 Alarum pennsB oonUnent in longitu- Bern. Telesius, lib. de mari. f Ezercit. 
dine 12 passus, elephantem in sublime 62, de maris motu causae inrestigandae : 
tollere potest. Folus, 1. 8, e. 40. ^ Lib. prima reciprocationis, secunda varietatis, 
8, Descript. teme sanctee. > Natur. tertlaceleritatis, quartacessationis, quin- 
qnsest. lib. 4, cap. 2. * Lib. de reg. ta priTationis, sexta contrarietatis. Pa- 
Congo. 6 Exercit. 47. o See M. Car- tricius saith 52 miles in height, 
penter's Geography, lib. 2, cap. 6, et 

126 Curt of Mdancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

Athos, Pelion, Olympus, Ossa, Caucasus, Atlas, be so high 
as Plinj, Solinus, Mela relate, above clouds, meteors, vM nee 
aurm nee vend spirant (insomuch that they that ascend die 
suddenly very often, the air is so subtile), 1250 paces high, 
according to that measure of Dicearchus, or seventy-eight 
miles perpendicularly high, as Jacobus Mazonius, sec. 3 et 4, 
expounding that place of Aristotle about Caucasus ; and as 
* Blancanus the Jesuit contends out of Clavius and Nonius 
demonstrations de Orepmcvlis ; or rather thirty-two stadiums, 
as the most received opinion is; or four miles, which the 
height of no mountain doth perpendicularly exceed, and is 
equal to the greatest depths of the sea, which is, as Scaliger 
holds, 1580 paces, Exerc 38, others 100 paces. I would see 
those inner parts of America, whether there be any such 
great city of Manoa, or Eldorado, in that golden empire, 
where the highways are as much beaten (one reports) as 
between Madrid and Yalladolid in Spain ; or any such Ama- 
zons as he relates, or gigantic Patagones in Chica ; with that 
miraculous mountain ^Ybouyapab in the Northern Brazil, 
cujusjugum stemitur in amcenissimam plamtiem, S^c, or that 
of Pariacacca so high elevated in Peru. ' The pike of Ten- 
eriffe how high it is ? seventy miles, or fifty as Patricius 
holds, or nine as Snellius demonstrates in his Eratosthenes ; 
see that strange * Cirknickzerksey lake in Carniola, whose 
waters gush so fast out of the ground, that they will overtake 
a swift horseman, and by and by with as incredible celerity 
are supped up ; which Lazius and Wemerus make an argu- 
ment of the Argonauts sailing under ground. And that vast 
den or hold called ^ Esmellen in Muscovia, qu€e vtsitur hoT' 
rendo Matu, S^c, which if anything casually fall in, makes 
such a roaring noise, that no thunder, or ordnance, or warlike 
engine can make the like ; such another is Gilberts Cave in 
Lapland, with many the like. I would examine the Caspian 

^Lib. deexplicatione looorumMathem. emmpunt et absorbentur, ut expedito 

Arifltot. 2 Laet. lib. 17, cap. 18, de- equiti aditum intercludant. 6 Boissar- 

script. occid. Ind. > Luge alii vocant. dus de Magis, cap. de Pilapiis. 
* Qeor. Wemerus. Aquae tonta celeritate 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 127 

Sea, and see where and how it exonerates itself, after it 
hath taken in Volga, Jaxares, Oxus, and those great rivers ; 
at the mouth of Oby, or where ? What vent the Mexican 
lake hath, the Titicaean in Peru, or that circular pool in the 
vale of Terapeia, of which Acosta, i!L 3, c. 1 6, hot in a cold 
country, the spring of which boils up in the middle twenty 
foot square, and hath no vent but exhalation ; and that of 
Mare mortuum in Palestine, of Thrasymene, at Peruzium in 
Italy ; the Mediterranean itself. For from the ocean, at 
the Straits of Gibraltar, there is a perpetual current into the 
Levant, and so likewise by the Thradan Bosphorus out of the 
Euxine or Black Sea, besides all those great rivers of !Nile, 
Po, Rhone, &c., how is this water consumed, by the sun or 
otherwise ? I would find out with Trajan the fountains of 
Danube, of Ganges, Oxus, see those Egyptian pyramids, 
Trajan's bridge, Grotto de SyhiUa^ LucuUus's fish-ponds, the 
temple of Nidrose, &c. And, if I could, observe what be- 
comes of swallows, storks, cranes, cuckoos, nightingales, red- 
starts, and many other kind of singing birds, waterfowls, 
hawks, &c, some of them are only seen in summer, some in 
winter; some are observed in the ^snow, and at no other 
times, each having their seasons. In winter not a bird is in 
Muscovy to be found, but at the spring in an instant the 
woods and hedges are full of them, saith ^ Herberstein ; how 
comes it to pass ? Do they sleep in winter, like Gesner's Al- 
pine mice; or do they lie hid (as *01aus affirms) "in the 
bottom of lakes and rivers, spirit um continentes ? often so 
found by fishermen in Poland and Scandia, two together, 
mouth to mouth, wing to wing; and when the spring comes 
they revive again, or if they be brought into a stove, or to 
the fireside." Or do they follow the sun, as Peter Martyr, 
legat. Bahyhnica^ L 2, manifestly convicts, out of his own 
knowledge ; for when he was ambassador in Egypt, he saw 

1 Id campis Loyicen. solum Tisiiiitar in strepunt Borum cantilenis. Muscoyit. 

nire, et ubinam vere, sestate, autumno comment. ^ Immergunt se fluminibns, 

se occultant. Hermes, PoUt. 1. 1, Jul. lacubusque per hyemem totam, &o. 
BeUius. 2 Statim ineunte vere sylvie 

128 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

swallows, Spanish kites, ^and many such other European 
birds, in December and January very familiarly flying, and 
in great abundance, about Alexandria, vhi floridce tunc ar- 
hares ac vindaria. Or lie they hid in caves, rocks, and hol- 
low trees, as most think, in deep tin-mines or sea-cliffs, as 
^ Mr. Carew gives out ? I conclude of them all, for my part, 
as ' Munster doth of cranes and storks ; whence they come, 
whither they go, incompertum adhtic, as yet we know not. 
We see them here, some in summer, some in winter ; " their 
coming and going is sure in the night ; in the plains of Asia 
(saith he) the storks meet on such a set day, he that comes 
last is torn in pieces, and so they get them gone." Many 
strange places, Isthmi, Euripi, Chersonesi, creeks, havens, 
promontories, straits, lakes, baths, rocks, mountains, places, 
and fields, where cities have been ruined or swallowed, bat- 
tles fought, creatures, sea-monsters, remora, &c., minerals, 
vegetals. Zoophytes were fit to be considered in such an ex- 
pedition, and amongst the rest that of * Herberstein his Tartar 
lamb, ^Hector Boethius's goose-bearing tree in the orchards, to 
which Cardan, lib. 7, cap. 36, de rerum varietai. subscribes ; 
* VertomannUvS's wonderful palm, that ' fly in Hispaniola, that 
shines like a torch in the night, that one may well see to 
write ; those spherical stones in Cuba which nature hath so 
made, and those like birds, beasts, fishes, crowns, swords, 
saws, pots, ifcc, usually found in the metal mines in Saxony 
about Mansfield, and in Poland near Nokow and Pallukie, 
as ® Munster and others relate. Many rare creatures and 
novelties each part of the world affords ; amongst the rest, I 
would know for a certain whether there be any such men, as 

1 Cseterasque rolucres Pontxim fajeme nus, 1. 5, o. 16, mentioneth a tree that 

adreniente i nostris regionibus Europeia bears fraits to eat. wood to burn, bark to 

transvolantes. s Surrey of Cornwall, make ropes, wine and water to drink, oil 

B Porro cicoDise quonam h loco yeniant, and sugar, and leaves as tiles to cover 

qu6 se conferant, incompertum adhuc, houses, flowers for clothes, &c. 7 An- 

agmen venientium, descendentium, ut imal infectum Cusino, ut quis legere vel 

gruum venisse cemimos, nocturnis opi- scribere possit slue alterius ope luminis. 

nor temporibus. In patentibus Asiae ^ Cosmog. lib. 1, cap. 435, et lib. 8, cap. 1, 

campis corto die congr^ant se, eam quae habent ollas k natura formatas k terra 

novissimd advenit lacerant, inde avolant. extractas, similes illis ^ flgulis fieustis, co- 

Gosmog. 1. 4, c. 126. * Obmment. Mus- ronas, plsoes, aves, et omnes animantium 

GOV. & HLst. Scot. 1. 1. Vertoman- species. 

Mem. 3.] Digression of Air, 129 

Leo Suavius, in his comment on Paracelsus de sanit. tuend, 
and ^ Gaguinus records in his description of Muscovy, " that 
in Lucomoria, a province in Russia, lie fast asleep as dead all 
winter, from the 27th of November, like frogs and swallows, 
benumbed with cold, but about the 24th of April in the spring 
they revive again, and go about their business." I would 
examine that demonstration of Alexander Piccolomineus, 
whether the earth's superficies be bigger than the sea's ; or 
that of Archimedes be true, the superficies of all water is 
even ? Search the depth, and see that variety of sea-mon- 
sters and fishes, mermaids, sea-men, horses, &c., which it 
affords. Or whether that be true which Jordanus Brunus 
scoffs at, that if Grod did not detain it, the sea would overflow 
the earth by reason of his higher site, and which Josephus 
Blancanus the Jesuit, in his interpretation on those mathe- 
matical places of Aristotle, foolishly fears, and in a just tract 
proves by many circumstances, that in time the sea will 
waste away the land, and all the globe of the earth shall be 
covered with waters; risum teneatis, amicif what the sea 
takes away in one place it adds in another. Methinks he 
might rather suspect the sea should in time be filled by land, 
trees grow up, carcasses, &c., that all-devouring fire, omnia 
devorans et consumens, will sooner cover and dry up the vast 
ocean with sand and ashes. I would examine the true seat 
of that terrestrial ^paradise, and where Ophir was whence 
Solomon did fetch his gold ; from Peruana, which some sup- 
pose, or that Aurea Chersonesus, as Dominicus Niger, Arias 
Montanus, Goropius, and others will. I would censure all 
Pliny's, Solinus's, Strabo's, Sir John Mandeville's, Olaus Mag- 
nus's, Marcus Polus's lies, correct those errors in navigation, 
reform cosmographical charts, and rectify longitudes, if it 
were possible ; not by the compass, as some dream, with Mark 
Ridley in his treatise of magnetical bodies, cap, 43, for as 
Cabeus, magnet philos, lib, 3, cap, 4, fully resolves, there is 

1 Ut solent hirundines et rana prse s vid. Pererium in Qen. Cor. &. Lapide, et 
ttigoria magnitudine mori, et postea re- alios. 
deunte vere 24. Aprilis reviyiscere. 

VOL. II. 9 

130 Curt of Mdancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

no hope thence, yet I would ohserve some better means to 
find them out 

I would have a convenient place to go down with Orpheus, 
Ulysses, Hercules, * Lucian's Menippus, at St Patrick's pur- 
gatory, at Trophonius's den, Hecla in Iceland, ^tna in Sicily, 
to descend and see what is done in the bowels of the earth ; 
do stones and metals grow there still ? how come fir-trees to 
be ^digged out from tops of hills, as in our mosses, and 
marshes all over Europe? How come they to dig up fish 
bones, shells, beams, iron-works, many fathoms under ground, 
and anchors in mountains far remote from all seas ? ' Anno 
1460 at Berne in Switzerland 50 fathom deep, a ship was 
digged out of a mountain, where they got metal ore, in which 
were 48 carcasses of men, with other merchandise. That 
such things are ordinarily found in tops of hills, Aristotle in- 
sinuates in his meteors, ^ Pomponius Mela in his first book, 
c. de NumidicL, and familiarly in the Alps, saith ^ Blancanus 
the Jesuit, the like is to be seen ; came this from earthquakes, 
or from Noah's fiood, as Christians suppose, or is there a 
vicissitude of sea and land, as Anaximenes held of old, the 
mountains of Thessaly would become seas, and seas again 
mountains ? The whole world belike should be new moulded, 
when it seemed good to those all-commanding powers, and 
turned inside out, as we do haycocks in harvest, top to bot- 
tom, or bottom to top ; or as we turn apples to the fire, move 
the world upon his centre ; that which is under the poles now, 
should be translated to the equinoctial, and that which is 
under the torrid zone to the circle arctic and antarctic another 
while, and so be reciprocally warmed by the sun ; or if the 
worlds be infinite, and every fixed star a sun, with his com- 
passing planets (as Brunus and Campanella conclude) cast 
three or four worlds into one ; or else of one world make 
three or four new, as it shall seem to them best To proceed, 

1 In Necyomantia, Tom. 2. s FracM- reperta est, in qua quadraginta octo oa- 

torins, lib. de simp. Gkorgius Morula, lib. davera inerant, anchorse, &c. * Pisces 

de mem. Julius Billius, &c. 8 sim- et conchse in montibus repeiiuntur. 

lerus, Ortelius, Brachiis centum sub terra & Lib. de locis Mathemat. Aristot. 

Mem. 3.] Digression of Air. 131 

if the earth be 21,500 miles in ^ compass, its diameter is 
7000 from us to our antipodes, and what shall be com- 
prehended in all that space ? What is the centre of the 
earth? is it pure element only, as Aristotle decrees, in- 
habited (as ^ Paracelsus thinks) with creatures, whose chaos 
is the earth ; or with fairies, as the woods and waters (accord- 
ing to him) are with nymphs, or as the air, with spirits? 
Dionisiodorus, a mathematician in ' Pliny, that sent a letter 
ad superos after he was dead, from the centre of the earth 
to signify what distance the same centre was from the super' 
fides of the same, yiz : 42,000 stadiums, might have done 
well to have satisfied aU these doubts. Or is it the place of 
hell, as Virgil in his .^Ineides, Plato, Lucian, Dante, and 
others poeticaJly describe it, and as many of our diyines 
think ? In good earnest, Anthony Rusca, one of the society 
of that Ambrosian College, in Milan, in his great volume de 
Inferno, lib. 1, cap, 4tl, is stiff in this tenet, 'tis a corporeal 
fire tow, cap. 5, ^ 2, as he there disputes. "Whatsoever 
philosophers write (saith * Surius), there be certain mouths 
of hell, and places appointed for the punishment of men's 
souls, as at Hecla in Iceland, where the ghosts of dead men 
are familiarly seen, and sometimes talk with the living ; God 
would have such visible places, that mortal men might be 
certainly informed that there be such punishments after 
death, and learn hence to fear God." Kranzius, Dan, hist, 
lib. 2, cap. 24, subscribes to this opinion of Surius, so doth 
Colerus, cap. 12, Ub. de immortal, aninue, (out of the author- 
ity belike of St Gregory, Durand, and the rest of the school- 
men, who derive as much from JStna in Sicily, Lipari, Hiera, 
and those sulphureous vulcanian islands,) making Terra del 
Fuego, and those frequent volcanoes in America, of which 
Acosta, Ub. 3, cap. 24, that fearful Mount Hecklebirg in Nor- 

1 Or plain, as Patricias holds, which Quicquid dicunt Philosophl, qnsedam 

Austin, Lactantius, and some others, sunt Tartan ostia, et loca pnniendis ani- 

held of old as round as a trencher, mis destinata, ut Heola mons, &o., ubi 

s Li. de ffilphia et Pigmeis, they penetrate mortuorum spiritus visuntur, &c., voluit 

the earth as we do the air. 'lib. 2, Deu8extai«taliaIoca,utdiscantmortale8. 
c. 112. * Commentar. ad annum 1537. 

132 (Jure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

waj, an especial argument to prove it, * " where lamentable 
screeches and bowlings are continually heard, which strike a 
terror to the auditors ; fiery chariots are commonly seen to 
bring in the souls of men in the likeness of crows, and devils 
ordinarily go in and out" Such another proof is that place 
near the Pyramids in Egypt, by Cairo, as well to confirm 
this as the resurrection, mentioned by ^ Kommannus, mirac, 
mort, lib* 1, cap* 38, Camerarius, oper. sue, cap, 37, Breden- 
bachius, pereg, ter, sanct, and some others, " where once a 
year dead bodies arise about March, and walk, after awhile 
hide themselves again ; thousands of people come yearly to 
see them." But these and such like testimonies others reject, 
as fables, illusions of spirits, and they will have no such local 
known place, more than Styx or Phlegethon, Pluto's court, 
or that poetical Infemusj where Homer's soul was seen hang- 
ing on a tree, &c., to which they ferried over in Charon's boat, 
or went down at Hermione in Greece, compendiaria ad in- 
feros via, which is the shortest cut, quia nvUum a mortuis 
navlum eo lod exposcunt (saith ' Gerbelius), and besides there 
were no fees to be paid. Well then, is it hell, or purgatory, 
as Bellarmine ; or lAmhis patrum, as Gallucius will, and as 
Eusca will, (for they have made maps of it,) * or Ignatius 
parlour ? Virgil, sometime bishop of Saltburg (as Aventinus, 
Anno 745, relates,) by Bonifacius bishop of Mentz was there- 
fore called in question, because he held antipodes (which they 
made a doubt whether Christ died for), and so by that means 
took away the seat of hell, or so contracted it, that it could 
bear no proportion to heaven, and contradicted that opinion 
of Austin, Basil, Lactantius, that held the earth round as a 
trencher (whom Acosta and common experience more largely 
confute), but not as a ball ; and Jerusalem where Christ died 
the middle of it ; or Delos, as the fabulous Greeks feigned ; 
because when Jupiter let two eagles loose, to fly from the 

1 Ubi. miserabiles ^ulantium Toces an- rursns sub terrain se abscondunt, &o. 

diuntur, qui auditoribus horrorem in- » Descript. Graec. lib. 6, de Pelop. 

cutinnt baud vulgarem, &c. 2 Ex ^ Conclaye Ignatii. 
sepnlchris apparent mense Martio, et 

Mem. 3.] Digression of Air. 133 

world's ends east and west, they met at Delos. But that 
scruple of Bonifacius is now quite taken away by our latter 
divines ; Franciscus Ribera, in cap. 14, Apocalyps. will have 
hell a material and loeal fire in the centre of the earth, 200 
Italian miles in diameter, as he defines it out of those words, 

Exivit sanguis de terra -per stadia miUe sexcenta, S^c. 

But Lessius, lib. 13, de morihus divtnis, cap. 24, will have this 
local hell far less, one Dutch mile in diameter, all filled with 
fire and brimstone ; because, as he there demonstrates, that 
space, cubically multiplied, will make a sphere able to hold 
eight hundred thousand millions of damned bodies (allowing 
each body six foot square) which .will abundantly suffice ; 
Gum certum sit, inquit, facta svMuctione, non futaros centies 
miUe miUiones damnandorum. ' But if it be no material fire, 
(as Soo-Thomas, Bonaventure, Soncinas, Voscius, and others 
argue,) it may be there or elsewhere, as Keckerman disputes^ 
System, Theol. for sure somewhere it is, certum est cUiculn, 
etsi defnitus circvlus non assignetur. I will end the contro- 
versy in ^ Austin's words, " Better doubt of things concealed, 
than to contend about uncertainties, where Abraham's bosom 
is, and hell fire : " ^ Vix a mansuetis, a contentiosis nunquann 
invenitur ; scarce the meek, the contentious shall never find. 
If it be solid earth, 'tis the fountain of metals, waters, which 
by his innate temper turns air into water, which springs up 
in several chinks, to moisten the earth's superficies, and that 
in a tenfold proportion, (as Aristotle holds,) or else these foun- 
tains come directly from the sea, by ' secret passages, and so 
made fresh again, by running through the bowels of the earth ; 
and are either thick, thin, hot, cold, as the matter or minerals 
are by which they pass ; or as Peter Martyr, Ocean. Decad, 
lib. 9, and some others hold, from * abundance of rain that 
falls, or from that ambient heat and cold, which alters that 
inward heat, and so per consequens the generation of waters. 

1 Melius dnbitaie de occultis, quam lit- as in all likelihood the Caspian Sea 

igaie de inoertis, ubi flamma inferni, &o. rents itself into the Euzine or ocean, 

s See Dr. Raynolds praelect. 66. in Apoo. * Seneca, qnsest. lib. cap. 3, 4, 5. 6, 7, 8, 

s As they come from the sea, so they re- 9, 10, 11, 12, de causis aquanim perpet- 

tum to the sea again by secret passages, uis. 

136 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

worthy of an astrologer ; is this from the easterly winds, or 
melting of ice and snow dissolved within the circle arctic ; or 
that the air being thick, is longer before it be warm by the 
sunbeams, and once heated like an oven will keep itself from 
cold ? Our climes breed lice, * Hungary and Ireland male 
avdiunt in this kind ; come to the Azores, by a secret virtue 
of that air they are instantly consumed, and all our European 
vermin almost, saith Ortelius. Egypt is watered with Nilus 
not far from the sea, and yet there it seldom or never rains ; 
Rhodes, an island of the same nature, yields not a cloud, and 
yet our islands ever dropping and inclining to rain. The 
Atlantic Ocean is still subject to storms, but in Del Zur, or 
Mari Padfico^ seldom or never any. Is it from tropic stars, 
apertio portarum^ in the dodecatemories or constellations, the 
moon's mansions, such aspects of plants^ such winds, or dis- 
solving air, or thick air, which causeth this and the like dif- 
ferences of heat and cold? Bodine relates of a Portugal 
ambassador, that coming from * Lisbon to 'Dantzic in Spruce, 
found greater heat there than at any time at home. Don 
Garcia de Sylva, legate to Philip III., king of Spain, resid- 
ing at Ispahan in Persia, 1619, in his letter to the Marquess 
of Bedmar, makes mention of greater cold in Ispahan, whose 
latitude is 31 gr. than ever he felt in Spain, or any part of 
Europe. The torrid zone was by our predecessors held to 
be uninhabitable, but by our modem travellers found to be 
most temperate, bedewed with frequent rains, and moistening 
showers, the breeze and cooling blasts in some parts, as 
*Acosta describes, most pleasant and fertile. Arica in Chili 
is by report one of the sweetest places that ever the sun 
shined on, Oh/mpus terrce, a heaven on earth ; how incom- 
parably do some extol Mexico in Nova Hispania, Peru, 
Brazil, &c., in some again hard, dry, sandy, barren, a very 
desert, and still in the same latitude. Many times we find 
great diversity of air in the same * country, by reason of the 

1 Lansius, orat. contra Hungaros. * De nat. novi orbis, lib. 1, cap. 9. Sna- 
s Lisbon, lat. 38. > Dantzic, lat. 54. viflsimus omnium loons, &c. 6 The 

Mem. 3.] IXffresston of Air. 137 

site to seas, hills or dales, want of water, nature of soil, and 
the like ; as in Spain, Arragon is aspera et sicca, harsh and 
evil inhabited ; Estremadura is dry, sandy, barren most part, 
extreme hot by reason of his plains ; Andalusia another Para- 
dise ; Valencia a most pleasant air, and continually green ; 
so is it about ^ Granada, on the one side fertile plains, on the 
other, continual snow to be seen all summer long on the hill- 
tops. That their houses in the Alps are three quarters of the 
year covered with snow, who knows not ? That Teneriffe is 
30 cold at the top, extreme hot at the bottom ; Mons Atlas in 
Africa, Libanus in Palestine, with many such, tantos inter 
ardores Jldos nimbus, ^ Tacitus calls them, and Radzivilus, 
epist. 2, foL 27, yields it to be far hotter there than in any 
part of Italy ; 'tis true ; but they are highly elevated, near 
the middle region, and therefore cold, ob paucam solarium 
radiorum refractionem, as Serrarius answers, com. in 3 cap. 
Josua quasi. 5, Abuknsis, qu€est. 37. In the heat of summer, 
in the king's palace in Escurial, the air is most temperate, by 
reason of a cold blast which comes from the snowy mountains 
of Sierra de Cadarama hai'd by, when as in Toledo it is very 
hot ; so in all other countries. The causes of these altera- 
tions are commonly by reason of their nearness (I say) to the 
middle region ; but this diversity of air, in places equally situ- 
ated, elevated and distant from the pole, can hardly be satis- 
fied with that diversity of plants, birds, beasts, which is so 
familiar with us ; with Indians, everywhere, the sun is equally 
distant, the same vertical stars, the same irradiations of plan- 
ets, aspects like, the same nearness of seas; the same super- 
ficies, the same soil, or not much different. Under the equator 
itself, amongst the Sierras, Andes, Lanos, as Herrera, Laet, 
and ^ Acosta contend, there is tam mirabilis et inopinata va- 
rietas, such variety of weather, tU meritd exerceat ingenia, 
that no philosophy can yet find out the true cause of it. 
When I consider how temperate it is in one place, saith 

same Tarietyof weather Lod. GoiocUir- Quadus. *BiBt. lib. 6. *Lib. 11, 
dine obseires betwixt lAoge and AJ^az not cap. 7. 
fax distant, descript. Belg. i Magin. 

138 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. 11. sec. 2. 

^ Aoosta, within the tropic of Caprioom, as about La Plata, 
and jet hard bj at Potosi, in that same altitude, mountainous 
alike, extreme cold ; extreme hot in Brazil, &c. Hie egOy 
saith Aoosta, philosophiam Aristotelis meteorologicam vehe^ 
menter irnst, cum, S^e., when the sun comes nearest to them, 
they have great tempests, storms, thunder and lightning, 
great store of rain, snow, and the foulest weather ; when the 
sun is vertical, their rivers overflow, the morning fair and 
hot, noonday cold and moist ; all which is opposite to us. 
How comes it to pass? Scaliger, poetices, L 3, c. 16, dis- 
courseth thus of this subject How comes, or wherefore is 
this temeraria siderum dispositioy this rash placing of stars, or 
as Epicurus will, ybr^mVo, or accidental ? Why are some big, 
some little, why are they so confusedly, unequally situated in 
the heavens, and set so much out of order? In all other 
things nature is equal, proportionable, and constant; there 
be jibstcB dimenstones, et prudens parttum dispositio, as in the 
fabric of man, his eyes, ears, nose, face, members are corre- 
spondent, cur non idem ccdo opere omnium pulcherrimof 
Why are the heavens so irregular, neque paribus molihus, 
neque paribus intervaUis, whence is this difference ? Diversos 
(he concludes) efficere locorum Genios, to make diversity of 
countries, soils, manners, customs^ chai*acters, and constitutions 
among us, tU quantum vicinia ad charitatem addat, sidera 
distrahant ad pemiciem, and so by this means Jluvio vel 
monte distincH sunt dissimiles, the same places almost shall 
be distinguished in manners. But this reason is weak and 
most insufficient. The fixed stars are removed since Ptol- 
emy's time 26 gr. from the first of Aries, and if the earth be 
immovable, as their site varies, so should countries vary, and 
diverse alterations would follow. But this we perceive not ; 
as in TuUy's time with us in Britain, caelum ' visu foedum, et 
in quo facile generantur nubes, S^c, 'tis so still. Wherefore 
Bodine, Theat, not lib. 2, and some others, will have all these 

1 Lib. 2, cap. 9. Cor. Potosi et Plata, urbes in tarn tenni interyallo, utraqae mon- 
to0a, &o. ^ 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 139 

alterations and effects immediately to proceed from those 
genii, spirits, angels, which rule and domineer in several 
places; they cause storms, thunder, lightning, earthquakes, 
ruins, tempests, great winds, floods, &c., the philosophers of 
Conimbra, will refer this diversity to the influence of that 
empyrean heaven ; for some say the eccentricity of the sun 
is come nearer to the earth than in Ptolemy's time, the vir- 
tue therefore of all the vegetals is decayed, ^ men grow less, 
&C. There are that observe new motions of the heavens, 
new stars, palantia sidera, comets, clouds, call them what 
you will, like those Medicean, Burbonian, Austrian planets, 
lately detected, which do not decay, but come and go, rise 
higher and lower, hide and show themselves amongst the 
fixed stars, amongst the planets, above and beneath the moon, 
at set times, now nearer, now farther off, together, asunder ; 
as he that plays upon a sackbut by pulling it up and down 
alters his tones and tunes, do they their stations and places, 
though to us undiscemed; and from those motions proceed 
(as they conceive) divers alterations. Clavius conjectures 
otherwise, but they be but conjectures. About Damascus in 
Coeli-Syria, is a ^ Paradise, by reason of the plenty of waters, 
in promptu causa est, and the deserts of Arabia barren, be- 
cause of rocks, rolling seas of sands, and dry mountains quod 
inaquosa (saith Adricomius) monies habens asperos, saxosos, 
preecipites, horroris et mortis speciem prae se feretites, " unin- 
habitable therefore of men, birds^ beasts, void of all green 
trees, plants, and fruits, a vast, rocky, horrid wilderness, 
which by no art can be manured, 'tis evident" Bohemia is 
cold, for that it lies all along to the north. But why should 
it be so hot in Egypt, or there never rain ? Why should 
those 'etesian and northeastern winds blow continually and 
constantly so long together, in some places, at set times, one 
way still, in the dog-days only ; here perpetual drought, there 
dropping showers; here foggy mists, there a pleasant air; 

1 Terra malos homines nunc educat atque puaiilos. ^ Nav. 1. 1, c. 6. 


140 GuTB of Melcmcholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

here i terrible thunder and lightning at such set seasons, here 
frozen seas ' all the year, there open in the same latitude, to 
the rest no such thing, nay quite opposite is to be found ? 
Sometimes (as in ^ Peru) on the one side of the mountains it 
is hot, on the other «cold, here snow, there wind, with infinite 
such. Fromnndus in his Meteors will excuse or solve all 
this by the sun's motion, but when there is such diversity to 
such as PerioRci, or very near site, how can that position hold ? 
Who can give a reason of this diversity of meteors, that it 
should rain '^stones, frogs, mice, &c., rats, which they call 
Lemmer in Norway, and are manifestly observed (as * Mun- 
ster writes) by the inhabitants, to descend and fall with some 
feculent showers, and like so many locusts, consume all that 
is green. Leo Afer speaks as much of locusts, about Fez in 
Barbary there be infinite swarms in their fields upon a sud- 
den ; so at Aries in France, 1553, the like happened by the 
same mischief, all their grass and fruits were devoured, 
tnagna incolarum admtrattone et constematione (as Valleriola, 
obser. med, lib, 1, obser. 1, relates,) coelum subito obumbra- 
bant, S^c, he concludes, * it could not be from natural causes, 
they caiinot imagine whence they come, but from heaven. 
Are these and such creaj;ures, corn, wood, stones, worms, 
wool, blood, &c., lifted up into the middle region by the sun- 
beams, as ® Baracellus the physician disputes, and thence let 
fall with showers, or there engendered ? ^ Cornelius Gremma 
is of that opinion, they are there conceived by celestial in- 
fluences ; others suppose they are immediately from Gk>d, or 
prodigies raised by art and illusions of spirits, which are 
princes of the air ; to whom Bodin, lib. 2, TTieat, Nat. sub- 
scribes. In fine, of meteors in general, Aristotle's reasons 
are exploded by Bernardinus Telesius, by Paracelsus his 
principles confuted, and other causes assigned, sal, sulphur, 

1 As under the equator in many parts, pascunturque more locustorum omnia 

showers here at such a time, winds at yirentia. ^ Hort. Genial. An & terra 

such a time, the Brise they call it. sursum rapiuntur k solo iterumque cum 

s Ferd. Cortesius, lib. Noyus orbis in- pluTiis prsscipitantur? &c. o Tarn 

script. 8 Lapidatum est. Livie. ^ Cos- ominosus proventus in naturales causae 

mog. lib. 4, cap. 22. Hee tempestati- referri yix potest. 7 Cosmog. c. 6. 
bus decidunt h nubibus faeculentis, de- 

I i 

Mem. 8. J Digression of Air. 141 

mercury, in which his disciples are so expert, that they can 
alter elements, and separate at their pleasui*e, make per- 
petual motions, not as Cardan, Tasneir, Peregrinus, hy some 
magnetical virtue, but by mixture of elements ; imitate thun- 
der, like Salmoneus, snow, hail, the sea's ebbing and flowing, 
give life to creatures (as they say) without generation, and 
what not? P. Nonius Saluciensis and Kepler take upon 
them to demonstrate that no meteors, clouds, fogs, ^ vapours, 
arise higher than fifty or eighty miles, and all the rest to be 
purer air or element of fire ; which * Cardan, • Tycho, and 
*John Pena manifestly confute by refrac,tions and many 
other arguments, there is no such element of fire at aU. If, 
as Tycho proves, the moon be distant from us fifty and sixty 
semidiameters of the earth ; and as Peter Nonius will have 
it, the air be so angust, what proportion is there betwixt the 
. other three elements and it ? To what use serves it ? Is it 
full of spirits which inhabit it, as the Paracelsians and Pla- 
tonists hold, the higher the more noble, 'full of birds, or 
a mere vacuum to no purpose? It is much controverted 
between Tycho Brahe and Christopher Rotman, the land- 
grave of Hesse's mathematician, in their astronomical epistles, 
whether it be the same Diaphanum, clearness, matter of air 
and heavens, or two distinct essences ? Christopher Rotman, 
John Pena, Jordanus Brunus, with many other late mathe- 
maticians, contend it is the same and one matter throughout, 
saving that the higher still the purer it is, and more subtile ; 
as they find by experience in the top of some hills in 
• America ; if a man ascend, he faints instantly for want of 
thicker air to refrigerate the heart. Acosta, L 3, c, 9, calls 
this mountain Periacacca in Peru ; it makes men cast and 
vomit, he saith, that climb it, as some other of those Andes 
do in the deserts of Chili for five hundred miles together, 
and for extremity of cold to lose their fingers and toes. 

1 Cardan saith Taponn rim 288 miles the air, and are never seen on ground 

from the earth, Eratosthenes 48 miles, but dead : See Ulysses Alderorand. Or- 

« De subtil. 1. 2. » In Progvmnas. nithol. Seal, exerc. cap. 229. « Laet. 

* Prae&t. ad Euclid. Catop. »*Manu- descript. Amer. 
oodiatae, birds that live continually in 

142 Cure of Mekmeholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

Tjcho will have two distinct matters of heaven and air ; but 
to saj trath, with some small qualification, they have one 
and the selfsame opinion about the essence and matter of 
heavens ; that it is not hard and impenetrable, as Peri- 
patetics hold, transparetit, of a quinta essentia, ^ ^ but that it is 
[)enetrable and soft as the air itself is, and that the planets move 
in it, as birds in the air, fishes in the sea." This thej prove 
by motion of comets, and otherwise (though Claremontius 
in his Antitycho stiffly opposes), which are not generated, as 
Aristotle teacheth, in the aerial region, of a hot and dry ex- 
halation, and so consumed ; but as Anaxagoras and Democ- 
ritus held of old, of a celestial matter; and as 'Tycho, 
'Elisaeus Roeslin, Thaddeus Haggesius, Pena, Kotman, 
Fracastorius, demonstrate by their progress, parallaxes, re- 
fractions, motions of the planets, which interfere and cut one 
another's orbs, now higher, and then lower, as ^ amongst 
the rest, which sometimes, as ^ Kepler confirms by his own, 
and Tycho's accurate observations, comes nearer the earth 
than the O 9 &i^d is again eflsoons aloft in Jupiter's orb ; and 
^ other sufficient reasons, far above the moon ; exploding in 
the mean time that element of fire, those fictitious first 
watery movers, those heavens I mean above the firmament, 
which Delrio, Lodovicus Imola, Patricius, and many of the 
fathers affirm ; those monstrous orbs of eccentrics, and JSc- 
centre Epicycles deserentes. Which howsoever Ptolemy, 
Alhasen, Yitellio, Purbachius, Maginus, Clavius, and many 
of their associates, stiffly maintain to be real orbs, eccentric, 
concentric, circles aequant, &c., are absurd and ridiculous. 
For who is so mad to think that there should be so many 
circles, like subordinate wheels in a clock, all impenetrable 
and hard, as they feign, add and subtract at their pleasure. 
^Maginus makes eleven heavens, subdivided into their orbs 

1 Epist. lib. 1, p. 88. Ex quibuB con- Theoria nova Met. eoelestitim 1578. 

Stat nee diversa aeris et aetheris diuphana * Epit. Astron. lib. 4. ^ Multa san^ 

esse, nee retVactiones aliunde qu^ k hlnc conseqauntur absurda, et si nihil 

crasso a^ie causari— Non dura aut im- aliud, tot CometsB in sethere animadversi, 

peiria, sed liquida, subtilis, motuique qui nullins orbis ductum comitantur, id 

Planetarum &ciU cedena. * In Pro- ipsum sufflcienter refeUunt. Tycho, 

gymn. lib. 2, ezempl. quinque. < In astr. epist. page 107. " In Theoricif 


Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 143 

and circles, and all too little to serve those particular appear- 
ances ; Fracastorius, seventy-two homocentrics ; Tycho Brahe, 
Nicholas Bamerus, Helisaeas Boeslin, have peculiar hypothe- 
ses of their own inventions ; and they be but inventions, as 
most of them acknowledge, as we admit of equators, tropics, 
colures, circles arctic and antarctic, for doctrine's sake 
(though Ramus thinks them all unnecessary), they will have 
them supposed only for method and order. Tycho hath 
feigned I know not how many subdivisions of epicycles in 
epicycles, &c., to calculate and express the moon's motion ; 
but when all is done, as a supposition, and no otherwise; 
not (as he holds) hard, impenetrable, subtile, transparent, &c., 
or making music, as Pythagoras maintained of old, and 
Robert Constantine of late, but still, quiet, liquid, open, &c. 
If the heavens then be penetrable, as these men deliver, 
and no lets, it were not amiss in this aerial progress to make 
wings and fly up, which that Turk in Busbequius made his 
fellow-citizens in Constantinople believe he would perform ; 
and some newfangled wits, methinks, should some time or 
other find out ; or if that may not be, yet with a Galileo's 
glass, or Icaromenippus's wings in Lucian, command the 
spheres and heavens, and see what is done amongst them. 
Whether there be generation and corruption, as some think, 
by reason of ethereal comets, that in Cassiopeia, 1:572, that 
in Cygno, 1600, that in Sagittarius, 1604, and many like, 
which by no means Jul. Caesar la Galla, that Italian phi- 
losopher, in his physical disputation with Galileus, de pkcB- 
nomenis in orhe Iuike, cap. 9, will admit ; or that they were 
created ab initio, and show themselves at set times ; and as 
^ Helisaeus Roeslin contends, have poles, axletrees, circles of 
their own, and regular motions. For, non pereunt, sed min- 
uuntur et disparent, ^ Blancanus holds they come and go by 
fits, casting their tails still from the sun ; some of them, as 
a burning-glass projects the sunbeams from Jit; though not 

planetarnm, three above the firmament, nova coelest. Meteor. > Lib. de &bn«& 
trhich all vise men rcjject. i Theor. mundi. 

144 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

always neither; for sometimes a comet casts his tail from 
Venus, as Tycho observes. And as ^Helisseus Roeslin of 
some others, from the moon, with little stars about them 
ad stuporem astronomorum ; cum multis aliis in ccdo miracu- 
lis, all which argue with those Medicean, Austrian, and 
Burbonian stars, thstt the heaven of the planets is indistinct, 
pure, aud open, in which the planets move certis legibus 
ac metis. Examine likewise, An codum sit coloratum f 
Whether the stars be of that bigness, distance, as astronomers 
relate, so many in * number, 1026, or 1725, as J. Bayerus ; 
or as some Rabbins, 29,000 myriads ; or as Galileo discovers 
by his glasses, infinite, and that via lactea, a confused light 
of small stars, like so many nails in a door ; or all in a row, 
like those 12,000 isles of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean ? 
Whether the least visible star in the eighth sphere be eigh- 
teen times bigger than the earth; and as Tycho calcu- 
lates, 14,000 semidiameters distant from it ? Whether they 
be thicker parts of the orbs, as Aristotle delivers ; or so 
many habitable worlds, as Democritus ? Whether they have 
light of their own, or from the sun, or give light round, as 
Patritius discourseth? An ceque distent a centro mundif 
Whether light be of their essence ; and that light be a sub- 
stance or an accident ? Whether they be hot by themselves, 
or by accident cause heat ? Whether there be such a preces- 
sion of the equinoxes as Copernicus holds, or that the eighth 
sphere move? An bene philosophentur, R. Bacon and J. 
Dee, Aphorism, de^ mvUiplicatione specierumf Whether 
there be any such images ascending with each degree of the 
zodiac in the east, as AliaceAsis feigns ? An aqua super 
ccelumf as Patritius and the schoolmen will, a crystalline 
* watery heaven, which is * certainly to be understood of that in 
the middle region ? for otherwise if at Noah's flood the water 
came from thence, it must be above a hundred years falling 
down to us, as ^ some calculate. Besides, An terra sit ani- 

1 Lib de Gometis. s An sit crux et ^ Oilbertus Origanas. ^ See this dis- 
nnbeculA in ooelis ad Pol am Antarcti- cussed in Sir Walter Raleigh's history, in 
oum, quod ex Corsalio refert Patritius. Zanch. ad Casman. & Vid. Fromun- 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 145 

mataf which some so confidently believe, with Orpheus, 
Hermes, Averroes, from which all other souls of men, beasts, 
devils, plants, fishes, &c., are derived, and into which again, 
after some revolutions, as Plato in his Timaeus, Plotinus in 
his Enneades more largely discuss, they return (see Chal- 
cidius and Bennius, Plato's commentators,) as all philo- 
sophical matter, in materiam primam, Keplerus, Patritius, 
and some other Neoterics, have in part revived this opinion. 
And that every star in heaven hath a soul, angel or intelli- 
gence to animate or move it, &c. Or to omit all smaller 
controversies, as matters of less moment, and examine that 
main paradox, of the earth's motion, now so much in ques- 
tion : Aristarchus Samius, Pythagoras maintained it of old, 
Democritus and many of their scholars, Didacus Astunica, 
Anthony Fascarinus, a Carmelite, and some other commen- 
tators, will have Job to insinuate as much, cap* 9, ver. 4 
Qui commovet terram de loco suo, &c., and that this one place 
of Scripture makes more for the earth's motion than all the 
other prove against it ; whom Pineda confutes, most contra- 
dict. Howsoever, it is revived since by Copernicus, not as 
a truth, but a supposition, as he himself confesseth in the 
preface to Pope Nicholas, but now maintained in good ear- 
nest by ^ Calcagninus, Telesius, Kepler, Rotman, Gilbert, 
Digges, Galileo, Campanella, and especially by ^Lansber- 
gius, naturae, rationi, et veritati consentaneum, by Origanus, 
and some * others of his followers. For if the earth be the 
centre of the world, stand still, and theheavens move, as the 
most received * opinion is, which they call inordinatam cceli 
dispositionem, though stiffly maintained by Tycho, Ptolemeus, 
and their adherents, quis ille furor f &c., what fury is that, 
saith '^ Dr. Gilbert, satis animose, as Cabeus notes, that shall 
drive the heavens about with such incomprehensible celerity 
in twenty-four hours, when as every point of the firmament, and 

dum, de Afeteoris, lib. 6,artic.6, et Lans- Mr. Carpenter's Oeogr. cap. 4, lib. 1, 

bergium. i Peculiar! libello. ^Com- Campanella et Origanus, praef. Ephemer. 

ment. in motum terrse, Middlebergi, where Scripture places are answered. 

1630, 4. 8 Peculiar! libeUo. « See s De Magnete. 

VOL. II. 10 

146 Oure of Mdanchoiy. [Part n. sec. 3. 

in the equator, must needs move (so ^ Gayius calculates) 176, 
660 in one 246th part of an hour ; and an arrow out of a bow 
must go seven times about the earth whilst a man can say an 
Ave Maria, if it keep the same space, or compass the earth 1884 
times in an hour, which is supra humanam cogit€Ui<memj be- 
yond human conceit : ocyar etjcundo, et ventos aquante sagitta. 
A man could not ride so much ground, going forty miles a day, 
in 2904 years, as the firmament goes in twenty-three hours ; 
or so much in 2.03 years, as the firmament in one minute : 
quod incredibile videtur : and the ^polestar, which to our 
thinking, scarce moveth out of its place, goeth a bigger cir- 
cuit than the sun, whose diameter is much larger than the 
diameter of the heaven of the sun, and 20,000 semidiame- 
ters of the earth from us, with the rest of the fixed stars, as 
Tycho proves. To avoid therefore these impossibilities, they 
ascribe a triple motion to the earth, the sun immovable in 
the centre of the whole world, the earth centre of the moon, 
alone, above q and $ beneath hi%,<fi (or as • Origanus and 
others will, one single motion to the earth, still placed in the 
centre of the world, which is more probable,) a single motion 
to the firmament, which moves in thirty or twenty-six thou- 
sand years ; and so the planets, Saturn in thirty years ab- 
solves his sole and proper motion, Jupiter in twelve. Mars in 
three, &c., and so solve all appearances better than any way 
whatsoever ; calculate all motions, be they in hngum or latum, 
direct, stationary, retrograde, ascent or descent, without epi- 
cycles, intricate eccentrics, &c., rectius commodiusque per 
unicum motum terrce, saith Lansbergius, much more certain 
than by those Alphonsine, or any such tables, which are 
grounded from those other suppositions. And 'tis true they 
say, according to optic principles, the visible appearances of 
the planets do so indeed answer to their magnitudes and 
orbs, and come nearest to mathematical observations and 
precedent calculations, there is no repugnancy to physical 

1 Comment, in 2 cap. sphser. Jo. de Sacr. Bosc. ^ ]>i5t. 8, gr. 1, &. Polo, 
s Pnef. Ephem. 

. ii 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air. 147 

axioms, because no penetration of orbs ; but then between 
the sphere of Saturn and the firmament, there is such an 
incredible and vast ^ space or distance (7,000,000 semi- 
diameters of the earth, as Tycho calculates,) void of stars ; 
and besides, they do so enhance the bigness of the stars, 
enlarge their circuit, to solve those ordinary objections or 
parallaxes and retrogradations of the fixed stars, that altera- 
tion of the poles, elevation in several places or latitude of 
cities here on earth (for, say they, if a man's eye were in the 
firmament, he should not at all discern that great annual 
motion of the earth, but it would still appear punctum indiv- 
isibile and seem to be fixed in one place, of the same big- 
ness,) that it is quite opposite to reason, to natural philoso- 
phy, and all out as absurd as disproportional (so some will) 
as prodigious, as that of the sun's swifl motion of heavens. 
But hoc posito, to grant this their tenet of the earth's motion ; 
if the earth move, it is a planet, and shines to them in the 
moon, and to the other planetary inhabitants, as the moon 
and they do to us upon the earth ; but shine she doth, as 
Galileo, * Kepler, and others prove, and then per consequeiiSy 
the rest of the planets are inhabited, as well as the moon, 
which he grants in his dissertation with Galileo's Nundus 
Sidereits * " that there be Jovial and Saturn inhabitants," &c., 
and those several planets have their several moons about 
them, as the earth hath hers, as Galileo hath already evinced 
by his glasses ; * four about Jupiter, two about Saturn 
(though Sitius the Florentine, Fortunius Licetus, and Jul. 
Caesar la Galla cavil at it) yet Kepler, the emperor's mathe- 
matician, confirms out of his experience that he saw as much 

1 Which may be full of planetfl, perhaps, possum quin ex inyentis tuis hoc mone- 

to ns unseen, as those about Jupiter, &c. am, Teri non absimile, non tam in Luna, 

* Luna circumterrestris Planeta quum sed etiam in Jove, et reliquis Planetis in- 

sit, conaentaneum est esse in Luna Tiven- colas esse. Kepi. fo. 26. Si non sint ac- 

tes creaturas. et singulis Planetarum colae in Jovis globo, qui notent admiran- 

globis Bui seniunt circulatores, ex qua dam hatac varietatem ocuUs, cui bono 

consideratione, de eorum incolis summa quatuor illi Planetse Jovem circumcurai- 

probabilitate concludimus, quod et Ty- tant? 4 Some of those above Jupiter I 

choni Braheo, h sola consideratione vasti- have seen myself by the help of a glass 

tatis eorum visum fuit. Kepi, dissert eight feet long, 
cum nun. sid. f. 29. > Temperare non 

148 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 


by the same help, and more about Mars, Venus, and the rest 
they hope to find out, perad venture even amongst the fixed 
stars, which Brunus and Brutius have already averred. 
Then (I say) the earth and they be planets alike, inhabited 
alike, moved about the sun, the common centre of the world 
alike, and it may be those two green children which ^ Nu- 
brigensis speaks of in his time, that fell from heaven, came 
from thence ; and that famous stone that fell from heaven in 
Aristotle's time, olymp. 84, anno tertio, ad GapiuB Fhienta^ 
recorded by Laertius and others, or Ancile or buckler in 
Numa's time, recorded by Festus. We may likewise insert 
with Campanella and Brunus, that which Pythagoras, Aris- 
tarchus, Samius, Heraditus, Epicurus, Melissus, Democritus, 
Leucippus maintained in their ages, there be ' infinite worlds, 
and infinite earths or systems, in infinito <Btherey which 
' Eusebius collects out of their tenets, because infinite stars 
and planets like unto this of ours, which some stick not still to 
maintain and publicly defend, sperahundtis expecto innume" 
rahilium mundorum in atemitate per amlvlationem, S^c. (Nic, 
Hill, Londinensis philos. Epicur.) For if the firmament be 
of such an incomparable bigness, as these Copemical giants 
will have it, infinitum^ aut infinito proximum^ so vast and full 
of innumerable stars, as being infinite in extent, one above 
another, some higher, some lower, some nearer, some farther 
off, and so far asunder, and those so huge and great, inso- 
much that if the whole sphere of Saturn, and all that is in- 
cluded in it, totum aggregatum (as Fromundus of Louvain in 
his tract de immohilitate terrce argues) evekatur inter stellaSy 
videri a nobis non poterat, tarn immanis est distantia inter 
teUurem et Jixas, sed instar puncti, S^c, If our world be 
small in respect, why may we not suppose a plurality of 
worlds, those infinite stars visible in the firmament, to be so 
many suns, with particular fixed centres; to have likewise 
their subordinate planets, as the sun hath his dancing still 

1 Rerum Angl. 1. 1, c. 27, de viridibxis Brunus, terras huic nostrsd slmllMt 
pueris. s Infioiti alii mundi, Tel ut > Libro Cont. philos. cap. 29. 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 149 


round him? which Cardinal Cusanus, Walkarinus, Branus, 
and some others have held, and some still maintain, AnimcB 
Aristotelismo innutritcB, et mintUis spectdationibus assuettB^ 
secus forsan, S^c. Though they seem close to usj they are 
infinitely distant, and so per consequens, they are infinite 
habitable worlds; what hinders? Why should not an in- 
finite cause (as God is) produce infinite effects ? as Nic HilL 
Democrit, philos, disputes; Kepler (I confess) will by no 
means admit of Brunus's infinite worlds, or that the fixed 
stars should be so many suns, with their compassing planets, 
yet the said ^ Kepler between jest and earnest in his per- 
spectives, lunar geography, ^et somnio stw, dissertat. cum 
nunc, sider, seems in part to agree with this, and partly to 
contradict ; for the planets, he yields them to be inhabited, he 
doubts of the stars ; and so doth Tycho in his astronomical 
epistles, out of a consideration of their vastity and greatness, 
break out into some such like speeches, that he will never 
believe those great and huge bodiesiie^re made to no other 
use than this that we perceive, to illuminate the earth, a point 
insensible in respect of the whole. But who shall dwell in 
these vast bodies, earths, worlds, * " if they be inhabited ? 
rational creatures ? " as Kepler demands, " or have they 
souls to be saved ? or do they inhabit a better part of the 
world than we do? Are we or they lords of the world? 
And how are all things made for man ? " Difficile est nodum 
hunc expedire, eo quod nondum omnia qwB hue pertinent ea> 
plorata habemus : 'tis hard to determine : this only he proves, 
that we are prtBcipuo mundi sinu, in the best place, best 
world, nearest the heart of the sun. ^ Thomas Campanella, 
a Calabrian monk, in his second book de sensu rerum, cap. 4, 
subscribes to this of Kepler ; that they are inhabited he cer- 
tainly supposeth, but with what kind of creatures he cannot 

1 Kepler, fbl. 2, dissert. Quid impedit quia meliorem mundi ph^;ain teneat? SI 

quin cred&mus ex his initiis, plures tdios nobiliores illoram globi, nos non su- 

mundofl detegendofl, yel (nt Democrito mua creaturarum rationaliain nobilissl- 

placuit) influitos? * Lege Somniuin mi : quomodo igitur omnia propter homi- 

Kepleri, edit. 1685. ' Quid igitur in- nem? quomodo nos domini operum Dei? 

quies, si sint in coelo plures globi, similes Kepler, fol. 29. * Frankfort, quarto, 

nostrse telluris, an cum illis certabimus, 1^, ibid. 4o. 1622. 

150 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

say, he labours to prove it by all means ; and that there are 
infinite worlds, having made an apology for Galileo, and 
dedicates this tenet of his to Cardinal Cajetanus. Others 
freely speak, mutter, and would persuade the world (as 
1 Marinus Marcenus complains) that our modem divines are 
too severe and rigid against mathematicians; ignorant and 
peevish, in not admitting their true demonstrations and cer- 
tain observations, that they tyrannize over art, science, and 
all philosophy, in suppressing their labours (saith Pompona- 
tius), forbidding them to write, to speak a truth, all to main- 
tain their superstition, and for their profit's sake. As for 
those places of Scripture which oppugn it, they will have 
spoken ad captum wlgi, and if rightly understood, and fa- 
vourably interpreted, not at all against it ; and as Otho Gas- 
man, AstroL cap. 1, part. 1, notes, many great divines, 
besides Porphyrins, Pixxjlus, Simplicius, and those heathen 
philosophers, doctrind et estate venerandi, Mods Gen sin 
mundanam popvlaris ftescto cujtts ruditatis, quce longe ahsit 
a vera Philosophorum eruditione, insimulant ; for Moses 
makes mention but of two planets, © and C > no four elements, 
&c. Read more on him, in ^ Grossius and Junius. But to 
proceed, these and such like insolent and bold attempts, pro- 
digious paradoxes, inferences must needs follow, if it once be 
granted, which Rotman, Kepler, Gilbert, Digges, Origanus, 
Galileo, and others, maintain of the earth's motion, that 'tis 
a planet, and shines as the moon doth, which contains in it 
• " both land and sea as the moon doth ; " for so they find by 
their glasses that Maxyulce in fa^cie IjuncBy " the brighter parts 
are earth, the dusky sea," which Thales, Plutarch, and Pythag- 
oras formerly taught ; and manifestly discern hills and dales, 
and such like concavities, if we may subscribe to, and believe 
Galileo's observations. But to avoid these paradoxes of the 
earth's motion (which the Church of Rome hath lately *con- 

1 Praefiit. in Comment, in Genesin. lone Catholica detineant. s Theat. 

Modo suadent Theologos, summa ignora- Biblico. ^ His argumentis plane satis- 

tione Tersari, veras scientias admittere fecisti, do maculas in Luna ease maria, 

nolle, et tyrannidem exercere, ut eos fal- do lucidas partes esse terram. Kepler. 

sis dogmatibus, superstitionibus, et relig- fol. 16. ^ Anno 1616. 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air. ^ 151 

demned as heretical, as appears by Blancanus and Fromun- 
dus's writings,) our later mathematicians have rolled all the 
stones that may be stirred ; and, to solve all appearances and 
objections, have invented new hypotheses, and fabricated new 
systems of the world, out of their own Daedalian heads. 
Fracastorius will have the earth stand still, as before ; and to 
avoid that supposition of eccentrics and epicycles, he hath 
coined seventy-two homocentrics, to solve all appearances. 
Nicholas Ramerus will have the earth the centre of the 
world, but movable, and the eighth sphere immovable, the five 
other planets to move about the sun, the sun and moon about 
the earth. Of which orbs Tycho Brahe puts the earth the 
centre immovable, the stars immovable, the rest with Ramerus, 
the planets without orbs to wander in the air, keep time and 
distance, true motion, according to that virtue which God 
hath given them. ^Helisaeus RcBslin censureth both, with 
CSopernicus (whose hypothesis de terra motu Fhilippus Lans- 
bergius hath lately vindicated, and demonstrated with solid 
arguments in a just volume, Jansonius Caesius ^hath illus- 
trated in a sphere). The said Johannes Lansbergius, 1633, 
hath since defended his assertion against all the cavils and 
calumnies of Fromundus his Anti-Aristarchus, Baptista 
Morinus, and Fetrus Bartholinus ; Fromundus, 1634, hath 
written against him again, J. Rosseus of Aberdeen, &c., 
(sound drums and trumpets,) whilst Roeslin (I say) censures 
all, and Ftolemeus himself as insufficient : one offends against 
natural philosophy, another against optic principles, a third 
against mathematicid, as not answering to astronomical ob- 
servations ; one puts a great space between Saturn's orb and 
the eighth sphere, another too narrow. In his own hypoth- 
esis he makes the earth as before the universal centre, the 
sun to the five upper planets ; to the eighth sphere he ascribes 
diurnal motion, eccentrics, and epicycles to the seven planets, 
which hath been formerly exploded; and so, Dum vitant 
sttdti vitia in contraria currunt, ' as a tinker stops one hole 

1 In Hypothes. de mundo. Edit. 1597. * Lugdunl, 1688. 3 >( Whilst these 

152 ^ Cure of Melanekofy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

and makes two, he corrects them, and doth worse himself; 
reforms some, and mars alL In the mean time, the world is 
tossed in a blanket amongst them, they hoist the earth up 
and down like a ball, make it stand and go at their pleasures ; 
one saith the sun stands, another he moves ; a third comes 
in, taking them all at rebound, and lest there should any 
paradox be wanting, he * finds certain spots and clouds in 
the sun, bj the help of glasses, which multiply (saith Kep- 
lerus) a thing seen a thousand times bigger in piano, and 
makes it come thirty-two times nearer to the eye of the 
beholder ; but see the demonstration of this glass in ^ Tarde, 
by means of which, the sun must turn round upon his own 
centre, or they about the sun. Fabricius puts only three, and 
those in the sun ; Apelles fifteen, and those without the sun, 
floating like the Cyanean Isles in the Euxine sea. ^Tarde, 
the Frenchman, hath observed thirty-three, and those neither 
spots nor clouds, as Gralileo, JSpist, ad Velserum, supposeth, 
but planets concentric with the sun, and not far from him 
with regular motions. * Christopher Shemer, a German 
Suisser Jesuit, Ursicd Hosd, divides them in maciUas et 
foundasy and will have them to be fixed in Solis superficie ; 
and to absolve their periodical and regular motion in twenty- 
seven or twenty-eight days, holding withal the rotation of the 
sun upon his centre ; and all are so confident, that they have 
made schemes and tables of their motions. The ^ Hollander, 
in his dissertatiuncula cum Apelle, censures all; and thus 
they disagree amongst themselves, old and new, irreconcilable 
in their opinions; thus Aristarchus, thus Hipparchus, thus 
Ptolemeus, thus Albateginus, thus Alfraganus, thus Tycho, 
thus Ramerus, thus Roeslinus, thus Fracastorius, thus Coper- 
nicus and his adherents, thus Clavius and Maginus, &c., with 
their followers, vary and determine of these celestial orbs and 
bodies; and so whilst these men contend about the sun and 

blockheads aT<^d one Ikult, they fitll into orbibus ferantur, non longi a Sole diasi- 

its opposite." * Jo. Fabricius de mac- tis, sed juzta Solem. * Braccini fol. 

ulis in sole. Witeb. 1611. i In Bur- 16d0, Ub. 4, cap. 52, 56, 69, &c. « Lug. 

boniis sideribus. s Lib. de Burboniis dun. Bat. An. 1612. 
sid. StelUe sunt erraticae, qaee propriis 

Mem. 3-] Digression of Air. 153 

moon, like the philosophers in Lucian, it is to be feared, the 
sun and moon will hide themselves, and be as much offended 
as ^ she was with those, and send another messenger to Jupi- 
ter, by some newfangled Icaromenippus, to make an end of 
all those curious controversies, and scatter them abroad. 

But why should the sun and moon be angry, or take ex- 
ceptions at mathematicians and philosophers ? when as the 
like measure is offered unto Grod himself by a company of 
theologasters : they are not contented to see the sun and 
moon, measure their site and bluest distance in a glass, cal- 
culate their motions, or visit the moon in a poetical fiction, or 
a dream, as he saith, ^ Audax fotcinus et memorabile nunc in- 
cipiam, neqtie hoc scBCtdo usurpatum prius, quid in Lwmb 
regno hdc nocte gestum sit exponam, et quo nemo unquam nisi 
somniando pervenit, ' but he and Menippus ; or as * Peter 
Cuneus, BoTid fide agam^ nihil eorum qua scripiurus sum^ 
verum esse scitote, S^c, quce necfactcL, nee futura sunt, dicamy 
^ stili tantum et ingenii causa, not in jest, but in good earnest 
these gigantical Cyclops will transcend spheres, heaven, stars, 
into that empyrean heaven ; soar higher yet, and see what 
God himself doth. The Jewish Talmudists take upon them 
to determine how God spends his whole time, sometimes 
playing with Leviathan, sometimes overseeing the world, &c., 
like Lucian's Jupiter, that spent much of the year in painting 
butterflies' wings, and seeing who offered sacrifice ; telling the 
hours when it should rain, how much snow should fall in such 
a place, which way the wind should stand in Greece, which 
way in Africa. In the Turks' Alcoran, Mahomet is taken 
up to heaven, upon a Pegasus sent on purpose for him, as he 
lay in bed with his wife, and after some conference with God 
is set on ground again. The pagans paint him and mangle 
him after a thousand fashions ; our heretics, schismatics, and 

1 Ne se snbducant, et relicta statione I shall explain this night's transactions 

deoessum parent, ut curiositatis flnem in the kingdom of the moon, a place 

feciant. s Hercules tuam fidem Satyra wh^re no one has yet arrired, sare in his 

Menip. edit. 1608. ^ " I shall now en- dreams." * Sardi venales Satyr. Menip. 

ter upon a bold and memorable exploit ; An. 1612. & Puteani Comus sic incipit, 

one never before attempted in this age. or as Lipdus Satyre in a dream. 

lo4 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

some schoolmen, come not far behind : some paint him in the 
habit of an old man, and make maps of heaven, number the 
angels, tell their several * names, offices ; some deny God 
and his providence, some take his office out of* his hand, will 
^ bind and loose in heaven, release, pardon, forgive, and be 
quartermaster with him ; some call his Godhead in question, 
his power, and attributes, his mercy, justice, providence ; they 
will know with ' Cecilius, why good and bad are punished 
together, war, fires, plagues, infest all alike, why wicked men 
flourish, good are poor, in prison, sick, and ill at ease. Why 
doth he suffer so much mischief and evil to be done, if he be 
* able to help ? why doth he not assist good, or resist bad, re- 
form our wills, if he be not the author of sin, and let such 
enormities be committed, unworthy of his knowledge, wisdom, 
government, mercy, and providence, why lets he all things be 
done by fortune and chance ? Others as prodigiously inquire 
after his omnipotency, an possit plures similes creare deos ? 
an ex scarahceo deum f S^c,, et quo demum ruetis sacrijiculi f 
Some, by visions and revelations, take upon them to be famil- 
iar with Gk>d, and to be of privy council with him ; they will 
tell how many, and who shall be saved, when the world shall 
come to an end, what year, what month, and whatsoever else 
God hath reserved unto himself, and to his angels. Some 
again, curious fantastics, will know more than this, and in- 
quire with * Epicurus, what God did before the world was 
made ? was he idle ? Where did he bide ? What did he 
make the world of? why did he then make it, and not before? 
If he made it new, or to have an end, how is he unchange- 
able, infinite, &c. Some will dispute, cavil, and object, as 
Julian did of old, whom Cyril confutes, as Simon Magus is 
feigned to do, in that • dialogue betwixt him and Peter ; and 

1 Tritemiiu, I. de 7, secundis. * They > Quid fecit Dens ante mnndnm creatnm ? 

haye fetched Trajanus'g soul out of hell, ubi vixit otiosus k 8uo subjecto, &c. 

and canonize for aaints whom they list. ^ Lib. 3, lecog. Pet. cap. 8. Peter an- 

3 In Minutius, fdne delectu tempestates swers by the simile of an ^^-shell, which 
tangunt loca sacra et pro&na, bonorum is cunningly made, yet of necessity to be 
et malorum fata juxta, nullo ordine res broken; so is the world, &c., that the 
flunt, soluta legibus fortuna dominatur. excellent state of hearen might be made 

4 Vel malus Tel impotens, qui peccatum manifest, 
permittit, &c., unde hasc superstitio? 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 155 

Ammonius the philosopher, in that dialogical disputation with 
Zacharias the Christian. If God be infinitely and only good, 
why should he alter or destroy the world ? if he confound 
that which is good, how shall himself continue good ? If he 
pull it down because evil, how /hall he be free from the evil 
that made it evil ? &c., with many such absurd and brain-sick 
questions, intricacies, froth of human wit, and excrements of 
curiosity, &c., which, as our Saviour told his inquisitive dis- 
ciples, are not Qt for them to know. But hoo ! I am now 
gone quite out of sight, I am almost giddy with roving about ; 
I could have ranged farther yet ; but I am an infant, and not 
^ able to dive into these profundities, or sound these depths ; 
not able to understand, much less to discuss. I leave the 
contemplation of these things to stronger wits, that have bet- 
ter ability, and happier leisure to wade into such philosophi- 
cal mysteries ; for put case I were as able as willing, yet 
what can one man do ? I will conclude with * Scaliger, Ne- 
quaquam nos homines summ, sed partes hominis, ex omnibus 
aUquid fieri potest, idque non magnum ; ex singvlis fere ni- 
hil. Besides (as Nazianzen hath it), Deus latere nos multa 
voluit ; and with Seneca, cap, 35, de Gometis, Quid miramur 
tarn rara mundi spectactda non teneri certis legibus, nondum 
inteUigif mtdtcB suntgentes quae tantum de facie sciunt coelum, 
veniet tempus fortasse, quo ista quae nunc latent in lucem dies 
extrahat et longioris CBvi diligentia, una cetas non sujfficit, pos- 
teri, S^c, when Grod sees his time, he will reveal these myste- 
ries to mortal men, and show that to some few at last, which 
he hath concealed so long. For I am of ' his mind, that Co- 
lumbus did not find out America by chance, but God directed 
him at that time to discover it ; it was contingent to him, but 
necessary to God; he reveals and conceals to whom and 
when he will. And which * one said of history, and records 
of former times, " God in his providence, to check our pre- 
sumptuous inquisition, wraps up all things in uncertainty, 

1 Ut me plama levat, sic grave mergit script, occid. Indise. * Daniel, princlp- 
onuB. s Bxercit. 184. ^ Laet. do- io historiae. 

156 Oure of Melancholy, [Part. n.. sec. 2. 

bars us from long antiquity, and bounds our search within 
the compass of some few ages ; " many good things are lost, 
which our predecessors made use of, as Pancirola will better 
inform you ; many new things are daily invented, to the pub- 
lic good ; so kingdoms, men and knowledge ebb and flow, are 
hid and revealed, and when you have all done, as the 
Preacher concluded. Nihil est sub sole novum (nothing new 
under the sun). But my melancholy spaniel's quest, my 
game is sprung, and I must suddenly come down and follow. 
Jason Pratensis, in his book de morbis capitis, and chapter 
of melancholy, hath these words out of Gralen, ^ " Let them 
come to me to know what meat and drink they shall use, and 
besides that, I will teach them what temper of ambient air 
they shall make choice of, what wind, what countries they 
shall choose, and what avoid." Out of which lines of his, 
thus much we may gather, that to this cure of melancholy, 
amongst other things, the rectification of air is necessarily 
required. This is performed, either in reforming natural or 
artificial air. Natural is that which is in our election to 
choose or avoid ; and 'tis either general, to countries, prov- 
inces ; particular, to cities, towns, villages, or private houses. 
What harm those extremities of heat or cold do in this 
malady, I have formerly shown ; the medium must needs be 
good, where the air is temperate, serene, quiet, free from 
bogs, fens, mists, all manner of putrefaction, contagious and 
filthy noisome smells. The * Egyptians by all geographers 
are commended to be hilares, a conceited and merry nation ; 
which I 'can ascribe to no other cause than the serenity of 
their air. They that live in the Orcades are registered by 
'Hector Boethius and * Cardan, to be of fair complexion, 
long-lived, most healthful, free from all manner of infirmities 
of body and mind, by reason of a sharp purifying air, which 
comes from the sea. The Boeotians in Greece were dull and 

1 Teniant ad me audituri qao esculento, riem, ingnper regiones quas eligere, qoas 

quo item poculento uti debeant, et prse- vitare ex van sit. > Leo Afer, M&fA' 

ter alimentum ipsum potumque, rentos nu8, &c. s Lib. 1, Scot. Hist. * Lib. 

ipsoB docebo, item a@ris ambientis tempe- 1, de rer. var. 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 157 

heavy, crassi Boeoti, by reason of a foggy air in which they 
lived, ^ Bceotum in crasso jurares aere ncUum, Attica most 
acute, pleasant, and refined. The clime changes not so much 
customs, manners, wits (as Aristotle, Polit, lib. 6, cap. 4, 
Vegetius, Plato, Bodine, method, hist. cap. 5, hath proved at 
large,) as constitutions of their bodies, and temperature itself. 
In all particular provinces we see it confirmed by experience, 
as the air is, so are the inhabitants, dull, heavy, witty, subtle, 
neat, cleanly, clownish, sick, and sound. In ^ Ferigord in 
France the air is subtile, healthful, seldom any plague or con- 
tagious disease, but hilly and barren ; the men sound, nimble, 
and lusty ; but in some parts of Guienne, full of moors and 
marshes, the people dull, heavy, and subject to many infirm- 
ities. Who sees not a great difference between Surrey, Sus- 
sex, and Komney Marsh, the wolds in Lincolnshire and the 
fens. He therefore that loves his health, if his ability will 
give him leave, must often shiil places, and make choice of 
such as are wholesome, pleasant, and convenient; there is 
nothing better than change of air in this malady, and gener- 
ally for health to wander up and down, as those ^Tartari 
Zamolhenses, that live in hordes, and take opportunity of 
times, places, seasons. The kings of Persia had their sum- 
mer and winter houses ; in winter at Sardis, in summer at 
Susa ; now at Persepolis, then at Pasargada. Cyrus lived 
seven cold months at Babylon, three at Susa, two at Ecbar 
tana, saith ^ Xenophon, and had by that means a perpetual 
spring. The great Turk sojourns sometimes at Constanti- 
nople, sometimes at Adrianople, &c. The kings of Spain 
have their Escurial in heat of summer, * Madrid for a whole- 
some seat, Valladolid a pleasant site, &c., variety of secessm 
as all princes and great men have, and their several progress- 
es to this purpose. Lucullus the Roman had his house at 
Home, at Baise, &c. ® When Cn. Pompeius, Marcus Cicero 

1 Horat. s Maginns. « Haitoniis Albertua In Campania, k Plutarcho Titft 

de Tartaris. * Cyropeed. li. 8, perpetu- Luculli. Cim Cn. Pompeius, Marcus 

van. inde rer. & The air bo clear, it Cicero, multique nobiles Tiri L. Lucul- 

neyer breeds the plague. ^ Leander lum SBStiro tempore conTenissent, Pom- 

158 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

(saith Plutarch) and many noble men in the summer came 
to see him, at supper Pompeius jested with him, that it was 
an elegant and pleasant village, full of windows, galleries, 
and all offices fit for a summer house ; but in his judgment 
very unfit for winter ; LucuUus made answer that the lord 
of the house had wit like a crane, that changeth her country 
with the season ; he had other houses furnished and built for 
that purpose, all out as commodious as this. So Tully had 
his Tusculan, Plinius his Lauretan village, and every gentle- 
man of any fashion in our times hath the like. The ^ Bishop 
of Exeter had fourteen several houses all furnished, in times 
past. In Italy, though they bide in cities in winter, which 
is more gentleman-like, all the summer they come abroad to 
their country-houses, to recreate themselves. Our gentry in 
England live most part in the country (except it be some few 
castles) building still in bottoms (saith ^Jovius) or near 
woods, corona arhorum virentium ; you shall know a village 
by a tuft of trees at or about it, to avoid those strong winds 
wherewith the island is infested, and cold winter blasts. 
Some discommend moated houses, as unwholesome ; so Cam- 
den saith of * Ew-elme, that it was therefore unfrequented, 
oh stagni vicini halttits, and all such places as be near lakes 
or rivers. But I am of opinion that these inconveniences 
will be mitigated, or easily corrected by good fires, as * one 
reports of Venice, that graveolentia and fog of the moors is 
sufficiently qualified by those innumerable smokes. Nay 
more, * Thomas Philol. Ravennas, a great physician, con- 
tends that the Venetians are generally longer-lived than any 
city in Europe, and live many of them 120 years. But it is 
not water simply that so much offends, as the slime and 
noisome smells that accompany such overflowed places, which 
is but at some few seasons after a flood, and is sufficiently 
recompensed with sweet smells and aspects in summer, Ver 

peius inter coenam dum fioniliariter joca- Voysye al. Harman. < Descript. Brit. 

tus est, earn Tillam imprimis sibi sump- ^ in Oxfordshire. * Leander Albertus. 

tuosam, et elegantem videri, fenestris, 6 Gap. 21, de yit. horn, prorog. 
portidbas, &o. i Qodwin, rita Jo. 

Mem. 8.] Digression of Air, 159 

pinget vario gemmantta prcUa colore, and many other com- 
modities of pleasure and profit ; or else may be corrected by 
the site, if it be somewhat remote from the water, as Lindley, 
^ Orton super montem, ^ Drayton, or a little more elevated, 
though nearer, as ' Caucut, *Amington, *Polesworth, • Wed- 
dington (to insist in such places best to me known, upon the 
river of Anker, in Warwickshire, "^ Swarston, and * Drakesly 
upon Trent). Or howsoever they be unseasonable in winter, 
or at some times, they have their good use in summer. If 
so be that their means be so slender as they may not admit 
of any such variety, but must determine once for all, and 
make one house serve each season, I know no men that have 
given better rules in this behalf than our husbandry writers. 
* Cato and Columella prescribe a good house to stand by a 
navigable river, good highways, near some city, and in a good 
soil, but that is more for commodity than health. 

The best soil commonly yields the worst air, a dry sandy 
plat is fittest to build upon, and such as is rather hilly than 
plain, full of downs, a Cotswold country, as being most com- 
modious for hawking, hunting, wood, waters, and all manner 
of pleasures. Perigord in France is barren, yet by reason 
of the excellency of the air, and such pleasures that it affords, 
much inhabited by the nobility ; as Nuremberg in Germany, 
Toledo in Spain. Our countryman Tusser will tell us so 
much, that the fieldone is for profit, the woodland for pleasure 
and health ; the one commonly a deep clay, therefore noisome 
in winter, and subject to bad highways ; the other a dry sand. 
Provision may be had elsewhere, and our towns are generally 
bigger in the woodland than the fieldone, more frequent and 
populous, and gentlemen more delight to dwell in such places. 
Sutton Coldfield in Warwickshire (where I was once a gram- 
mar scholar), may be a sufficient witness, which stands, as 
Camden notes, loco ingrato et steriU, but in an excellent air, 

1 The poewssion of Robert Bradshaw, ^ The d^velling-house of Hum. Adderley, 

Esq. 2 Of George Purefey, Esq. s The Esq. 7 Sir John Harpar's, lately de- 

possesfdon of William Purefey, Esq. ceased. 8 gir Qeorge Greselies, Kt. 

* The seat of Sir John Reppington, Kt. » Lib. 1, cap. 2. 
A Sir Henry Qoodleres, lately deceased. 

160 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

and full of all manner of pleasures. ^ Wadley in Berkshire 
is situate in a vale, thougli not so fertile a soil as some vales 
afford, yet a most commodious sight, wholesome, in a delicious 
air, a rich and pleasant seat. So Segrave in Leicestershire 
(which town ^ I am now bound to remember) is situated in a 
champaign, at the edg^ of the wolds, and more barren than 
the villages about it, yet no place likely yields a better air. 
And he that built that fair house, * Wollerton in Nottingham- 
shire, is much to be commended (though the tract be sandy 
and barren about it) for making choice of such a place. 
Constantine, lib. 2, cap, de AgricvU, praiseth mountains, hilly, 
steep places, above the rest by the seaside, and such as look 
toward the * north upon some great river, as ^Farmack in 
Derbyshire, on the Trent, environed with hills, open only to 
the north, like Mount Edgecombe in Cornwall, which ^ Mr. 
Carew so much admires for an excellent seat ; such is the 
general site of Bohemia; serenat Boreas^ the north wind 
clarifies, ''"but near lakes or marshes, in holes, obscure 
places, or to the south and west, he utterly disproves," those 
winds are unwholesome, putrefying, and make men subject 
to diseases. The best building for health, according to him, 
is in ® " high places, and in an excellent prospect," like that 
of Cuddeston in Oxfordshire (which place I must honoris ergo 
mention) is lately and fairly ® built in a good air, good pros- 
pect, good soil, both for profit and pleasure, not so easily to 
be matched. P. Crescentius, in his lib, 1, de Agric, cap, 5, 
is very copious in this subject, how a house should be whole- 
somely sited, in a good coast, good air, wind, &c., Varro, de re 
rust, lib. 1, cap. 12, ^° forbids lakes and rivers, marshy and 

1 The seat of G. Purefey, Esq. « For domxis sunt morbosse. 8 Oportet 

I am now incumbent of that rectory, igitur ad sanitatem domusin altioribus 

presented thereto by my right honour- eedificare, et ad speculatibnem. » By 

able patron the Lord Berkley. » Sir John Bancroft, Dr. of Divinity, my 

Francis Willoughby. 4 Montani et quondam tutor in Christ Church, Ozon., 

maritimi salubriores, acclives, et ad Bore- now the Right Rererend Lord Bishop 

am Tergentes. 6 The dwelling of Sir Ozon., who built this house for himself 

To. Burdet, Knight, Baronet. 6 In his and his successors. lo Hyeme erit 

Survey of Cornwall, book 2. 7 Prop^ vehementer Mgida, et sestate non sa- 

paludes, stagna, et loca concava, vel ad lubris : paludes enim fociunt crassum 

Austrum, vel ad Occidentem inclinata:, atlrem, et difflciles morbos. 

Mem. 8.] Air rectified. 161 

manured grounds, they cause a bad air, gross diseases, hard 
to be cured ; ^ " if it be so that he cannot help it, better (as 
he adviseth) sell thy house and land than lose thine health." 
He that respects not this in choosing of his seat, or building 
his house, is mente capitis, mad, ^ Cato saith, '^ and his dwell- 
ing next to hell itself," according to Columella ; he commends, 
in conclusion, the middle of a hill, upon a descent Baptista 
Porta, ViUa, lib. 1, cap. 22, censures Varro, Cato, Columella, 
and those ancient rustics, approving many things, disallowing 
some, and will by all means have the front of a house stand to 
the south, which how it may be good in Italy and hotter climes, 
I know not, in our northern countries I am sure it is best ; 
Stephanus, a Frenchman, prcedio rustic, lib. 1, cap. 4, sub- 
scribes to this, approving especially the descent of a hill south 
or southeast, with trees to the north, so that it be well watered ; 
a condition in all sites which must not be omitted, as Herber- 
stein inculcates, lib. 1. Julius Caesar Claudinus, a physician, 
consult. 24, for a nobleman in Poland, melancholy given, ad- 
viseth him to dwell in a house inclining to the *east, and * by 
all means to provide the air be clear and sweet ; which Mon- 
tanus, consiL 229, counselleth the Earl of Monfort, his patient, 
to inhabit a pleasant house, and in a good air. If it be so the 
natural site may not be altered of our city, town, village, yet 
by artificial means it may be helped. In hot countries, there- 
fore, they make the streets of their cities very narrow, all 
over Spain, Africa, Italy, Greece, and many cities of France, 
in Languedoc especially, and Provence, those southern parts ; 
Montpelier, the habitation and university of physicians, is so 
built, with high houses, narrow streets, to divert the sun's 
scalding rays, which Tacitus commends, lib. 15, Annai. as most 
agreeing to their health, * " because the height of buildings, 
and narrowness of streets, keep away the sunbeams." Some 
cities use galleries, or arched cloisters towards the street, as 

1 Vendas quot assibus ponsis, et si ne- a^r clarus, Incidos, odoriferus. Eligat 

qneas, relinqnas. ^Lib. 1, cap. 2, in habitationem optimo a^re jucundam. 

Oreo habita. & Aurora musis arnica, 6 Qaoniam angostiae Itinerum et altitudo 

Vitruy. * MAea Orientem spectantes tectorum, non perinde Solis calorem ad- 

vir nobilissimiui iahabitet, et curet ut sit mittit. 

VOL. II. 11 

1 62 Cure of MeUmcholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

Damascus, Bologna, Padua, Berne in Switzerland, Westches- 
ter with us, as well to avoid tempests, as the sun's scorching 
heat They build on high hills, in hot countries, for more 
air ; or to the seaside, as Baiae, Naples, &c« In our northern 
coasts we are opposite, we commend straight, broad, open, fair 
streets, as most befitting and agreeing to our clime. We build 
in bottoms for warmth ; and that site of Mitjlene in the island 
of Lesbos, in the .^gean sea, which Yitruvius so much dis- 
commends, magnificently built with fair houses, sed imprU' 
denier poeitam, unadvisedly sited, because it lay along to the 
south, and when the south wind blew, the people were all sick, 
would make an excellent site in our northern climes. 

Of that artificial site of houses I have sufficiently dis- 
coursed ; if the plan of the dwelling may not be altered, yet 
there is much in choice of such a chamber or room, in oppor- 
tune opening and shutting of windows, excluding foreign air 
and winds, and walking abroad at convenient times. ^ Crato, 
a German, commends east and south site (disallowing cold 
air and northern winds in this case, rainy weather and misty 
days), free from putrefaction, fens, bogs, and muckhills. If 
the air be such, open no windows, come not abroad. Monta- 
nus will have his patient not to ^stir at all, if the wind be 
big or tempestuous, as most part in March it is with us ; or 
in cloudy, lowering, dark days, as in November, which we 
commonly call the black month ; or stormy, let the wind stand 
how it will, consiL 27 and 30, he must not ® " open a casement 
in bad weather," or in a boisterous season, consiL 299, he 
especially forbids us to open windows to a south wind. The 
best sites for chamber windows, in my judgment, are north, 
east, south, and which is the worst, west Levinus Lemnius, 
lib, 3, cap, 3, de occult, not. mir,, attributes so much to air, 
and rectifying of wind and windows, that he holds it alone 
sufficient to make a man sick or well; to alter body and 
mind. *"A clear air cheers up the spirits, exhilarates the 

1 Oonsll. 21, li. 2. Frigidas aSr, nubi- aeptentrionales, &c. * Consil. 24. 

I08U8, densufl, yitandus, aequ^ ac yenti > Fenestram non aperlat. ^ Disotttit 

Mem. 8. J Air rectified. 163 

mind; a thick, black, misty, tempestuous, contracts, over- 
throws." Great heed is therefore to be taken at what times 
we walk, how we place our windows, lights, and houses, how 
we let in or exclude this ambient air. The Egyptians, to 
avoid immoderate heat, make their windows on the top of the 
house like chimneys, with two tunnels to draw a thorough 
air. In Spain they commonly make great opposite windows 
without glass, still shutting those which are next to the sun ; 
so likewise in Turkey and Italy (Venice excepted, which 
brags of her stately glazed palaces), they use paper windows 
to like purpose; and lie, sub dio, in the top of their flat- 
roofed houses, so sleeping under the canopy of heaven. In 
some parts of * Italy they have windmills, to draw a oooHng 
air out of hollow caves, and disperse the same through all the 
chambers of their palaces, to refresh them ; as at Costoza, 
the house of Caesareo Trento, a gentleman of Vicenza, and 
elsewhere. Many excellent means are invented to correct 
nature by art. If none of these courses help, the best way 
is to make artificial air, which howsoever is profitable and 
good, still to be made hot and moist, and to be seasoned with 
sweet perfumes, ^pleasant and lightsome as it may be; to 
have roses, violets, and sweet-smelling flowers ever in their 
windows, posies in their hand. Laurentius commends water- 
lilies, a vessel of warm water to evaporate in the room, which 
will make a more delightful perfume, if there be added 
orange-flowers, pills of citrons, rosemary, cloves, bays, rose- 
water, rose-vinegar, benzoin, labdanum, styrax, and such like 
gums, which make a pleasant and acceptable perfume. * Bes- 
sardus Bisantinus prefers the smoke of juniper to melancholy 
persons, which is in great request with us at Oxford, to 
sweeten our chambers. * Guianerius prescribes the air to be 

Sol horrorem crassi spiritfts, mentem ex- marus, car. 7. Brnel. ASr sit Ittcidus, 

hilarat, non enim tarn corpora, qnam et ben^ olens, humidus. Montaltus idem 

animi mutationem inde subeunt, pro ca. 26. Olfactus rerum suayium. Lau- 

coeli et yentorum ratione, et sani alitor rentius, c. 8. ^ Ant. Philos. cap. de 

a£Eecti coelo nub^lo, aliter flereno. De melanch. * Tract. 16, c. 9, ex redolen- 

naturft ventorum, see Pliny, lib. 2, cap. tibus herbis et foliis yitis yinifersB) salicis, 

26. 27, 28. Strabo, li. 7, &c. i Fines &c. 
aiorison, part. 1, c. 4. ^ Alto- 

164 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. z. 

moistened with water, and sweet herbs boiled in it, vine, and 
sallow leaves, &c., ^to besprinkle the ground and posts with 
rose-water, rose-vinegar, which Avicenna much approves. 
Of colours it is good to behold green, red, yellow, and white, 
and by all means to have light enough, with windows in the 
day, wax candles in the night, neat chambers, good fires in 
winter, merry companions ; for though melancholy persons 
love to be dark and alone, yet darkness is a great increaser 
of the humour. 

Although our ordinary air be good by nature or art, yet it 
is not amiss, as I have said, still to alter it ; no better physic 
for a melancholy man than change of air, and variety of 
places, to travel abroad and see fashions. ^ Leo Afer speaks 
of many of his countrymen so cured, without all other physic ; 
amongst the negroes, " there is such an excellent air, that 
if any of them be sick elsewhere, and brought thither, he is 
instantly recovered, of which he was often an eyewitness." 
* Lipsius, Zuinger, and some others, add as much of ordinary 
travel. No man, saith Lipsius, in an epistle to Phil. Lanoius, 
a noble friend of his, now ready to make a voyage, * " can be 
such a stock or stone, whom that pleasant speculation of coun- 
tries, cities, towns, rivers, will not affect." * Seneca the phi- 
losopher was infinitely taken with the sight of Scipio Airi- 
canus's house, near Lintemum, to view those old buildings, 
cisterns, baths, tombs, &c. And how was ^Tully pleased 
with the sight of Athens, to behold those ancient and fair 
buildings, with a remembrance of their worthy inhabitants. 
Paulus -^milius, that renowned Roman captain, after he had 
conquered Perseus, the last king of Macedonia, and now 
made an end of his tedious wars, though he had been long 
absent from Rome, and much there desired, about the begin- 
ning of autumn (as 'Livy describes it) made a pleasant 

1 Payimentuia aeeto et aqua roaaoea peregriaat. < Eplst. 2, oen. 1. Neo 

irrorare, Laurent, c. 8. * Lib. 1, cap. quisqaam tain lapis aut frutez, qnem 

de morb. Afrorum in Nigritarum re^- non titillat amoena ilia, yariaque specta- 

one tanta aSris temperies, ut siquis alibi tio locorum, urbium, gentium, &c. 

morbosufi e6 advehatur, optimae statim & Epist. 86. ® Lib. 2, de legibuR. 

sanitati restituatur, quod multis acci- 7 Lib. 46. 
disse ipse meis oculls yidi. >Lib. de 

- tu SB" ' p, i. up- i^a^^Lw «.- ^^. ,^M^\ Mjf ' ■! .j^gm^mfrnwa^rsa^^m^mm^^t^ 

Mem. 8.] Air rectified, 165 

peregrination all over Greece, accompanied with his son 
Scipio, and Atheneus the brother of King Eumenes, leaving 
the charge of his army with Sulpicius Gallus. By Thessaly 
he went to Delphos, thence to Megaris, Aulis, Athens, Argos, 
Lacedaemon, Megalopolis, «fec. He took great content, ex- 
ceeding delight in that his voyage, as who doth not that shall 
attempt the like, though his travel be ad jactationem magis 
quam ad usum reipvh. (as *one well observes) to crack, gaze, 
see fine sights and fashions, spend time, rather than for his 
own or public good ? (as it is to many gallants that travel out 
their best days, together with their means, manners, honesty, 
religion,) yet it availeth howsoever. For peregination charms 
our senses with such unspeakable and sweet variety, ^ that 
some count him unhappy that never travelled, and pity his 
case, that from his cradle to his old age beholds the same 
still ; still, stiU the same, the same. Insomuch that ^ Bhasis, 
cont lib, 1, Tract. 2, doth not only commend, but enjoin travel, 
and such variety of objects to a melancholy man, " and to lie 
in diverse inns, to b^ drawn into several companies ; " Mon- 
taltus, cap. 36, and many neoterics are of the same mind ; 
Celsus adviseth him therefore that will continue his health, to 
have vdkium vita genus, diver&dty of callings, occupations, to 
be busied about, * ^' sometimes to live in the city, sometimes 
in the country; now to study or work, to be intent, then 
again to hawk or hunt, swim, run, ride, or exercise himself." 
A good prospect alone will ease melancholy, as Comesius 
contends, lib. 2, c. 7, de Sale. The citizens of •* Barcino, 
saith he, otherwise penned in, melancholy, and stirring little 
abroad, are much delighted with that pleasant prospect their 
city hath into the sea, which like that of old Athens besides 
.^gina Salamina, and many pleasant islands, had all the 
variety of delicious objects ; so are those Neapolitans and 
inhabitants of Genoa, to see the ships, boats, and passengers 

1 Keckerman, praefiit. polit. * Fines divenoriis. * Mod6 ruri esse, mod6 in 

Morison, c. 3, part. 1. > Mntatio de nrbe, snpiiiB in agro yenari, &c. ^ In 

loco in loenm, itinera, et roiagia longa et Catalonia in Spain, 
indeterminata, et hospitare in diTersii 

166 Oiire of Melancholy » [Part. II. sec. 2. 

go by, out of their windows, their whole cities being situated 
on the side of a hill, like Pera by Constantinople, so that each 
house almost hath a free prospect to the sea, as some part of 
London to the Thames ; or to have a free prospect all over 
the city at once, as at Granada in Spain, and Fez in Africa, 
the river running betwixt two declining hills, the steejmess 
causeth each house almost as well to oversee, as to be over- 
seen of the rest. Every country is full of such * delightsome 
prospects, as well witiiin land, as by sea, as Hermon and 
^ Rama in Palestina, Colalto in Italy, the top of Tagetus, or 
Acrocorinthus, that old decayed castle in Corinth, from which 
Peloponnesus, Greece, the Ionian and JEgean seas were 
semel et stmul at one viev to be taken. In Egypt the square 
top of the great pyramid, three hundred yards in height, and 
so the sultan's palace in Grand Cairo, the country being plain, 
hath a marvellous fair prospect as well over Nilus, as that 
great city, ^^^ Italian miles long, and two broad, by the river 
side ; from Mount Sion in Jerusalem, the Holy Land is of all 
sides to be seen ; such high places are irffinite ; with us those 
of the best note are Glastonbury tower. Box Hill in Surrey, 
Bever Castle, Rodway Grange, "Walsby in Lincolnshire, 
where I lately received a real kindness, by the munificence 
of the right honourable my noble lady and patroness, the 
Lady Frances, countess dowager of Exeter ; and two amongst 
the rest, which I may not omit for vicinity's sake, Oldbury in 
the confines of Warwickshire, where I have often looked 
about me with great delight, at the foot of which hill, * I was 
born ; and Hanbury in Staffordshire, contiguous to which is 
Falde, a pleasant village, and an ancient patrimony belonging 
to our family, now in the possession of mine elder brother, 
William Burton, Enquire. * Barclay the Scot commends that 
of Greenwich tower for one of the best prospects in Europe, 
to see London on the one side, the Thames, ships, and pleas- 

1 Laudaturque domus longos qiue pros- cial reasons. * At Lindley in Leicester- 

plcit agros. > Many towns there are of shire, the possession and dwelling-place 

that name, saith Adricomius, all high- of Ralph Burton, Esquire, my late de- 

sited. 3 Lately resigned for some spe- ceased fitther. ^ la loon animorum. 

Mem. 4.] JExercise rectified. 167 

ant meadows on the other. There be those that saj as much 
and more of St. Mark's steeple in Venice. Yet these are at 
too great a distance ; some are especially affected with such 
objects as be near, to see passengers go bj in some great road- 
way, or boats in a river, in subjeotum forum despicerey to over- 
see a fair, a market-place, or out of a pleasant window into 
some thoroughfare street, to behold a continual concourse, a 
promiscuous rout, coming and going, or a multitude of spec- 
tators at a theatre, a mask, or some such like show. But I 
rove ; the sum is this, that variety of actions, objects, air, 
places, are excellent good in this infirmity, and all others, 
good for man, good for beast. ^ Constantine the emperor, 
lib. 18, cap. 13, ex Leontio, '^ holds it an only cure for rotten 
sheep, and any manner of sick cattle." Lselius k fonte ^u- 
gubinus, that great doctor, at the latter end of many of his 
consultations, (as commonly he doth set down what success 
his physic had,) in melancholy most especially approves of 
this above all other remedies whatsoever, as appears consult, 
69, consult. 229, &a ^^'Many other things helped, but 
change of air was that which wrought the cure, and did most 


Exercise rectified of Body and Mind. 

To that great inconvenience, which comes on tHe one side 
by immoderate and unseasonable exercise, too much solitari- 
ness and idleness on the other, must be opposed as an anti- 
dote, a moderate and seasonable use of it, and that both of 
body and mind, as a most material circumstance, much con- 
ducing to this cure, and to the general preservation of our 
health. The heavens themselves run continually round, the 
sun riseth and sets, the moon increaseth and decreaseth, stars 

1 .Xgrotantes oyes in aUnm locum roborentnr. * Alia utilia, sed ex mu- 
transportandae sunt, at aUum agrem et tatione ^JUiAb potissimam curatus. 
aquam partkipantes, coalescant et oor- 

168 Oure of Melanchohf. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

and planets keep their constant motions, the air is still tossed 
by the winds, the waters ebb and flow to their conservation 
no doubt, to teach us that we should ever be in action. For 
which cause Hierom prescribes Rusticus the monk, that he be 
always occupied about some business or other, *"that the 
devil do not find him idle." ^ Seneca would have a man do 
something, though it be to no purpose. • Xenophon wisheth 
one rather to play at tables, dice, or make a jester of himself 
(though he might be far better employed), than do nothing. 
The ^ Egyptians of old, and many flourishing commonwealths 
since, have enjoined labour and exercise to all sorts of men, 
to be of some vocation and calling, and to give an account of 
their time, to prevent those grievous mischiefs that come by 
idleness ; " for as fodder, whip, and burden belong to the 
ass, so meat, correction, and work unto the servant," Ecdus. 
xxxiii. 23. The Turks enjoin all men whatsoever, of what 
degree, to be of some trade or other, the Grand Seignior him- 
self is not excused. ^ " In our memory (saith Sabellicus), 
Mahomet the Turk, he that conquered Greece, at that very 
time when he heard ambassadors of other princes, did either 
carve or cut wooden spoons, or frame something upon a table." 
* This present sultan makes notches for bows. The Jews are 
most severe in this examination of time. All well-governed 
places, towns, families, and every discreet person will be a 
law unto himself. But amongst us the badge of gentry is 
idleness ; to be of no calling, not to labour, for that's derog- 
atory to their birth, to be a mere spectator, a drone, fruges 
consumere natus, to have no necessary employment to busy 
himself about in church and commonwealth (some few govern- 
ors exempted), " but to rise to eat," &c., to spend his days 
in hawking, hunting, &c., and such like disports and recrea- 
tions Q which our casuists tax), are the sole exercise almost, 

1 Ne te daemon otiosmn inreniat. hometes Othomannus qui Oraeeinimpe- 

s Praestat aliud agere qnam nihil. ' Lib. rium subyertit, cum oratorum postulata 

8, de dictis Socratis. Qui tesraris et risui audiret extemarum gentium, cochlearia 

excitando yacant, aliquid &ciunt, etsi lignea assidu^ caelabat, aut aliquid in 

liceret his meliora agere. * Ama^is tabula afOingebat. o Sand«, fol. 87, of 

compelled eyery man once a year to tell his yoyi^ to Jerusalem. 7 Perkins, 

how he lived. & NostrSl memoriSl Bia- Cases of Conscience, 1. 8, c. 4, q. 8. 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified, 169 

and ordinary actions of our nobility, and in which tbej are 
too immoderate. And thence it comes to pass, that in city 
and country so many grievances of body and mind, and this 
feral disease of melancholy so frequently rageth, and now 
domineers almost all over Europe amongst our great ones. 
They know not how to spend their time (disports excepted, 
which are all their business), what to do, or otherwise how to 
bestow themselves; like our modem Frenchmen, that had 
rather lose a pound of blood in a single combat, than a drop 
of sweat in any honest labour. Every man almost hath 
something or other to employ hitnself about, some vocation, 
some trade, but they do all by ministers and servants, ad otia 
duntaxcU se natbs existimant, imd ad sui ipsius plerumque et 
altorum pemictem, ^ as one freely taxeth such kind of men, 
they are all for pastimes, 'tis aU their study, aU their inven- 
tion tends to this alone, to drive away time, as if they were 
born some of them to no other ends. Therefore to correct 
and avoid these errors and inconveniences, our divines, phy- 
sicians, and politicians so much labour, and so seriously ex- 
hort ; and for this disease in particular, ^ ^< there can be no 
better cure than continual business," as Rhasis holds, ^ to 
have some employment or other, which may set their mind 
awork, and distract their cogitations.'' Riches may not easily 
be had without labour and industry, nor learning without 
study, neither can our health be preserved without bodily ex- 
ercise. If it be of the body, Guianerius allows that exercise 
which is gentle, ' ^ and still after those ordinary frications " 
which must be used every morning. Montaltus, cap. 26, and 
Jason Pratensis use almost the same words, highly commend- 
ing exercise if it be moderate ; " a wonderful help so used," 
Crato calls it, ^' and a great means to preserve our health, as 
adding strength to the whole body, increasing natural heat, 

1 ItUBoiniiu Gmnnio. " They seem to animos eomm, et ineutiant lis diyema 

think they were bora to idleness, — ^nay cogitationes. Gont. 1, tract. 9. > Ante 

more, fbr the destruction of themselves ezercitium, leyes toto corpore fticationes 

and others." > Non est cura melior conveniunt. Ad hunc morbum exercita- 

quam iqjnngere iis necessaria, et oppor- tiones, quum recti et suo tempore flunt, 

tuna ; operum administratio illis magnnm miriflci oonducunt, et sanitatem tttentuTf 

sanitatis inorementum, et quae preleant &c. 

170 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

by means of which the nutriment is well concocted in the 
stomach, liver, and veins, few or no crudities left, is happily 
distributed over all the body." Besides, it expels excrements 
by sweat and other insensible vapours ; insomuch, that ^ Galen 
prefers exercise before all physic, rectification of diet, or any 
regimen in what kind soever ; 'tis nature's physician. ^ Ful- 
gentius, out of Gordonius, de conserv. vit, horn. lib. 1, cap. 7, 
terms exercise, " a spur of a dull, sleepy nature, the com- 
forter of the members, cure of infirmity, death of diseases, 
destruction of all mischiefs and vices." The fittest time for 
exercise is a little before dinner, a little before supper, ® or 
at any time when the body is empty. Montanus, consiL 31, 
prescribes it every morning to his patient, and that, as * Ca- 
lenus adds, " after he hath done his ordinary needs, rubbed 
his body, washed his hands and face, combed his head, and 
gargarized." What kind of exercise he should use, Galen 
tells us, lib. 2 et Sy de sanit. tuend. and in what measure, 
*"till the body be ready to sweat," and roused up; ad 
ruborem, some say, non ad sudorem, lest it should dry the 
body too much ; others enjoin those wholesome businesses, as 
to dig so long in his garden, to hold the plough, and the like. 
Some prescribe frequent and violent labour and exercises, as 
sawing every day so long together (eptd. 6, Hippocrates con- 
founds them), but that is in some cases, to some peculiar men ; 
• the most forbid, and by no means will have it go farther 
than a beginning sweat, as being ^ perilous if it exceed. 

Of these labours, exercises, and recreations, which are 
likewise included, some properly belong to the body, some to 
the mind, some more easy, some hard, some with delight, 
some without, some within doors, some natural, some are arti- 
ficiaL Amongst bodily exercises, Galen commends ludum 

1 lib. 1, de sanitat. taend. * Exerci- manibiu et ocuUb, &e.. lib. de atra bile, 

tium natune dormientis stimulatio, mem- 6 Quousque oorpus nniTenum intumes- 

bromm solatium, morborum medela, cat, et floridum appareat, sudoreque, &c. 

fuga Titiorum. medicina laoguoram, o Omnino sudorem Titent, cap. 7, lib. 1, 

destructio omnium malomm, Crato. ValeecuB de Tar. ^ Exercitium si ex- 

8 AlimentiB inyentriculo prob^ concoctis. oedat, valde periculosum. Salust. Salvi- 

4 Jejune ventre, vesica, et alvo ab excre- anus, de remed. lib. 2, cap. 1. 
mentiR puxgato, fricatLs membris, lotis 

Mem. 4.] Exerctse recti. jitd. 171 

parvce pike, to play at ball, be it with the hand or racket, in 
tennis-courts or otherwise, it exerciseth each part of the body, 
and doth much good, so that they sweat not too much. It 
was in great request of old amongst the Greeks, Romans, 
Barbarians, mentioned by Homer, Herodotus, and Plinius. 
Some write,, that Aganella, a fair maid of Corcyra, was the 
inventor of it, for she presented the first ball that ever was 
made to Nausica, the daughter of King Aldnous, and taught 
her how to use it. 

The ordinary sports which are used abroad are hawking, 
hunting, hilares venandi lahores, * one calls them, because they 
recreate body and mind, ^another, the '"best exercise that is, 
by which alone many have been * freed from all feral dis- 
eases." Hege'sippus, lib, 1, cap. 37, relates of Herod, that 
he was eased of a grievous melancholy by that means. Plato, 
7 de leg. highly magnifies it, dividing it into three parts, " by 
land, water, air." Xenophon, in Oyropeed. graces it with a 
great name, Deorum munus, the gift of the gods, a princely 
sport, which they have ever used, saith Langius, epist. 59, 
lib. 2, as well for health as pleasure, and do at this day, it 
being the sole almost and ordinary sport of our noblemen in 
Europe, and elsewhere all over the world. Bohemus, de mor. 
gent. lib. 3, cap. 12, styles it therefore, studium nohilium^ com" 
muniter venaniur, quod sibi solis licere contendunt, 'tis all 
their study, their exercise, ordinary business, all their talk ; 
and indeed some dote too much after it, they can do nothing 
else, discourse of nought else. Paulus Jovius, descr. Brit. 
doth in some sort tax our * " English nobility for it, for living 
in the country so much, and too frequent use of it, as if they 
had no other means but hawking and hunting to approve 
themselves gentlemen with." 

Hawking comes near to hunting, the one in the air, as the 

1 Camden in Staffordshire. < Fride- prseoeptor heroum eoe & morbis animi 

rallias, lib. 1, cap. 2, optima omnium yenationibns et puris cibis tuebator. M. 

exercitationum multi ab haa solummodo Tyrius. ^ Nobilitas omnis fere urbes 

morbis liberati. ^ Josephus Querce- &8tidit, castellis, et liberiore coelo gaudet, 

tanus, dialect, polit. sect. 2, cap. 11. In- generisqne dignitatem una maxima yenar 

ter omnia ezercitia presstantise laudem tione, et fiilconum ancnpiis taetor. 
meretiir. * Ohjron in monte Pelio, 

172 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

other on the earth, a sport as much affected as the other, 
by some preferred. ^It was never heard of amongst the 
Romans, invented some twelve hundred years since, and first 
mentioned by Firmicus, lih, 5, cap. 8. The Greek emperors 
began it, and now nothing so frequent ; he is nobody that in 
the season hath not a hawk on his fist A great art, and 
many ^ books written of it. It is a wonder to hear • what is 
related of the Turks' officers in this behalf, how many thou- 
sand men are employed about it, how many hawks of all 
sorts, how much revenues consumed on that only disport, how 
much time is spent at Adrianople alone every year to that 
purpose. The * Persian kings hawk after butterflies with 
sparrows made to that use, and stares ; lesser hawks for lesser 
games they have, and bigger for the rest, that they may pro- 
duce their sport to all seasons. The Muscovian emperors 
reclaim eaglets to fly at hinds, foxes, &c., and such a one was 
sent for a present to * Queen Elizabeth ; some reclaim ravens, 
castrels, pies, &c., and man them for their pleasures. 

Fowling is more troublesome, but all out as delightsome to 
some sorts of men, be it with guns, lime, nets, glades, gins, 
strings, baits, pitfaUs, pipes, calls, stalking-horses, setting-dogs, 
decoy-ducks, &c., or otherwise. Some much delight to take 
larks with day-nets, small birds with chaflF-nets, plovers, par- 
tridge, herons, snipe, &c Henry the Third, King of Castile 
(as Mariana the Jesuit reports of him, UK 3, cap, 7,) was 
much affected * " with catching of quails," and many gentle^ 
men take a singular pleasure at morning and evening to go 
abroad with their quail-pipes, and will take any pains to sat- 
isfy their delight in that kind. The ^ Italians have gardens 
fitted to such use, with nets, bushes, glades, sparing no cost 
or industry, and are very much affected with the sport. Ty- 
cho Brahe, that great astronomer, in the chorography of his 
Isle of Huena, and Castle of Uraniburge, puts down his nets, 

1 Job. Scaliger. coxnxnen. in Cir. in fol. chi et Theodotionis ad Ptolomeum, &o. 

844. Salmuth. 23, de Nov. repert. com. > Lonicerus^ GefEreus, JotIus. < S. An- 

in Pancir. ^ Demetrius Constant! nop. tony Sherlie's relations. ^ Hacloit. 

de re accipitraria, liber a P. Gillir latin^ 8 Cotumicum aucupio. f Fines Mori- 

redditus. iBlius. epist. Aqnike Syma- son, part. 8, c. 8. 



Mem. 4.] Exerdse rectified. 178 

and manner of catching small birds, as an ornament and a 
recreation, wherein he himself was sometimes employed. 

Fishing is a kind of hunting by water, be it with nets, 
weels, baits, angling, or otherwise, and yields all out as 
much pleasure to some men as dogs or hawks. ^ ^^ When they 
draw their fish upon the bank," saith Nic. Henselius Silesi- 
ographise, cap, 3, speaking of that extraordinary delight his 
countrymen took in fishing, and in making of pools. James 
Dubravius, that Moravian, in his book de pise, telleth, how 
travelling by the highway side in Silesia, he found a noble- 
man, ^ ^' booted up to the groins," wading himself, pulling the 
nets, and labouring as much as any fisherman of them all ; 
and when some belike objected to him the baseness of his 
office, he excused himself, ^ ^^ that if other men might hunt 
hares, why should not he hunt carps?" Many gentlemen 
in like sort with us will wade up to the armholes upon such 
occasions, and voluntarily undertake that to satisfy their 
pleasure, which a poor man for a good stipend would scarce 
be hired to undergo. Plutarch, in his book de soler, animals 
speaks against all fishing, ^ '^ as a filthy, base, illiberal employ- 
ment having neither wit nor perspicacity in it, nor worth the 
labour." But he that shall consider the variety of baits for all 
seasons, and pretty devices which our anglers have invented, 
peculiar lines, false fiies, several sleights, &c., will say, that it 
deserves like commendation, requires as much study and per- 
spicacity as the rest, and is to be preferred before many of 
them. Because hawking and hunting are very laborious, 
much riding, and many dangers accompany them ; but this 
is still and quiet ; and if so be the angler catch no fish, yet 
he hath a wholesome walk to the bi'ook side, pleasant shade 
by the sweet silver streams; he hath good air, and sweet 
smells of fine fresh meadow flowers, he hears the melodious 

1 Non mi^rem voluptatem animo capi- tio leporis non sit inhooesta, nescio quo- 

unt, qvAxa. qui feras inMctantar, ant modo piscatio cyprinomm yideri debeat 

missis canibus, comprehendunt, quum pudenda. * Omnino turpis piscatio, 

retia trahentes, sqaamoMis pecudes in li- nuUo studio digna, illiberalis credita est, 

pas adducunt. * Mora plscatorum cm- qnod nullum Itabet ingenium, nullam 

ribns ocreatus. * Si principibus yena- perspicaeiam. 


174 Cure of Mdancholy. [Part. n. sec 2. 

harmony of birds, he sees the swans, herons, clucks, water- 
horns, coots, &c., and many other fowl, with their brood, 
which he thinketh better than the noise of hounds, or blast 
of horns, and all the sport that they can make. 

Many other sports and recreations there be, much in use, 
as wringing, bowling, shooting, which Ascham commends in a 
just volume, and hath in former times been enjoined by stat- 
ute as a defensive exercise, and an * honour to our land, as 
well may witness our victories in France. Keelpins, tronks, 
quoits, pitching bars, hurling, wrestling, leaping, running, 
fencing, mustring, swimming, wasters, foils, football, balloon, 
quintain, &c., and many such, which are the common recrea- 
tions of the countryfolks. Riding of great horses, running 
at rings, tilts and tournaments, horseraces, wild-goose chases, 
which are the disports of greater men, and good in them- 
selves, though many gentlemen by that means gallop quite 
out of their fortunes. 

But the most pleasant of all outward pastimes is that of 
^Areteus, deandndatio per amcena loca, to make a petty 
progress, a merry journey now and then with some good 
companions, to visit friends, see cities, castles, towns, 

8 " Visere seep 6 amnes nitidos, per amsenaque Tempe, 
£t placidas summis sectari in montibus auras/' 

^' To see the pleasant fields, the crystal fountains, 
And take the gentle air amongst the mountains." 

* To walk amongst orchards, gardens, bowers, mounts, and 
arbours, artificial wildernesses, green thickets, arches, groves, 
lawns, rivulets, fountains, and such like pleasant places, like 
that Antipchian Daphne, brooks, pools, fish-ponds, between 
wood and water, in a fair meadow, by a river side, ^ nM varits 
avium cantattones, fiorum cohres^ pratorum frviices, &c., to 
disport in some pleasant plain, park, run up a steep hill some- 
times, or sit in a shady seat, must needs be a delectable recre- 
ation. Hortus principis et domus ad delectationem facta, cum 

1 Prieciptia hinc Anglis gloria, crebne diales, quas hortenses auras ministrant, 
▼Ictoriae partae. Jovius. a Cap. 7. sub fornice viridi, pampinis viientibus 
3 Fracastorius. « Ambulationes sub- concameratas. <i Theophylact. 

Mem. 4.] Eocerdse rectified, 175 

9yhd^ monte et pUeindy vtdgo la montagna ; the prince's gar- 
den at Ferrara ^ Schottus highly magnifies, with the groves, 
mountains, ponds, for a delectable prospect, he was much 
affected with it ; a Persian paradise, or pleasant park, could 
not be more delectable in his sight St. Bernard, in the de- 
scription of his monastery, is almost ravished with the pleas- 
ures of it. '^A sick ^man (saith he) sits upon a green bank, 
and when the dog-star parcheth the plains, and dries up 
rivers, he lies in a shady bower," Fronde sub arhorea /erven- 
Ha temperat astro, " and feeds his eyes with variety of ob- 
jects, herbs, trees, to comfort his misery, he receives many 
delightsome smells, and fills his ears with that sweet and 
various harmony of birds ; good Grod (saith he), what a com- 
pany of pleasures hast thou made for man ! " He that should 
be admitted on^a sudden to the sight of such a palace as that 
of Esciirial in Spain, or to that which the Moors built at 
Granada, Fontainebleau in France, the Turk's gardens in his 
seraglio, wherein all manner of birds and beasts are kept for 
pleasure ; wolves, bears, lynxes, tigers, lions, elephants, &c, 
or upon the banks of that Thracian Bosphorus ; the pope's 
Belvedere in Rome, 'as pleasing as those horti pensiles 
in Babylon, or that Indian king's delightsome garden in 
^JElian; or '^ those famous gardens of the Lord Cantelow 
in France, could not choose, though he were never so ill paid, 
but be much recreated for the time ; or many of our noble- 
men's gardens at home. To take a boat in a pleasant even- 
ing, and with music • to row upon the waters, which Plutarch 
so much applauds, Elian admires, upon the river Pineus ; in 
those Thessalian fields, beset with green bays, where birds so 
sweetly sing that passengers, enchanted as it were with their 

1 Itlnerat. Ital. a Sedet fegrotos bitt procnras solatia ! > Biod. Siettlns, 

cespite Tiridi, et cum inclementia Canic- lib. 2. * Lib. 18. de animal, cap. 18. 

ularis terras excoquit, et siccat flumina, & Pet. Qillius. Paul. Hentzeus, Itinerar. 

ipse securus sedet sub arborea fronde, et Italise, 1617. lod. Sincerns, Itinerar. 

ad doloris sui solatium, naribus suis gra- Qalliae, 1617. Simp. lib. 1^ quest. 4. 

mineas redolet species, pascit oculos her- o Jucundissima deambulatio juxta mare, 

barnm amsBna Tirid^s, aures suavi mod- 6t navigatio prope terram. In ntraque 

ulamine demulcet pictarum conoentus fluminiiripa. 
avium, &c. Deus bone, quanta pauperi- 

176 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. U. sec. 2. 

heavenly music, omnium lahorum et curarum oUiviscantur, 
forget forthwith all labours, care, and grief; or in a gondola 
through the Grand Canal in Venice, to see those goodly pal- 
aces, must needs refresh and give content to a melancholy 
dull spirit Or to see the inner rooms of a fair-built and 
sumptuous edifice, as that of the Persian kings, so much re- 
nowned by Diodorus and Curtius, in which all was almost 
beaten gold, ^ chairs, stools, thrones, tabernacles, and pillars 
of gold, plane trees, and vines of gold, grapes of precious 
stones, all the other ornaments of pure gold, 

3 " Fulget gemma floris, et jaspide fulva snpellex, 
Strata micant Tyrio " 

With sweet odours and perfumes, generous wines, opip- 
arous fare, &c, besides the gallantest young men, the fairest 
'virgins, pvslUe sciitda ministrantes, the rarest beauties the 
world could afford, and those set out with costly and curious 
attires, ad stuporem usqns spectantium, with exquisite music, 
as in * Trimaltion's house, in every chamber sweet voices 
ever sounding day and night, incomparabilts luxus, all de- 
lights and pleasures in each kind which to please the senses 
could possibly be devised or had, conviva coroncUi, dditiis 
ehriij Sfc. Telemachus, in Homer, is brought in as one 
ravished almost at the sight of that magnificent palace, and 
rich furniture of Menelaus, when he beheld 

^ " iEris falgorem et resonantia tecta comsco 
Auro atque electro nitido, sectoqi^e elephanto, 
Argentoque simul. Talis Jovis ardua sedes, 
Aulaque coelicolCLm stellans Bplendescit Olympo.'* 

" Such glittering of gold and brightest brass to shine, 
Clear amber, silver pure, and ivory so fine: 
Jupiter's lofty palace, where the gods do dwell, , 

Was even such a one, and did it not excel." 

1 Aurei panes, aurea obsonis, vis Mar- > 90O pelUoes, pocillatores et pinoemaB in- 

garltarum aceto sabacta, &c. s Lu- nnmeri, pueri loti purpura induti, &c.. 

can. ** The furniture glitters with bril- ex omnium pulchritudine delecti. ^Ubi 

liant gems, with yellow jasper, and the omnia cantu strepunt. & Odyss. (5. 
couches daxale with their purple dye." 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified, 177 

It will laxare animos, refresh the soul of man to see fair- 
built cities, streets, theatres, temples, obelisks, &c. The 
temple of Jerusalem was so fairly built of white marble, with 
so many pjTamids covered with gold ; tectumque templi fulvo 
coruscans auro^ nimio suo fulgore ohccecabat octdos itineran- 
ttum, was so glorious, and so glistened afar off, that the spec- 
tators might not well abide the sight of it. But the inner 
parts were all so curiously set out with cedar, gold, jewels, 

&c., as he said of Cleopatra's palace in Egypt, ^ Orassum- 

que trabes ahsconderat aurum, that the beholders were 
amazed. "What so pleasant as to see some pageant or sight 
go by, as at coronations, weddings, and such like solemnities, 
to see an ambassador or a prince met, received, entertained 
with masks, shows, fireworks, &c. To see two kings fight in 
single combat, as Porus and Alexander; Canute and Ed- 
mund Ironside; Scanderbeg and Ferat Bassa the Turk; 
when not honour alone but life itself is at stake, as the ^ poet 

of Hector, 

" nee enim pro tergore Tanri, 
Pro bove nee certamen erat, quae prsemia cursds 
Esse Solent, sed pro magni vitaque animUque Hectoris." 

To behold a battle fought, like that of Cressy, or Agincourt, 
or Poictiers, qua nesdo (saith Froissart) an vetustas tUlam 
'proferre possit chriorem. To see one of Caesar's triumphs 
in old Rome revived, or the like. To be present at an inter- 
view, 'as that famous of Henry the Eighth and Francis the 
First, so much renowned all over Europe; ubi tarvto ap- 
paratu (saith Hubertus Vellius) tamque triumphali pompd 
anibo reges cum eorum conjugihus coiere, ut rvuRa unqucem 
iBtas tarn celebria festa mderit aut audierit, no age ever saw 
the like. So infinitely pleasant are such shows, to the sight 
of which oftentimes they will come hundreds of miles, give 
any money for a place, and remember many years after with 

1 TiUean. 1. 8. " The timbers were con- the usual prizes in the race, but for the 

cealed by solid gold " 2 Iliad. 10. life and soul of the great Hector." 

" For neither was the contest for the ^ Between Ardes and Guines, 1519. 
hide of a bull, nor for a beeve, which are 

VOL.. II. 12 

1 78 Oure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

singular delight Bodine, when he was ambassador in Eng- 
land, said he saw the noblemen go in their robes to the par- 
liament house, summd cum jucundttate vidirmis^ he was much 
affected with the sight of it Pomponius Columna, saith 
Jovius in his life, saw thirteen Frenchmen, and so many 
Italians, once fight for a whole army : Quod jttcundissimum 
spectaculum in vitd dicit sua, the pleasantest sight that ever 
he saw in his life. "Who would not have been affected with 
such a spectacle ? Or that single combat of ^ Breaute the 
Frenchman, and Anthony Schets a Dutchman, before the 
walls of Sylvaducis in Brabant, anno 1600. They were 
twenty-two horse on the one side, as many on the other, 
which, like Livy's Horatii, Torquati and Corvini, fought for 
their own glory and country's honour, in the sight and view 
of their whole city and army. * When Julius Caesar warred 
about the banks of Rhone, there came a barbarian prince to 
see him and the Boman army, and when he had beheld 
Caesar a good while, ' " I see the gods now (saith he) which 
before I heard of," nee fceltciorem vUam vitce mece avJt optavi^ 
avt send diem : it was the happiest day that ever he had in 
his life. Such a sight alone were able of itself to drive 
away melancholy ; if not forever, yet it must needs expel it 
for a time. Radzivilus was much taken with the pacha's 
palace in Cairo, and amongst many other objects which that 
place afforded, with that solemnity of cutting the banks of 
the Nile by Imbram Pacha, when it overflowed, besides two 
or three hundred gilded galleys on the water, he saw two 
millions of men gathered together on the land, with turbans 
as white as snow ; and 'twas a goodly sight The very read- 
ing of feasts, triumphs, interviews, nuptials, tilts, tournaments, 
combats, and monomachies, is most acceptable and pleasant. 
*Franciscus Modius hath made a large collection of such 
solemnities in two great tomes, which whoso will may peruse. 

1 Swertius in delitiis, fol. 487, Teteri post. > Quos antea audivi, inquit, ho- 

Horatiorum ezempio, virtute et successu die Tidi deos. ^ Pandectoe Triumph, 

admirabili, csBsis hostibus 17, in conspec- fol. 
tu xxktrise, &c. ^ Paterculus, vol. 

"« — s-'^i^-.a^-, 

Mem. 4.] Mxerdse rectified. 179 

The inspection alone of those curious iconographies of tem- 
ples and palaces, as that of the Lateran church in Albertus 
Durer, that of the temple of Jerusalem in ^ Josephus, Adri- 
comius, and Yillalpandus ; that of the Escurial in Guadas, 
of Diana at Ephesus in FUnj, Nero's golden palace in Rome, 
^Justinian's in Constantinople, that Peruvian Jugo's in 
^Cusco, tU nan ah hominibusy sed a dcemoniis comtntcttim 
videatur ; St. Mark's in Venice, by Ignatius, with many 
such ; pnscarum artificum opera (saith that * interpreter of 
Pausanias), the rare workmanship of those ancient Greeks, 
in theatres, obelisks, temples, statues, gold, silver, ivory, 
marble images, non minore Jerme quum leguntur, quam quum 
cemuntur, animum deUctatione camplent, affect one as much 
by reading almost as by sight 

The country hath his recreations, the city his several gym- 
nics and exercises. May games, feasts, wakes, and merrymeet- 
ings, to solace themselves; the very being in the country; that 
life itself is a sufficient recreation to some men, to enjoy such 
pleasures, as those old patriarchs did. Diocletian, the em- 
peror, was so much affected with it, that he gave over his 
sceptre, and turned gardener. Constantine wrote twenty 
books of husbandry. Lysander, when ambassadors came to 
see him, bragged of nothing more than of his orchard, hi 
sunt ordines mei. What shall I say of Cincinnatus, Cato, 
Tully, and many such ? how they have been pleased with it, 
to prune, plant, inoculate and graft, to show so many several 
kinds of pears, apples, plums, peaches, &c., 

6 *< Nunc captare feras laqaeo, nnno fallere visco, 
Atque etiam magnos canibus circundare saltus, 
Insidias avibus moliri) incendere vepres." 

" Sometimes with traps deceiye, with line and string 
To catch wild birds and beasts, encompassing 
The grove with dogs, and out of bushes firing.'* 

" et nidos avium scrutari," &c. 

1 Lib. 6, cap. 14, de bello Jud. i Pro- script. * Romulus Amaseus, prsefiU 
copius. * Laet. lib. 10, Amer. de- Paiuaa. < Virg. 1 Oeorg. ^ 

180 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

Jucundus, in his preface to Cato, Varro, Columella, &c., put 
out by him, confesseth of himself, that he was mightily de- 
lighted with these husbandry studies, and took extraordinary 
pleasure in them ; if the theory or speculation can so much 
affect, what shall the place and exercise itself, the practical 
part do ? The same confession I find in Herberstein, Porta, 
Caraerarius, and many others, which have written of that 
subject If my testimony were aught worth, I could say as 
much of myself; I am vere Saturnus ; no man ever took 
more delight in springs, woods, groves, gardens, walks, fish- 
ponds, rivers, &c. But 

4f << Tantalus k labris sitiens fagientia captat 

And so do I ; Velle licet, pottri non licet" f 

Every palace, every ci^y almost hath his peculiar walks, 
cloisters, terraces, groves, theatres, pageants, games, and sev- 
eral recreations ; every country, some professed gymnics to 
exhilarate their minds, and exercise their bodies. The 
^ Greeks had their Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian, Nemean 
games, in honour of Neptune, Jupiter, Apollo ; Athens hers ; 
some for honour, garlands, crowns ; for ^beauty, dancing, run- 
ning, leaping, like our silver games. The * Romans had their 
feasts, as the Athenians, and Lacedemonians held their public 
banquets, in Pritanaeo, Panathenaeis, Thesperiis, Phiditiis, 
plays, naumachies, places for sea-fights, * theatres, amphithea- 
tres, able to contain seventy thousand men, wherein they 
had several delightsome shows to exhilarate the people ; 
^ gladiators, combats of men with themselves, with wild 
beasts, and wild beasts one with another, like our bull-bait- 
ings, or bear-baitings (in which many countrymen and citi- 
zens amongst us so much delight, and so frequently use), 
dancers on ropes. Jugglers, wrestlers, comedies, tragedies, 

* " The thirsting Tantalus gapes for Martiales, &c., Rosinus, 6, 12. * See 

the water that elndes his lips." f I Lipsius Amphi'theatrum. Kosinas, lib. 

may desire, but can't enjoy." i Bote- 6. Meursius, deludisGrsecorum. ^IfOO 

rus, lib. 3j polit. cap. 1. > See Athe- men at once, tigers, lions, elephants, 

nssus dipnoso. ^ Ludi Totivi, sacri, lu- horses, dogs, bears, &c. 
dicri, Megalenaes, Cereales, Florales, 

Mem. 4.] Exerdse rectified. 181 

publiclj exhibited at the emperor's and city's charge, and that 
with incredible cost and magnificence. In the Low Coun- 
tries (as ^Meteran relates), before these wars, they had 
many solemn feasts, plays, challenges, artillery gardens, col- 
leges of rhymers, rhetoricians, poets ; and to this day, such 
places are curiously maintained in Amsterdam, as appears by 
that description of Isaacus Pontanus, Rerum Amstehd. lib. 2, 
cap, 25. So likewise, not long since at Friburg, in Germany, 
as is evident by that relation of ^ Neander, they had Ludos 
septennales, solemn plays every seven years, which Bocerus, 
one of their own poets, hath elegantly described : 

** At nunc magiiifico spectacula stnicta paratu 
Quid memorem, veteri noa concessura Quirino, 
Ludoram pompa? " 8 &c. 

In Italy they have solemn declamations of certain select 
young gentlemen in Florence (like those reciters in old 
Rome), and public theatres in most of their cities, for stage- 
players and others, to exercise and recreate themselves. All 
seasons almost, all places have their several pastimes ; some 
in summer, some in winter ; some abroad, some within ; some 
of the body, some of the mind ; and diverse men have diverse 
recreations and exercises. Domitian, the emperor, was much 
delighted with catching flies; Augustus to play with nuts 
amongst children ; * Alexander Severus was often pleased to 
play with whelps and young pigs. * Adrian was so wholly 
enamoured with dogs and horses, that he bestowed monu- 
ments and tombs of them, and buried them in graves. In 
foul weather, or when they can use no other convenient 
sports, by reason of the time, as we do cock-fighting, to avoid 
idleness, I think (though some be more seriously taken with 
it, spend much time, cost, and charges, and are too solicitous 

1 lib. ult. et 1. 1, ad finem consnetu- aliisque id genus ludis Tecreare. > Or- 

dine non minus laudabili quam Teteri bis terraa descript. part. 8. '*' What 

contubemia Rhetorum, Rythmorum in shall I say of their spectacles produced 

urbibus et municipiis, certisque diebus with the most magnificent decorations, — 

exercebant se sagittarii, gladiatores. &c. a degree of costliness never indulged in 

Alia ingenii, animique exercitia, quorum even by the Romans ? " * Lampridius. 

prsecipuum studium, principem popu- ^Spartian. 
lum tragoediis, comoediis &bulis, scenicis, 

182 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

about it), ^ Severus used partridges and quails, as many 
Frenchmen do still, and to keep birds in cages, with which 
he was much pleased, when at any time he had leisure from 
public cares and businesses. He had (saith Lampridius), 
tame pheasants, ducks, partridges, peacocks, and some twenty 
thousand ringdoves and pigeons. Busbequius, the emperor's 
orator, when he lay in Constantinople, and could not stir 
much abroad, kept for his recreation, busying himself to see 
them fed, almost all manner of strange birds and beasts ; this 
was something, though not to exercise his body, yet to refresh 
his mind. Conradus Gresner, at Zurich in Switzerland, kept 
so likewise for his pleasure, a great company of wild beasts ; 
and (as he saith) took great delight to see them eat their 
meat. Turkey gentlewomen, that are perpetual prisoners, 
still mewed up according to the custom of the place, have 
little else besides their household business, or to play with 
their children to drive away time, but to dally with their cats, 
which they have in delittis, as many of our ladies and gen- 
tlewomen use monkeys and little dogs. The ordinary recrea- 
tions which we have in winter, and in most solitary times 
busy our minds with, are cards, tables, and dice, shovel-board, 
chess-play, the philosopher's game, small trunks, shuttlecock, 
billiards, music, masks, singing, dancing, yule games, frolics, 
jests, riddles, catches, purposes, questions, and commands, 
^ merry tales of errant knights, queens, lovers, lords, ladies, 
giants, dwarfs, thieves, cheaters, witches, fairies, goblins, friars, 
&c., such as the old woman told Psyche in • Apuleius, Boc- 
cace novels, and the rest, quarum auditione pueri delectantur, 
senes narratione, which some delight to hear, some to tell ; all 
are well pleased with. Amaranthus, the philosopher, met 
Hermocles, Diophantus, and Philolaus, his companions, one 
day busily discoursing about Epicurus and Democritus's 
tenets, very solicitous which was most probable and came 

1 Delecfatus lasis catulorum, poreel- itudines publlcas Rubley&ret. > Bru- 

lorum, ut perdices inter ae pugnarent, males Isste ut possint produceie noctes. 

aut ut ayes parrulse sursum et deoraum ^ Miles. 4. 
Tolitareat, his maxime delectatus, ut sol- 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 183 

nearest to truth ; to put them out of that surly controversy, 
and to refresh their spirits, he told them a pleasant tale of 
Stratocles the physician's wedding, and of all the particulars, 
the company, the cheer, the music, &c, for he was new come 
from it ; with which relation they were so much delighted, 
that Philolaus wished a hlessing to his heart, and many a 
good wedding, ^ many such merrymeetings might he he at, 
'^ to please himself with the sight, and others with the narra- 
tion of it." News are generally welcome to all our ears, 
avide audimus, awes enim hominum novitaie ketantur ^ (as 
Pliny observes), we long after rumour to hear and listen to 
it, ^densum humeris Mbit aure vulgus. We are most part too 
inquisitive and apt to hearken afler news, which Caesar, in 
his * Commentaries, observes of the old Grauls, they would 
be inquiring of every carrier and passenger what they had 
heard or seen, what news abroad ? 

" quid toto fiat in orbe, 
Quid Seres, quid Thraces agant, seoreta novercsB, 
Et pueri, quia amet,'* &c., 

as at an ordinary with us, bakehouse or barber's shop. When 
that great Gronsalva was upon some displeasure confined by 
King Ferdinand to the city of Loxa in Andalusia, the only 
comfort (saith ^Jovius) he had to ease his melancholy 
thoughts, was to hear news, and to listen after those ordinary 
occurrences, which were brought him cum primis^ by letters 
or otherwise out of the remotest parts of Europe. Some 
men's whole delight is to take tobacco, and drink all day long 
in a tavern or alehouse, to discourse, sing, jest, roar, talk of a 
cock and. bull over a pot, &c. Or when three or four good 
companions meet, tell old stories by the fireside, or in the sun, 
as old folks usually do, qiuB aprici memtnere senes, remem- 
bering afresh and with pleasure ancient matters, and such 
like accidents, which happened in their younger years ; oth- 

1 dii similibus saepe coiiTiyils date ut < Lib. 4. Oallicse consaetudinis est ut 

ipae Tidendo delectetur, et postmodum Tifttores etiam inyitos consistere c<^nt^ 

narrando delectet. l^eod. prodromas et quid quisque eorum audierit aut cog- 

Amorum dial, interpret. Oilberto Gaulin- ndrit de qu& re quaerunt. & Vitae ejus 

io. s EpiBt. lib. 8, Rnfflno. » Hor. lib. ult. 

184 (jure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

ers' best pastime is to game, nothing to them so pleasant 

* Hie Veneri mdulget, hunc decoquit alea — ^many too nicely 
take exceptions at cards, ^ tables, and dice, and such mixed 
lusorious lots, whom Gataker well confutes. Which though 
they be honest recreations in themselves, yet may justly be 
otherwise excepted at, as they are often abused, and forbid- 
den as things most pernicious; insanam rem et clamnosam, 

* Lemnius calls it. " For most part in these kind of disports 
'tis not art or skill, but subtlety, cunnycatching, knavery, 
chance and fortune carries all away ; " 'tis ambulcUaria 


" puncto mobilis horsB 
Permutat dominos, et cedit in altera jura.'* ^ 

They labour most part not to pass their time in honest dis- 
port, but for filthy lucre, and covetousness of money. In 
fcedissimum hicrum et avaritiam hominum canvertitur, as 
Daneus observes. J^ons fraudum et malejiciorum^ 'tis the 
fountain of cozenage and villainy. * " A thing so com- 
mon all over Europe at this day, and so generally abused, 
that many men are utterly undone by it," their means spent, 
patrimonies consumed, they and their posterity beggared ; 
besides swearing, wrangling, drinking, loss of time, and such 
inconveniences, which are ordiuary concomitants ; • " for 
when once they have got a haunt of such companies, and 
habit of gaming, they can hardly be drawn from it, but as an 
itch it will tickle them, and as it is with whoremasters, once 
entered, they cannot easily leave it off: " Vexat mentes in- 
sania cupido, they are mad upon their sport. And in con- 
clusion (which Charles the Seventh, that good French king, 
published in an edict against gamesters,) unde pice et hilaris 

^ Juven. s Thej accoant them un- qnens hodie in Earopa ut pleriqae crebro 

lawful because sortil^ous. < lastit. harum usu patrimonium proftindantf 

c. 44. In his ludis plerumqne non ars ezhausdsque &cultatiba8, ad inopiam 

aut peritia yiget, sed fraus, foUacia, do- redigantur. ^ Ubi 8emel prurigo ista 

lus, astutia, casus, fbrtuna, temeritas lo- animum occupat segre diMcuti potest, so- 

cum habent, non ratio, consilium, sapi- licitantibus undique ^usdem fkrinse ho- 

entia, &c. ^ " In a moment of fleet- minibus, damnosas illas voluptates repe- 

ing time it changes masters and submits tunt, quod et scortatoribus insitum, &c. 
to new control." ^ Abusus tarn fre- 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 185 

vita 9uffugium sibi suisque liheris totique familitB, S^c, 
" That which was once their livelihood, should have main- 
tained wife, children, family, is now spent and gone ; " moeror 
et egestas, S^c, sorrow and beggary succeeds. So good things 
may be abused, and that which was first invented to ^ refresh 
men's weary spirits, when they come from other labours and 
studies to exhilarate the mind, to entertain time and com- 
pany, tedious otherwise in those long solitary winter nights, 
and keep them from worse matters, an honest exercise is 
contrarily perverted. 

Chess-play is a good and witty exercise of the mind for 
some kind of men, and fit for such melancholy, Rhasis holds, 
as are idle, and have extravagant impertinent thoughts, or 
troubled with cares, nothing better to distract their mind, and 
alter their meditations ; invented (some say) by the ? general 
of an army in a famine, to keep soldiers from mutiny ; but 
if it proceed from overmuch study, in such a case it may do 
more harm than good ; it is a game too troublesome for some 
men's brains, too full of anxiety, all out as bad as study ; be- 
sides it is a testy choleric game, and very offensive to him 
that loseth the mate. 'William the Conqueror, in his 
younger years, playing at chess with the Prince of France 
(Dauphin^ was not annexed to that crown in those days), 
losing a mate, knocked the chess-board about his pate, which 
was a cause afterward of much enmity between them. For 
some such reason it is belike, that Patritius, in his 3 book, 
tit. 12, de reg, instit. forbids his prince to play at chess; 
hawking and hunting, riding, &c., he will allow ; and this to* 
other men, but by no means to him. In Muscovy, where 
they live in stoves and hot-houses all winter long, come sel- 
dom or little abroad, it is again very necessary, and there- 
fore in those parts, (saith * Herberstein,) much used. At Fez 

1 Institaitur ista exercitatio, non lucrl, ili fkme laboraret, altero die edens alte- 

md Taletudinis et oblectamenti ratioDe, ro ludens, famis oblivisceretur. Bello- 

et quo animus defatigatus respiret, no- nius. See more of this game in Daniel 

TBsque vires ad subeundos labores denuo Souter's Palamedes, vel de yariis ludis, 

concipiat. > Latrunculorum Indus in- 1. 8. * D. Hayward, in vita egos. 

Tentus est k duce, nt cum miles intolerab- * Musoovit. commentarium. 

186 Cure of Mdanchdy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

in Africa, where the like inconvenience of keeping within 
doors is through heat, it is very laadable; and (as ^Leo 
Afer relates) as much frequented. A sport fit for idle 
gentlewomen, soldiers in garrison, and courtiers that have 
nought but love matters to busy themselves about, but apt 
altogether so convenient for such as are students. The like 
I may say of Col. Bruxer's philosophy game, D. Fulke's 
Metromachia and his Ouronomachia, with the rest of those 
intricate astrological and geometrical fictions, for such especi- 
ally as are mathematically given ; and the rest of those curi- 
ous games. 

Dancing, singing, masking, mumming, stage-plays, howso- 
ever they be heavily censured by some severe Catos, yet if 
opportunely and soberly used, may justly be approved. 
Melius est fodere, quam saUare^ saith Austin ; but what is 
that if they delight in it ? * Nemo saltcU sobrius. But in what 
kind of dance ? I know these sports have many oppugners, 
whole volumes writ against them ; when as all they say (if 
duly considered) is but ignorcUio JSlenchi ; and some again, 
because they are now cold and wayward, past themselves, 
cavil at all such youthful sports in others, as he did in the 
comedy ; they think them, iUico nasci senes, S^c, Some out 
of preposterous zeal object many times trivial arguments, 
and because of some abuse, will quite take away the good 
use, as if they should forbid wine because it makes men 
drunk ; but in my judgment they are too stem ; there " is a 
time for all things, a time to mourn, a time to dance," Eccles. 
iii. 4, "a time to embrace, a time not to embrace (verse 5), 
and nothing better than that a man should rejoice in his own 
works,** verse 22 ; for my part, I will subscribe to the king's 
declaration, and was ever of that mind, those May games, 
wakes, and Whitsun ales, &c., if they be not at unseasonable 
hours, may justly be permitted. Let them freely feast, sing 
and dance, have their puppet-plays, hobby-horses, tabors, 

1 Inter cives Feasanos latranculorum * " It is better to dig than to dance." 
Indus est usitatissimus, lib. 8, de Africa. < Tullius. " No sensible man dances.*' 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 187 

crowds, bagpipes, &c., play at ball, and barleybrakes, and 
what sports and recreations thej like best. In Franconia, a 
province of Germany, (saith ^Aubanus Bohemus,) the old 
folks after evening prayer, went to the alehouse, the young- 
er sort to dance ; and to say truth with ^ Sarisburiensis, 
satius fueral sic otiari, qtmm turpius occupari, better do so 
than worse, as without question otherwise (such is the cor- 
ruption of man's nature) many of them will do. For that 
cause, plays, masks, jesters, gladiators, tumblers, jugglers, &c., 
and all that crew is admitted and winked at'; ' Tota jocu- 
larium scena procedit, et ideo spectacula admissa sunt, et in- 
finita tyrocinia vanitatum, vJt his occupentur, qui pemidosius 
otlari Solent : that they might be busied about such toys, that 
would otherwise more perniciously be idle. So that as 
* Tacitus said of the astrologers in Rome, we may say of 
them, genus hominum est quod in civitcUe nostra et vitaMtur 
semper et retinebitur, they are a debauched company most 
part, still spoken against, as well they deserve some of them, 
(for I so relish and distinguish them as fiddlers and musi- 
cians), and yet ever retained. " Evil is not to be done (I 
confess) that good may come of it ; " but this is evil per acci- 
dens, and, in a qualified sense, to avoid a greater incon- 
venience, may justly be tolerated. Sir Thomas More, in 
his Utopian Commonwealth, * " as he will have none idle, so 
will he have no man labour overhard, to be toiled out like a 
horse, 'tis more than slavish infelicity, the life of most of our 
hired servants and tradesmen elsewhere (excepting his Uto- 
pians) but half the day allotted for work, and half for honest 
recreation, or whatsoever employment they shall think fit for 
themselves." If one half day in a week were allowed to our 
household servants for their merrymeetings, by their hai*d 
masters, or in a year some feasts, like those Roman Satur- 
nals, I think they would labour harder all the rest of their 

1 De mor. gent. « Polycrat. 1. 1, cap. qii« oplflcum -vita est, exoeptis Utopien- 

8. 8 Idem SarisburieDBis. * Ilist. sibus, qui diem in 24 boras dividunt, sex 

lib. 1. « Nemo deeidet otiosus, ita ne- duntaxat operi deputant, reliquum k 

mo asinino more ad seram noctem labo- somno et cibo cujusque arbitrio permitti- 

rat; nam ea plnsquam servilis serumna, tur. 

188 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

time, and both parties be better pleased ; but this needs not 
(you will say), for some of them do nought but loiter all the 
week long. 

This which I am at, is for such as arefrcicti animis, troub- 
led in mind, to ease them, over-toiled on the one part, to 
refresh ; over-idle on the other, to keep themselves busied. 
And to this purpose, as any labour or employment will serve 
to the one, any honest recreation will conduce to the other, so 
that it be moderate and sparing, as the use of meat and drink ; 
not to spend all their life in gaming, playing, and pastimes, 
as too many gentlemen do ; but to revive our bodies and 
recreate our souls with honest sports ; of which as there be 
diverse sorts, and peculiar to several callings, ages, sexes, 
conditions, so there be proper for several seasons, and those 
of distinct natures, to fit that variety of humours which is 
amongst them, that if one will not, another may ; some in 
summer, some in winter, some gentle, some more violent, some 
for the mind alone, some for the body and mind ; (as to some 
it is both business and a pleasant recreation to oversee work- 
men of all sorts, husbandry, cattle, horse, &c. To build, plot, 
project, to make models, cast up accounts, &c.) some without, 
some within doors ; new, old, &c, as the season serveth, and 
as men are inclined. It is reported of Philippus Bonus, that 
good duke of Burgundy, (by Lodovicus Vives, in Epist. and 
Pont. ^Heuter in his history), that the said duke, at the mar- 
riage of Eleonora, sister to the king of Portugal, at Bruges 
in Flanders, which was solemnized in the deep of winter, 
when, as by reason of unseasonable weather, he could neither 
hawk nor hunt, and was now tired with cards, dice, &c, and 
such other domestic sports, or to see ladies dance, with some 
of his courtiers, he would in the evening walk disguised all 
about the town. It so fortuned, as he was walking late one 
night, he found a country fellow dead drunk, snorting on a 
bulk ; ^ he caused his followers to bring him to his palace, 

1 Berum Burgund. lib. 4. > Jussit call collocari, &c., mirari homo ubi se eo 
hominem. defend ad palatium et lecto du- loci yidet. 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 189 

and there stripping him of his old clothes, and attiring hin^ 
after the court fashion, when he waked, he and they were 
all ready to attend upon his excellency, persuading him he 
was some great duke. The poor fellow admiring how he 
came there, was served in state all the day long ; after supper 
he saw them dance, heard music, and the rest of those court- 
like pleasures ; but late at night when he was well tippled, 
and again fast asleep, they put on his old robes, and so con- 
veyed him to the place where they first found him. Now the 
fellow had not made them so good sport the day before as he 
did when he returned to hi^nself ; all the jest was to see how 
he ^ looked upon it In conclusion, after some little admira- 
tion, the poor man told his friends he had seen a vision, 
constantly believed it, would not otherwise be persuaded, and 
so the jest ended. ^ Antiochus Epiphanes would often dis- 
guise himself, steal from his court, and go into merchants', 
goldsmiths', and other tradesmen's shops, sit and talk with 
them, and sometimes ride or walk alone, and fall aboard with 
any tinker, clown, serving-man, carrier, or whomsoever he 
met first. Sometimes he did ex insperato give a poor fellow 
money, to see how he would look, or on set purpose lose his 
purse as he went, to watch who found it, and withal how he 
would be affected, and with such objects he was much de- 
lighted. Many such tricks are ordinarily put in practice by 
great men, to exhilarate themselves and others, all which are 
harmless jests, and have their good uses. 

But amongst those exercises, or recreations of the mind 
within doors, there is none so general, so aptly to be applied to 
all sorts of men, so fit and proper to expel idleness and mel- 
ancholy, as that of study : Studia senectutem oUectant, adoles- 
centiam alunt, secundas res omant, adversis 'perfugium et sola- 
Hum prcehent, domi delectant, ^c, find the rest in 7W/y, pro 
Archia Poeta} What so full of content, as to read, walk, 

1 Quid interest, inqult Lodoyicus ViTee, Ib the delight of old age, the support of 

(epist. ad Francisc. Barducem,) inter youth, the ornament of prosperity, the 

diem illius et nostroe aliquot annoe ? ni- solace and refuge of adversity, the com- 

hil penitus, nisi quod, &o. s Hen. fort of domestic life," &c. 
Stephan. pne&t. Herodoti. 8 '' Study 

100 dure of Mdancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

and see maps, pictures, statues, jewels, marbles, which some 
so much magnify, as those that Phidias made of old so exqui- 
site and pleasing to be beheld, that as ^ Chrysostom thinketh, 
'^ if €uiy man be sickly, troubled in mind, or that cannot sleep 
for grief, and shall but stand over against one of Phidias's 
images, he will forget all care, or whatsoever else may molest 
liim, in an instant ? " There be those as much taken with 
Michael Angelo's, Raphael de Urbino's, Francesco Francia's 
pieces, and many of those Italian and Dutch painters, which 
were excellent in their ages ; and esteem of it as a most 
pleasing sight, to view those neat architectures, devices, es- 
cutcheons, coats of. arms, read such books, to peruse old coins 
of several sorts in a fair gallery ; artificial works, perspective 
glasses, old relics, Roman antiquities, variety of colours. A 
good picture h falsa Veritas, et muta poesis; and though (as 
^ Vives saith) artificioMa delectant, sed max fasttdtmus, arti- 
ficial toys please but for a time ; yet who is he that will not 
be moved with them for the present ? When Achilles was 
tormented and sad for the loss of his dear friend Patroclus, his 
mother Thetis brought him a most elaborate and curious 
buckler made by Vulcan, in which were engraven sun, moon, 
stars, planets, sea, land, men fighting, running, riding, women 
scolding, hills, dales, towns, castles, brooks, rivers, trees, &c., 
with many pretty landscapes, and perspective pieces; with 
sight of which he was infinitely delighted, and much eased 
of his grief. 

* " Continno eo spectacnlo captas delenito moerore 
Oblectabatur, in manibns tenens dei splendida dona." 

Who will not be affected so in like case, or to see those well- 
furnished cloisters and galleries of the Roman cardinals, so 
richly stored with all modern pictures, old statues and antiq- 
uities ? Gum se spectando recreet sirmd et hgendo, to see 

their .pictures alone and read the description, as * Boissardus 

1 Orat. 12, siquis animo faerit afEUctus vitse atrocia et difficilia aocidere solent. 

aat aeger, neo somnam admittens, is mi- 2 8, Deanima. s Iliad 19. ^Topogr. 

hi yidetur k regione stans talis imaginis, Bom. part. 1. 
oblivieci omnium posse, quee humanae 

Mem. 4. J Exercise reciifiecL 191 

well adds, whom will it not affect ? which Bozius, Pomponius 
Laetus, Marlianus, Schottus, Cavelerius, Ligorius, &c., and 
he himself hath well performed of late. Or in some prince's 
cabinets, like that of the great dukes in Florence, of Felix 
Platerus in Basil, or noblemen's houses, to see such varietj 
of attires, faces, so manj, so rare, and such exquisite pieces, 
of men, birds, beasts, &c., to see those excellent landscapes, 
Dutch works, and curious cuts of Sadlier of Prague, Albertus 
Durer, Goltzius Vrintes, &c., such pleasant pieces of per- 
spective, Indian pictures made of feathers, China works, 
frames, thaumaturgical motions, exotic toys, &c Who is he 
that is now wholly overcome with idleness, or otherwise in- 
volved in a labyrinth of worldly cares, troubles, and discon- 
tents, that will not be much lightened in his mind by reading 
of some enticing story, true or feigned, where as in a glass 
he shall observe what our forefathers have done, the begin- 
nings, ruins, falls, periods of commonwealths, private men's 
actions displayed to the life, &c. ^ Plutarch therefore calls 
them, secundas mensas et bellaria, the second course and 
junkets, because they were usually read at noblemen's feasts. 
Who is not earnestly affected with a passionate speech, well 
penned, an elegant poem, or some pleasant bewitching dis- 
course, like that of ^ Heliodorus, vM oUectatio qtusdam placide 
jluit cum Mlaritate conjuncta f Julian the Apostate was so 
taken with an oration of Libanius, the sophister, that as he 
confesseth, he could not be (juiet till he had read it all out. 
Legi orationem tuam magna ex parte, hestemd die ante pran- 
dium, pransus vero sine vUd intermissione totam ahsolvi,^ 
argumenta ! compositionem ! I may say the same of this 
or that pleasing tract, which will draw his attention along 
with it. To most kind of men it is an extraordinary delight 
to study. For what a world of books offers itself, in all sub- 
jects, arts, and sciences, to the sweet content and capacity of 
the reader? In arithmetic, geometry, perspective, optics, 

1 Qaod heroQin conviviis leg! solittB. dinner, but after I had dined I finished 
2 Melancthon, de Heliodoro. ^ I read a it completely. Oh what arguments, 
considerable part of your speech before what eloquence ! 

192 Cure of Melanckoly. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

astronomy, architecture, sculpture, painting, of which so many 
and such elaborate treatises are of late written ; in mechanics 
and their mysteries, military matters, navigation, ^ riding of 
horses, ^fencing, swimming, gardening, planting, great tomes 
of husbandry, cookery, falconry, hunting, fishing, fowling, &c., 
with exquisite pictures of all sports, games, and what not ? 
In music, metaphysics, natural and moral philosophy, phi- 
lology, in policy, heraldry, genealogy, chronology, &c, they 
afford great tomes, or those studies of 'antiquity, &c., et 
^quid subtilius AHthmeticis inventiombus, quid jucundius 
Musicis rcUionihts, quid divinius Astronomicis, quid rectius 
Geometricis demonstraiionibus ? What so sure, what so 
pleasant ? He that shall but see that geometrical tower of 
Garezenda at Bologna in Italy, the steeple and clock at 
Strasburg, will admire the effects of art, or that engine of 
Archimedes, to remove the earth itself, if he had but a place 
to fasten his instrument ; Archimedis Cochlea, and rare de- 
vices to corrivate watei's, musical instruments, and trisyllable 
echoes again, again, and again repeated, with myriads of such. 
What vast tomes are extant in law, physic, and divinity, for 
profit, pleasure, practice, speculation, in verse or prose, &c. ! 
their names alone are the subject of whole volumes, we have 
thousands of authors of all sorts, many great libraries full 
well furnished, like so many dishes of meat, served out for 
several palates ; and he is a very block that is affected with 
none of them. Some take an infinite delight to study the 
very languages wherein these books are written, Hebrew, 
Greek, Syriac, Chaldee, Arabic, &c. Methinks it would 
please any man to look upon a geographical map, * suavi ani- 
mum ddectatione aUicere, oh incredibilem rerum varietcUem et 
jucunditateniy et ad phuiorem 8ui cognitionem excitare, chor- 
ographical, topographical delineations, to behold, as it were, 

1 Playines. * Thibault. > As in divine than astronomical, what more cer- 

iraTelling the rest go forward and look tain than geometrical demonstrations ? " 

before them, an antiquary alone looks 6 Hondius, prae&t. Mercatoris. *'It al- 

round about him. seeing things past, &c., lures the mind by its agreeable attraction, 

hath a complete horizon. Janus Bifrons. on account of the incredible variety and 

* Cardan. " What is more subtile than pleasantness of the subjects, and excites 

arithmeticalconclusions; what more agree- to a further step in knowledge." 
able than musical harmonies; what more 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 193 

all the remote provinces, towns, cities of the world, and never 
to go forth of the limits of his study, to measure by the scale 
and compass their extent, distance, examine their site. 
Charles the Great, as Platina writes, had three fair silver 
tables, in one of which superficies was a large map of Con- 
stantinople, in the second, Rome neatly engraved, in the third, 
an exquisite description of the whole world, and much de- 
light he took in them. What greater pleasure can there now 
be, than to view those elaborate maps of Ortelius, ^ Mercator, 
Hondius, &c. ? To peinise those books of cities, put out by 
Braunus and Hogenbergius ? To read those exquisite de- 
scriptions of Maginus, Munster, Herrera, Laet, Merula, Bo- 
terus, Leander Albert us, Camden, Leo Afer, Adricomius, 
Nic. Gerbelius, &c. ! Those famous expeditions of Christoph. 
Columbus, Americus Vespucius, Marcus Polus the Venetian, 
Lod. Vertomannus, Aloysius Cadamustus, &c? Those ac- 
curate diaries of Portuguese, Hollanders, of Bartison, Oliver 
k Nort, &c., Hakluyfs voyages. Pet Martyr's Decades, 
Benzo, Lerius, Linschoten's relations, those Hodaeporicons 
of Jod. a Meggen, Brocard the monk, Bredenbachius, Jo. 
Dublinius, Sands, &c., to Jerusalem, Egypt, and other remote 
places of the world? those pleasant itineraries of Paulus 
Hentzerus, Jodocus Sincerus, Dux Polonus, &c., to read Bel- 
lonius's observations, P. Gillius his surveys ; those parts of 
America, set out, and curiously cut in pictures, by Fratres a 
Bry. To see a well-cut herbal, herbs, trees, flowers, plants, 
all vegetables expressed in their proper colours to the life, 
as that of Matthiolus upon Dioscorides, Delacampius, Lobel, 
Bauhinus, and that last voluminous and mighty herbal of 
Beslar of Nuremberg, wherein almost every plant is to his 
own bigness. To see birds, beasts, and fishes of the sea, 
spiders, gnats, serpents, flies, &c., all creatures set out by the 
same art, and truly expressed in lively colours, with an exact 
description of their natures, virtues, qualities, &c., as hath 
been accurately performed by ^lian, Gesner, Ulysses Aldro- 

1 Atlas Geog. 
VOL. II. 18 

194 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

vandus, Bellonius, Bondoletius, Hippoljtus Salvianus, &c. 
* Arcana coeli, naiurce secreta, ordinem unwersi scire mcfjoris 
felicitatis et dvdcedinis est, quam cogitatione quis assequi pos- 
sit, avi mortalis sperare. What more pleasing studies can 
there be than the mathematics, theoretical or practical parts ? 
as to survey land, make maps, models, dials, &c., with which 
I was ever much delighted myself. Talis est Mathematum 
ptdckritudo (saith ^ Plutarch) ut his indignum sit divitiarum 
phaleras istas et huUas, et pueUaria spectactda comparari ; 
such is the excellency of these studies, that all those orna- 
ments and childish bubbles of wealth, are not worthy to be 
compared to them : credi mihi (* saith one) extingui dulce erit 
Mathematicarum artium studio, I could even live and die 
with such meditations, ^ and take more delight, true content 
of mind in them, than thou hast in all thy wealth and sport, 
how rich soever thou art. And as * Cardan well seconds me, 
Honorificum magis est et ghriosum hcec inteUigere, quam pro- 
vinciis prceesse, formosum aut ditem juvenem esse.^ The like 
pleasure there is in all other studies, to such as are truly ad- 
dicted to them, '^ ea suavitas (one holds) ut cum quis ea degus- 
taverit, quasi poculis Circeis captus, non possit unquam ah iUis 
diveUi ; the like sweetness, which as Circe's cup bewitcheth 
a student, he cannot leave off, as well may witness those 
many laborious hours, days and nights, spent in the volumi- 
nous treatises written by them ; the same content. ® Julius 
Scaliger was so much affected with poetry, that he brake out 
into a pathetical protestation, he had rather be the author of 
twelve verses in Lucan, or such an ode in ^ Horace, than 
emperor of Germany. *° Nicholas Gerbelius, that good old 
man, was so much ravished with a few Greek authors restored 
to light, with hope and desire of enjoying the rest, that he 

1 Cardan. " To learn the mysteries of & In Hipperchen. diylB. 3. > " It is 

the heavens, the secret workings of na- more honourable and glorious to under- 

ture, the order of the universe, is a great- stand these truths than to govern prov- 

er happiness and gratification than any inces, to be beautifiil, or to be young." 

mortal can think or expect to ob- 7 Cardan, prae&t. rerum variet. ^ Po- 

tain." 2 Lib. de cupid. divitiarum. etices lib. ^ Lib. 8, Ode 9. Donee 

8 Leon. Biggs, pree&t. ad perpet. prog- gratus eram tibi, &c. lo De Pelopones. 

nost. ^ Plus capio volupta^tis, &c. Ub. 6, descript. Grsec. 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified, 195 

exclaims forthwith, Arahibus cUque Indis ommhtts erimus 
ditiores, we shall be richer than all the Arabic or Indian 
princes ; of such ^ esteem they were with him, incomparable 
worth and value. Seneca prefers Zeno and Chrysippus, two 
doting stoics (he was so much enamoured of their works), 
before any prince or general of an army ; and Orontius, the 
mathematician; so far admires Archimedes, that he calls him, 
Divinum et homine majorem, a petty god, more than a man ; 
and well he might, for aught I see, if you respect fame or 
worth. Pindarus, of Thebes, is as much renowned for his 
poems, as Epaminondas, Pelopidas, Hercules or Bacchus, his 
fellow-citizens, for their warlike actions ; et si famam respi- 
cicts, non paudores Aristotelis quam Alexandri meminerunt 
(as Cardan notes), Aristotle is more known than Alexander ; 
for we have a bare relation of Alexander's deeds, but Aris- 
totle, totus vivit in monumerUis, is whole in his works ; yet 
I stand not upon this; the delight is it, which I aim at, 
so great pleasure, such sweet content there is in study. 
^ King James, 1605, when he came to see our University of 
Oxford, and amongst other edifices now went to view that 
famous library, renewed by Sir Thomas Bodley, in imitation 
of Alexander, at his departure brake out into that noble 
speech, If I were not a king, I would be a university man ; 
'"and if it were so that I must be a prisoner, if I might 
have my wish, I would desire to have no other prison than 
that library, and to be chained together with so many good 
authors et mortuis maffistris" So sweet is the delight of 
study, the more learning they have (as he that hath a dropsy, 
the more he drinks the thirstier he is,) the more they covet to 
learn, and the last day is prions disdpulus ; harsh at first 
learning is, radices amarce^ but fructus dulces, according to 
that of Isocrates, pleasant at last ; the longer they live, the 
more they are enamoured with the Muses. Heinsius, the 

1 Qtios si integros haberemus, Dii boni, ducar, si mihi daretur optio. hoc cupe- 

qnas opes, quos thesauros teDeremus ! rem carcere concludi, his catenis illigari, 

8 Isaack Wake mussB regnantes. ^ Si cum hisce captiTis concatenatis eetatem 

unquam mihi in iSsitis sit, ut captlvus agere. 

196 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

keeper of the library at Leyden in Holland, was mewed up 
in it all the year long ; and that which to thy thinking should 
have bred a loathing, caused in him a greater liking. ^ " I 
no sooner (saith he) come into the library, but I bolt the door 
to me, excluding lust, ambition, avarice, and all such vices, 
whose nurse is idleness, the mother of ignorance, and melan- 
choly herself, and in the very lap of eternity, amongst so 
many divine souls, I take my seat, with so lofty a spirit and 
sweet content, that I pity all our great ones, and rich men 
that know not this happiness." I am not ignorant in the 
mean time (notwithstanding this which I have said) how bar- 
barously and basely, for the most part, our ruder gentry 
esteem of libraries and books, how they neglect and contemn 
so great a treasure, so inestimable a benefit^ as ^sop's cock 
did the jewel he found in the dunghill ; and all through error, 
ignorance, and want of education. And 'tis a wonder, withal, 
to observe how much they will vainly cast away in unneces- 
sary expenses, quot modis pereant (saith ^ Erasmus) maffnati' 
bus pecumce, quantum ahsumant alea, scorta, compotattones, 
profectiones non necessaries^ pompce^ heUa quuBsita, ambitio, 
colax, morio, ludto, S^c, what in hawks, hounds, lawsuits, vain 
building, gormandizing, drinking, sports, plays, pastimes, &c. 
If a well-minded man to the Muses would sue to some of 
them for an exhibition, to the further maintenance or enlarge- 
ment of such a work, be it college, lecture, library, or what- 
soever else may tend to the advancement of learning, they are 
so unwilling, so averse, that they had rather see these which 
are already, with such cost and care erected, utterly ruined, 
demolished or otherwise employed ; for they repine many and 
grudge at such gifts and revenues so bestowed ; and therefore 
it were in vain, as Erasmus well notes, vel ah his, vel d nego^ 
UaJtorihus qui se Mammonee dediderunt, improbum fortasse tale 
officium eociffere, to solicit or ask anything of such men that 

1 Epist. Primiero. Plerunque in qaa nitatis gremio, inter tot illustres animas 

simnl ac pedem posui, foribus pessulum sedem mihi snmo, cum ingenti quidem 

obdo; ambitionem autem, amorem, libid animo, ut subinde magnatum me mise- 

inem, etc., excludo, qnorum parens est reat, qui fselicitatem banc ignorant, 

ignavia, imperitia nutrix, et in ipso seter- > Chil. 2, Cent. 1, Adag. 1. 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 197 

are likely damned to riches ; to this purpose. For my part I 
pity these men, stuUos jubeo esse libenter, let them go as they 
are, in the catalogue of Ignoramus. How much, on the other 
side, are all we bound that are scholars, to those munificent Ptol- 
emies, bountiful Msecenates, heroical patrons, divine spirits, 

1 " qui nobis hsec otia fecerunt, namque erit ille mihi semper Deus '* 

" These blessings, friend, a Deity bestow'd, 
For never can I deem him less than God." 

that have provided for us so many well-furnished libraries, 
as well in our public academies in most cities, as in our 
private colleges? How shall I remember *Sir Thomas 
Bodley, amongst the rest, *Otho Nicholson, and the Right 
Reverend John Williams, Lord Bishop of Lincoln (with 
many other pious acts), who besides that at St. John's Col- 
lege in Cambridge, that in Westminster, is now likewise in 
J^ieri with a library at Lincoln (a noble precedent for all 
corporate towns and cities to imitate), quam te memorem 
(vir tllustrissime), quibus elogiis f But to my task again. 

Whosoever he is therefore that is overrun with solitariness, 
or carried away with pleasing melancholy and vain conceits, 
and for want of employment knows not how to spend his 
time, or crucified with worldly care, I can prescribe him no 
better remedy than this of study, to compose himself to the 
learning of some art or science. Provided always that this 
malady proceed not from overmuch study ; for in such case 
he adds fuel to the fire, and nothing can be more pernicious ; 
let him take heed he do not overstretch his wits, and make a 
skeleton of himself; or such inamoratos as read nothing but 
playbooks, idle poems, jests, Amadis de Gaul, the Knight 
of the Sun, the Seven Champions, Palmerin de Oliva, Huon 
of Bordeaux, &c. Such many times prove in the end as 
mad as Don Quixote. Study is only prescribed to those that 
are otherwise idle, troubled in mind, or carried headlong with 
vain thoughts and imaginations, to distract their cogitations 

1 Virg. eclog. 1. « Founder of our public library in Oxon. » Ours in Chriab 
Ghurchi Oxon. 

198 Cure of Mdancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

(although variety of study, or some serious subject, would do 
the former no harm,) and divert their continual meditations 
another way. Nothing in this case better than study ; semper 
cdiquid memoriter ediscani, saith Piso, let them learn some- 
thing without book, transcribe, translate, &c Bead the Scrip- 
tures, which Hjrperius, lib. 1, de quoticL script, led. foL 77, 
holds available of itself, ^ " the mind is erected thereby from 
all worldly cares, and hath much quiet and tranquillity." For 
as ^ Austin well hath it, 'tis scientia scientiarum, omni melle 
dulcior, omni pane stiavior, omni vino hilarior: 'tis the best 
nepenthe, surest cordial, sweetest alterative, presentest divert- 
er ; for neither as ' Chrysostom well adds, " those boughs and 
leaves of trees which are plashed for cattle to stand under, 
in the heat of the day, in summer, so much refresh them with 
their acceptable shade, as the reading of the Scripture doth 
recreate and comfort a distressed soul, in sorrow and affliction." 
Paul bids " pray continually ; " quod cihus corpori, lectio ani- 
mcefacitj saith Seneca, as meat is to the body, such is reading 
to the soul. *"To be at leisure without books is another 
hell, and to be buried alive." * Cardan calls a library the 
physic of the soul ; • " divine authors fortify the mind, make 
men bold and constant ; and (as Hyperius adds) godly con- 
ference will not permit the mind to be tortured with absurd 
cogitations." Rhasis enjoins continual conference to such 
melancholy men, perpetual discourse of some history, tale, 
poem, news, &c., altemos sermones edere ac Inhere^ cequejucun- 
dum quam cibus, sive potus, which feeds the mind as meat and 
drink doth the body, and pleaseth as much; and therefore 
the said Rhasis, not without good cause, would have some- 
body still talk seriously, or dispute with them, and sometimes 
' " to cavil and wrangle (so that it break not out to a violent 

1 Animus levatur inde 4 curls multa * Otium sine Uteris mors est, et viTl hom- 

quiete et tranquillitate finiens. s Ser. inis sepultura. Seneca. & Cap. 99, 1. 

S8^ ad Fratres Erem. * Horn. 4, de 67, de rer. yar. ^ Fortem reddunt ani- 

poenitentia. Nam neque arbornm comsa mum et constantem ; et pium colloquium 

pro pecorum tnguriis &ct8e, meridie per non permittit animum absurdSL cogita- 

ffistatem, optabilem exhibentes umbram tione torqueri. 7 Altercationibus utan- 

oyes ita reficiunt, ac scripturarum lectio tur, quae non permittunt animum sub- 

aflUctas angore animas solatur et recreat. mei^ profundis cc^tationibus, de quibua 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. . 199 

perturbation), for such altercation is like stirring of a dead 
fire to make it burn afresh," it whets a dull spirit, " and will 
not suffer the mind to be drowned in those profound cogita- 
tions, which melancholy men are commonly troubled with." 
^Ferdinand and Alphonsus, kings of Arragon and Sicily, 
were both cured by reading the history, one of Curtius, the 
other of Livy, when no prescribed physic would take place. 
Camerarius * relates as much of Lorenzo de' Medici. Hea- 
then philosophers are so full of divine precepts in this kind, 
that, as some think, they alone are able to settle a distressed 
mind. * SnmJt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dohrem, Sfc. 
Epictetus, Plutarch, and Seneca ; qucdis iUe, qtue tela, saith 
Jjipsms,*(zdversiu amnes animi casus administrat, et ipsam 
mortem, quomodd vitia eripit, infert virttUesf when I read 
Seneca, * ^ methinks I am beyond all human fortunes, on the 
top of a hill above mortality." Plutarch saith as much of 
Homer, for which cause belike Niceratus, in Xenophon, was 
made by his parents to con Homer's Iliads and Odysseys 
without book, tU in virum bonum evaderet, as well to make 
him a good and honest man, as to avoid idleness. If this 
comfort be got from philosophy, what shall be had from di- 
vinity ? What shall Austin, Cyprian, Gregory, Bernard's 
divine meditations afford us ? 

** Qui quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, quid non, 
Plenius et melius Ghrysippo et Gran tore dicunt.'*^ 

Nay, what shall the Scripture itself? Which is like an 
apothecary's shop, wherein are all remedies for all infirmities 
of mind, purgatives, cordials, alteratives, corroboratives, lena- 
tives, &C. " Every disease of the soul," saith • Austin, " hath 
a peculiar medicine in the Scripture ; this only is required 
that the sick man take the potion which God hath already 

otiose cog^tat et tristatur in Hb. ^ Bo- lidr, Ibul, useful, worthless, more fally 

din. pre&t. ad meth. hist. * Operum and faithfally than Ghrysippns and Cran- 

snbcis. cap. 15. > Hor. * Faten- tor?" « In Ps. xxxTi.omnis morbus 

dnm est cacumine Olympi constitutus animi in scripturSL habet medicinam ; 

sapra ventos et procellas, et omnes res tan turn opus est ut qui sit seger, non re> 

humanas. > " Who explain what is cuset potionem qaam Deus temperayit. 

200 Oure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

tempered." ^ Gregory calls it " a glass wherein we may see 
all our infirmities/' tgnitum colloquium^ Psalm cxix. 140, 
^Origen a charm. And therefore Hierom prescribes Rus- 
ticus the monk, ' " continually to read the Scripture, and to 
meditate on that which he hath read ; for as mastication is to 
meat, so is meditation on that which we read." I would for 
these causes wish him that is melancholy to use both human 
and divine authors, voluntarily to impose some task upon 
himself, to divert his melancholy thoughts : to study the art 
of memory, Cosmus Rosselius, Pet Ravennas, Scenkelius's 
Detectus, or practise Brachygraphy, &c., that will ask a 
great deal of attention ; or let him demonstrate a proposition 
in Euclid, in his last five books, extracr a squared root, or 
study Algebra ; than which, as ^ Clavius holds, ^^ in all human 
disciplines nothing can be more excellent and pleasant, so 
abstruse and recondite, so bewitching, so miraculous, so 
ravishing, so easy withal and foil of delight," omnem hu- 
manum captum superare videtur. By this means you may 
define ex ungue leonem, as the diverb is, by his thumb alone 
the bigness of Hercules, or the true dimensions of the great 
^ Colossus, Solomon's temple, and Domitian's amphitheatre out 
of a little part By this art you may contemplate the varia- 
tion of the twenty-three letters, which may be so infinitely 
varied, that the words complicated and deduced thence will 
not be contained within the compass of the firmament ; ten 
words may be varied 40,320 several ways ; by this art you 
may examine how many men may stand one by another in 
the whole superficies of the earth, some say 148,456,800, 
000,000, assignando ftngults possum quadratum (assigning 
a square foot to each), how many men, supposing all the 
world as habitable as France, as fruitful and so long-lived, 
may be |;)om in 60,000 years, and so may you demonstrate with 

1 In moral, speculum quo nos intueri humanis nihil prsestantius reperitur : 

poflsimus. > Hom. 28. Ut incanta- quippe miracula quasdam numeromm 

tione virus ftigatur, ita lectione malum, emit tarn abstrusa et recondita, tanta 

s Iterum atqoe iteram moneo. ut ani- nihilo minus fitcilitate et voluptate. ut, 

mam saorse scripturae lectione occupes. &c. > Which contained 1,080,000 

Masticftt divinum pabulum meditatio. weight of brass. 
4 Ad 2 definit. 2 etem. In disciplinis 

Mem. 4.] Exerdse rectified. 201 

^ Archimedes how many sands the mass of the whole world 
might contain if all sandj, if you did but first know how much 
a small cube, as big as a mustard-seed might hold, with infinite 
such. But in all nature what is there so stupendous as to 
examine and calculate the motion of the planets, their magni- 
tudes, apogees, perigees, eccentricities, how far distant from 
the earth, the bigness, thickness, compass of the firmament, 
each star, with their diameters and circumference, apparent 
area, superficies, by those curious helps of glasses, astrolabes, 
sextants, quadrants, of which Tycho Brahe in his mechanics, 
optics (3 divine optics), arithmetic, geometry, and such like 
arts and instruments? What so intricate and pleasing 
withal, as to peruse and practise Heron Alexandrinus's 
works, de spiritalihus^ de nuwhinis heUiciSj de maehind se 
movenie, Jordani Nemorarii de ponderibus proposit, 13, that 
pleasant tract of Machometes Bragdedinus, de superficierum 
dimsionibus, ApoUonius's Conies, or Commandinus's labours 
in that kind, de centro gravitatis^ with many such geometrical 
theorems and problems? Those rare instruments and me- 
chanical inventions of Jac Bessonus, and Cardan to this 
purpose, with many such experiments intimated long since 
by Roger Bacon, in his tract de ' Secretis artis et naturcBy 
as to make a chariot to move sine animcdt, diving boats, to 
walk on the water by art, and to fly in the air, to make 
several cranes and pulleys, quibus homo trahat ad se miUe 
homines, lift up and remove great weights, mills to move 
themselves, Archita's dove, Albertus's brazen head, and such 
thaumaturgical works. But especially to do strange miracles 
by glasses, of which Proclus and Bacon writ of old, burning- 
glasses, multiplying glasses, perspectives, vt unus homo ap- 
pareai exerdttis, to see afar off, to represent solid bodies by 
cylinders and concaves, to walk in the air, ut veraeiter videarU 
(saith Bacon) aurum et argentum et quicquid aliud volunt, et 
quum veniant ad locum msionis, nihil inveniant, which glasses 

1 Vide GlaTinm in com. de Saeroboeco. SDistantias coelorum sola Optica dijndi- 
cat. > Cap. 4 et 5. 

202 Cute of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

are much perfected of late- by Baptista Porta and Galileo, 
and much more is promised by Maginus and Midorgius, to 
be performed in this kind. Oiocoitsttcons some speak of, to 
intend hearing, as the other do sight ; Marcellus Yrencken, a 
Hollander, in his epistle to Burgravius, makes mention of a 
friend of his that is about an instrument, qtto videhit qam in 
altero horizonte sint. But our alchemists, methinks, and 
Eosicrusians afford most rarities, and are fuller of experi- 
ments; thej can make gold, separate and alter metals, ex- 
tract oils, salts, lees, and do more strange works than Geber, 
Lullius, Bacon, or any of those ancients. CroUius hath 
made after his master Paracelsus, aurum fulminans, or 
aurum volatile, which shall imitate thunder and lightning, 
and crack louder than any gunpowder ; Cornelius Drible a 
perpetual motion, inextinguishable lights, linum non ardenSj 
with many such feats ; see his book de naturd elementorum^ 
besides hail, wind, snow, thunder, lightning, &c., those strange 
fireworks, devilish petards, and such like warlike machinations 
derived hence, of which read Tartalea and others. Emestus 
Burgravius, a disciple of Paracelsus, hath published a dis- 
course, in which he specifies a lamp to be made of man's 
blood, Jbucema vitce et mortis index, so he terms it, which 
chemically prepared forty days, and afterwards kept in a 
glass, shall show all the accidents of this life ; si lampas hie 
clarus, tunc homo hilaris et sanus corpore et animo ; si nelu- 
losus et depressus, male ctfficitur, et sic pro statu hominis vari- 
atur, unde sumptus sanguis ; ^ and which is most wonderful, 
it dies with the party, cum homine perit, et evanesdt, the 
lamp and the man whence the blood was taken, are extin- 
guished together. The same author hath another tract of 
Mumia (all out as vain and prodigious as the first) by which 
he will cure most diseases, and transfer them from a man 
to a beast, by drawing blood from one, and applying it to 
the other, vel in plantam derivare, and an Alexipharmacum, 

1 " If the lamp bum brightly, then the whom the blood is taken be melancholic 
man is cheerful and healthy in mind and or a spendthrift, then it will burn dimly, 
body ; if, on the other hand, he from and flicker in the socket." 

Mem. 4.] Exercise rectified. 203 

of which Roger Bacon of old in his Tract de retardanda 
senecttite, to make a man young again, live three or four hun- 
dred years. Besides panaceas, martial amulets, unguentum 
armarium^ balsams, strange extracts, elixirs, and such like 
magico-magnetical cures. Now what so pleasing can there 
be as the speculation of these things, to read and examine 
such experiments, or if a man be more mathematically given, 
to calculate, or peruse Napier's Logarithms, or those tables 
of artificial * sines and tangents, not long since set out by 
mine old collegiate, good friend, and late fellow-student of 
Christ Church in Oxford, ^Mr. Edmund Gunter,, which will 
perform that by addition and subtraction only, which hereto- 
fore Begiomontanus's tables did by multiplication and di- 
vision, or those elaborate conclusions of his * sector, quadrant, 
and cross-staff. Or let him that is melancholy calculate 
spherical triangles, square a circle, cast a nativity, which 
howsoever some tax, I say with * Garcaeus, dahimus hoc petu- 
lantibus ingeniis^ we will in some cases allow ; or let him 
make an ephemertdes, read Suisset, the calculator's works, 
Scaliger de emendcUione temporum, and Petavius his adver- 
sary, till he understand them, peruse subtle Scotus and 
Suarez's metaphysics, or school divinity, Occam, Thomas, 
Entisberus, Durand, &c 1£ those other do not affect him, 
and his means be great, to employ his purse and fill his head, 
he may go find the philosopher's stone ; he may apply his 
mind, I say, to heraldry, antiquity, invent impresses, emblems ; 
make epithalamiums, epitaphs, elegies, epigrams, palindroma 
epigrammata, anagrams, chronograms, acrostics, upon his 
friends' names ; or write a comment on Martianus Capella, 
TertuUian de pallto, the Nubian geography, or upon -^lia 
Lselia Crispis, as many idle fellows have essayed ; and rather 
than do nothing, vary a * verse a thousand ways with Putean, 
so torturing his wits, or as Rainnerus of Luneburgh, * 2150 

1 Printed at London, Anno 1620. Astrol. » Tot tibi snnt dotes virjco, 

* Once astronomy reader at Gresham quot sidera coelo. • Da pie Christe ur- 

CoUege. 3 Printed at London by Wil- bi bona sit pax tempore nostro. 
liam Jones, 1628. « Prae&t. Meth. 

204 Oure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

times in his Proteus Poeticus, or Scaliger, Chrysolithus, 
Cleppissius, and others, have in like sort done. If such 
voluntary tasks, pleasure and delight, or crahhedness of these 
studies, will not yet divert their idle thoughts, and alienate 
their imaginations, they must be compelled, saith Christoph- 
orus k Vega, coffi dehent, L 5, c. 14, upon some mulct, if they 
perform it not, quod ex officio incumhctt, loss of credit or dis- 
grace, such as our public University exercises. For, as he 
that plays for nothing will not heed his game; no more 
will voluntary employment so thoroughly affect a student, 
except he be very intent of himself, and take an extraordi- 
nary delight in the study, about which he is conversant It 
should be of that nature his business, which volens nolens he 
must necessarily undergo, and without great loss, mulct, 
shame, or hinderance, he may not omit. 

Now for women, instead of laborious studies, they have cu- 
rious needleworks, cutworks, spinning, bonelace, and many 
pretty devices of their own making, to adorn their houses, 
cushions, carpets, chairs, stools, (" for she eats not the bread 
of idleness," Prov. xxxi. 27, qucesivit lanam et Unum^ con- 
fections, conserves, distillations, &c., which they show to 

1 " Ipsa comes prsssesque operis venientibus ultro 
Hospitibus monstrare solet, non segniter horas 
Contestata suas, sed nee sibi deperiis se.'* 

" Which to her guests she shows, with all her pelf, 
Thus far my maids, but this I did myself.*' 

This they have to busy themselves about, household oflSces, 
&c., ^ neat gardens, full of exotic, versicolour, diversely va- 
ried, sweet-smelling flowers, and plants in all kinds, which 
they are most ambitious to get, curious to preserve and keep, 
proud to possess, and much many times brag of. Their 
merrymeetings and frequent visitations, mutual invitations in 
good towns, I voluntarily omit, which are so much in use, 

I Chalonerns, lib. 9, de Bep. Angel. s Hortus coronarius, medicas et cuUna- 
rius, &c. 

Mem. 6.] Waking and Dreams rectified, 205 

gossiping among the meaner sort, &c., old folks have their 
beads ; an excellent invention to keep them from idleness, 
that are by nature melancholy, and past all affairs, to say so 
many paternosters, avemarias, creeds, if it were not profane 
and superstitious. In a word, body and mind must be exer- 
cised, not one, but both, and that in a mediocrity ; otherwise 
it will cause a great inconvenience. If the body be over- 
tired, it tires the mind. The mind oppresseth the body, as 
with students it oftentimes falls out, who (as ^ Plutarch ob- 
serves) have no care of the body, " but compel that which is 
mortal to do as much as that which is immortal ; that which 
is earthly, as that which is ethereal. But as the ox tired, 
told the camel (both serving one master), that refused to 
carry some part of his burden, before it were long he should 
be compelled to carry all his pack, and skin to boot, (which 
by and by, the ox being dead, fell out,) the body may say to 
the soul, that will giv€ him no respite or remission ; a little 
after, an ague, vertigo, consumption, seizeth on them both, all 
his study is omitted, and they must be compelled to be sick 
together ; " he that tenders his own good estate, and health, 
must let them draw with equal yoke, both alike, * " that so 
they may happily enjoy their wished health." 


Waking and terriUe Dreams rectified. 

As waking that hurts, by all means must be avoided, so 
sleep, which so much helps, by like ways, ' " must be pro- 
cured, by nature or art, inward or outward medicines, and be 

1 Tom. 1, de sanit. ttiend. Qui ratio- oniu c(^rettir gestaro (quod mortuo 

nem corporis non habent, sed coguat boye impletum ), Ita animo quoqiie con- 

mortalem immortali, terrestrem aetheresB tingit, dam delktigato corpon, &c. ^Vt 

eeqoalem pnestare industriam : Cietorum pulchram iUuD et amabilem sanitatem 

ntOamelo nan yenit, quod ei boa praediz- prsBStemus. > Interdicendn Tigitiae, 

erat, cum eidem seryirent domino et par- somnl paulo longiores conciliandi. Alto- 

te oneris leyare ilium Oamelus recums- marus, cap. 7. Somnus supra modum 

Bet, paulo poet et ipsias cutem, et totum prodest, quoyismodo conciliandus, Piso. 

206 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

protracted longer than ordinary, if it may be, as being an 
especial help." It moistens and fattens the body, concocts, 
and helps digestion (as we see in dormice, and those Alpine 
mice that sleep all winter,) which Gesner speaks of, when 
they are so found sleeping under the snow in the dead of 
winter, as fat as butter. It expels cares, pacifies the mind, 
refresheth the weary limbs after long work : 

1 ** Somne, quies rernm, placidissime somne deoram, 
Pftx auimi, qnem cnra fugit, qui corpora doris 
Fessa ministeriis mulces reparasqne labori." 

" Sleep, rest of things, pleasing deity, 
Peace of the soul, which cares dost crucify, 
Weary bodies refresh and mollify." 

The chiefest thing in all physic, ^ Paracelsus calls it, omnia 
arcana gemmarum superans et metallorum. The fittest time 
is • " two or three hours after supper, when as the meat is 
now settled at the bottom of the stomach, and 'tis good to lie 
on the right side first, because at that site the liver doth rest 
under the stomach, not molesting any way, but heating him 
as a fire doth a kettle, that is put to it. After the first sleep 
'tis not amiss to lie on the lefl side, that the meat may the 
better descend ; " and sometimes again on the belly, but never 
on the back. Seven or eight hours is a competent time for a 
melancholy man to rest, as Crato thinks ; but as some do, to 
lie in bed and not sleep, a day, or half a day together, to give 
assent to pleasing conceits and vain imaginations, is many 
ways pernicious. To procure this sweet moistening sleep, it's 
best to take away the occasions (if it be possible) that hinder 
it, and then to use such inward or outward remedies, which 
may cause it. Constat hodie (saith Boissardus in his tract 
de magid, cap. 4,) mttUos ita fascinart vi nodes integras exi- 
gant tnsamneSy summd inquietvdine ammorum et corporum ; 
many cannot sleep for witches and fascinations, which are too 

1 Ovid. ' In Hippoc. Aphorism, in tali decubitu Jecar sub Tentricalo qui- 

s Crato, cons. 21, lib. 2. duabus aut tri- escat, non gravans sed cibum calfiusiens, 

bus horis post coenam, qunm jam cibus pexinde ac ignis lebetem qui illi admove- 

ad ftindum ventriculi resederit, primum tur ; post primum somnum quiesoea- 

super latere deztro quiescendum, quod dum latere sinistro, &c. 

Mem. 6.] Waking and Dreams rectified, 207 

familiar in some places ; thej call it dare aUcui malam noc- 
tern. But the ordinary causes are heat and dryness, which 
must first be removed ; ^ a hot and dry brain never sleeps 
well ; grief, fears, cares, expectations, anxieties, great busi- 
nesses, ^ Jti aurem utramqtie otiose tU dormias, and all violent 
perturbations of the mind, must in some sort be qualified, be- 
fore we can hope for any good repose. He that sleeps in the 
daytime, or is in suspense, fear, any way troubled in mind, 
or goes to bed upon a full 'stomach, may never hope for 
quiet rest in the night ; nee enim meritorta somnos admittunt, 
as the * poet saith ; inns and such like troublesome places are 
not for sleep ; one calls hostler, another tapster, one cries and 
shouts, another sings, whoops, halloos, 


s** absentem cantat araicam, 
Malt& prolutus vappa nanta atqae viator.** 

Who not accustomed to such noises can sleep amongst them ? 
He that will intend to take his rest must go to bed animo 
securo, quieto et libera, with a • secure and composed mind, in 
a quiet place : omnia noctts erunt placida compdsta quiete ; 
and if that will not serve, or may not be obtained, to seek 
then such means as are requisite. To lie in clean linen and 
sweet; before he goes to bed, or in bed, to hear '"sweet 
music," which Ficinus commends, lib, 1, cap. 24, or as Jober- 
tus, med, pract, lib. 3, cap. 10, * " to read some pleasant au- 
thor till he be asleep, to have a basin of water still dropping 
by his bedside," or to lie near that pleasant murmur, lene 
sonantis aquce. Some floodgates, arches, falls of water, like 
London Bridge, or some continuate noise which may benumb 
the senses, lenis motus, silentmm et tenebrce, tum et ipsa volun-' 
tas somnos fadunt ; as a gentle noise to some procures sleep, 

1 Saepias aocidit melanchoUcis, ut nim- their absent sweethearts." < Sepositis 

inm exsiccato oerebro yigiliis attenuen- caris omnibus Quantum fieri potest, una 

tur. Ficinus, lib. 1, cap. 29. * Ter. cum vestibus, &c. Kirkst. 7 Ad ho- 

" That you may sleep calmly on either ram somni aures sauvibus cantibus et so- 

ear.** ^ ut sis nocte levis, rit tibi csena nis delinire. ^ Lectio Jucunda, aut 

breyis. * Jnven. Sat. 8. ^ Hor. Ser. sermo, ad quern attentior animus conver- 

lib. 1, Sat. 6. '^ The tipsy sailor and his titur, aut aqua ab alto in subjectam pel* 

travelling companion sing the praises of vim delabfttur, fce. Ovid. 

208 Cure of Melancholif. [Part. 11. sec. 2. 

80, which Bernardinus Tilesius, lib. de somno, well observes, 
silence, in a dark room, and the will itself, is most available 
to others. Piso commends frications, Andrew Borde a good 
draught of strong drink before one goes to bed ; I say, a nut- 
meg and ale, or a good draught of muscadine, with a toast 
and nutmeg, or a posset of the same, which many use in a 
morning, but methinks, for such as have dry brains, are much 
more proper at night ; some prescribe a ^ sup of vinegar as 
they go to bed, a spoonful, saith ^tius, Tetrabib. lib, 2, ser. 2, 
cap. 10, lib. 6, cap. 10, ^gineta, lib. 3, cap. 14, Piso, " a 
little after meat, ^ because it rarefies melancholy, and procures 
an appetite to sleep." Donat. ab AUomar. cap. 7, and Mer- 
curialis approve of it, if the malady proceed from the 'spleen. 
Salust. Salvian. lib. 2, cap. 1, de remed. Hercules de Saxo- 
nia, in Pan. ^lianus Montaltus, de morb. capitis, cap. 28, de 
melan. are altogether against it Lod. Mercatus, de inter. 
Morb. cau. lib. 1, cap. 17, in some cases doth allow it * Bha- 
sis seems to deliberate of it, though Simeon commend it (in 
sauce peradventure) he makes a question of it ; as for baths, 
fomentations, oils, potions, simples or compounds, inwardly 
taken to this purpose, * I shall speak of them elsewhere. K^ 
in the midst of the night, when they lie awake, which is usual 
to toss and tumble, and not sleep, ^Ranzovius would have 
them, if it be in warm weather, to rise and walk three or four 
turns (till they be cold) about the chamber, and then go to 
bed again. 

Against fearful and troublesome dreams. Incubus and such 
inconveniences, wherewith melancholy men are molested, the 
best remedy is to eat a light supper, and of such meats as 
are easy of digestion, no hare, venison, beef, &c., not to lie 
on his back, not to meditate or think in the daytime of any 
terrible objects, or especially talk of them before he goes to 
bed. For, as he said in Lucian aft«r such conference, Hec- 
ates somniare mihi videor, I can think of nothing but hobgob- 

1 Aceti sorbitio. s Attenuat melan- * Cont. 1, tract. 9. meditandum de aceto. 
choliam, et ad conciliandum somnom ju- s Sect. 6, Memb. 1, SnlMect. 6. o Lib. 
vat. B Quod lieni acetum conTeniat. de sanit. tuenda. 

Mem. 6.] Waking and Dreams rectified. 209 

lins ; and as TuUy notes, ^ " for the most part our speeches in 
the dajtime cause our fantasy to work upon the like in our 
sleep,** which EnniHS writes of Homer : Et cams in somnis 
leporis vestigia latrat : as a dog dreams of a hare, so do men 
on such subjects thej thought on last 

s " Somnia quae mentes ludunt volitautibus nmbris, 
Nee delnbra deClm, nee ab sethere numina mittunt, 
Sed sibi qnisque facit," &c. 

For that cause when Ptolemy, king of Egypt, had posed the 
seventy interpreters in order, and asked the nineteenth man 
what would make one sleep quietly in the night, he told him, 
• " the best way was to have divine and celestial meditations, 
and to use honest actions in the daytime." * Lod. Vives won- 
ders how schoolmen could sleep quietly, and were not terrified 
in the night, or walk in the dark, they had such monstrous 
questions, and thought of such terrible matters all day long." 
They had need, amongst the rest, to sacrifice to god Mor- 
pheus, whom ' Philostratus paints in a white and black coat, 
with a horn and ivory box full of dreams, of the same col- 
ours, to signify good and bad. If you will know how to 
interpret them, read Artemidorus, Sambucus and Cardan; 
but how to help them, • I must refer you to a more conven- 
ient place. 

1 In Som. Scip. fit enfan fere ut cogitar owa, — we cause them to ounelyes." 

tiones nostree et sermonee parlant aliquid > Optimnm de coelestibus et honestis med- 

in somno, quale de Homero acribit Enni- itari, et ea &cere. * lib. 8, de causis 

us, de quo videlicet saepissimd yi^lans cor. art. tam mira monstra quaestionum 

Bolebat coptare et loqui. * Aristss saepe naacuntur inter eos, ut mirer eos 

hist. " Neither the shrinee of the gods, interdum in aomniis non terreri, aut de 

nor the deities themselves, send down illis in tenebrls audere verba fiicere. adeo 

from the heavens those dreams which res sunt monstrossB. ^ Icon. lib. 1. 

mock our minds with these flitting shad- < Sect. 6, Memb. 1, Subs. 6. 

VOL. n. 14 

210 Oure of Melancholy. [Part. IL sec. 2. 

MEMB. VI. . 

SuBSECT. I. — Perturbations of the Mind rectified. From. 
Himself by resisting to the utmost, confessing his Grief to a 
Friend, S^c. 

Whosoever he is that shall hope to cure this malady in 
himself or any other, must first rectify these passions and 
perturbations of the mind ; the chiefest cure consists in them. 
A quiet mind is that voluptas, or summum bonum of Epicu- 
rus; non dolere, curls vacare, animo tranquiUo esse, not to 
grieve, but to want cares, and to have a quiet soul, is the only 
pleasure of the world, as Seneca truly recites his opinion, not 
that of eating and drinking, which injurious Aristotle mali- 
ciously puts upon him, and for which he is still mistaken, 
male audit et vapulat, slandered without a cause, and lashed 
by all posterity. ^ " Fear and sorrow, therefore, are espe- 
cially \o be avoided, and the mind to be mitigated with mirth, 
constancy, good hope; vain terror, bad objects are to be 
removed, and all such persons in whose companies they be 
not well pleased." Gualter Bruel, Fernelius, consil, 43, Mer- 
curialis, consiL 6, Piso, Jacchinus, cap, 15, in 9 Rhasis, 
Capivaccius, Hildesheim, &c., all inculcate this as an especial 
means of their cure, that their ^ " minds be quietly pacified, 
vain conceits diverted, if it be possible, with terrors, cares, 
" fixed studies, cogitations, and whatsoever it is that shall any 
way molest or trouble the soul," because that otherwise there 
is no good to be done. * " The body's mischiefs," as Plato 
proves, "proceed from the soul; and if the mind be not first 
satisfied, the body can never be cured." Alcibiades raves 
(saith ^ Maximus Tyrius) and is sick, his furious desires carry 

1 Animi pei^turbationes summ^ fagien- id6 snbyertendse, terrores ab animc re- 

dae, metus potissimam et tristitia : eo- movendi. 3 Ab omni fiza cogitatione 

rumque loco animus demulcendus hilar- quovismodo ayertantur. * Cuncta ma- 

itate, animi constantia, bona spe; remo- ki corporis ab animo procednnt, quae nisi 

vendi terrores, et eorum consortium quos curentur, corpus curari minime potest, 

non probant. s Phantasiae eorum plac- Charmid. & Disputat. An morbi gra- 

Mem. 6, subs. 1.] Passions rectified, 211 

him from Ljceus to the pleading place, thence to the sea, so 
into Sicily, thence to Lacedsemon, thence to Persia, thence 
to Samos, then again to Athens ; Critias tyrannizeth over all 
the city ; Sardanapalus is lovesick ; these men are ill-afiected 
all, and can never be cured, till their minds be otherwise 
qualified. Crato, therefore, in that often-cited Counsel of 
his for a nobleman his patient, when he had sufficiently in- 
formed him in diet, air, exercise, Venus, sleep, concludes with 
these as matters of greatest moment, Quod reltquum est, am" 
m(E ctcddenHa corrigantur, from which alone proceeds melan- 
choly ; they are the fountain, the subject, the hinges whereon 
it turns, and must necessarily be reformed. ^"For anger 
stirs choler, heats the blood and vital spirits ; sorrow on the 
other side refrigerates the body, and extinguisheth natural 
heat, overthrows appetite, hinders concoction, dries up the 
temperature, and perverts the understanding ; " fear dissolves 
the spirits, infects the heart, attenuates the soul ; and for these 
causes all passions and perturbations must, to the utmost of 
our power and most seriously, be removed, -^lianus Mon- 
taltus attributes so much to them, ^ '^ that he holds the rectifi- 
cation of them alone to be sufficient to the cure of melan- 
choly in most patients." Many are fully cured when they 
have seen or heard, &c., enjoy their desires, or be secured 
and satisfied in their minds ; Galen, the common master of 
them all, from whose fountain they fetch water, brags, lib, 1, 
de san. tttend, that he, for his part, hath cured divers of this 
infirmity, solum animis ad rectum insiituiis, by right settling 
alone of their minds. 

Yea, but you will here infer, that this is excellent good 
indeed if it could be done ; but how shall it be effijcted, by 
whom, what art, what means ? hic labor, hoc opus est. *Tis 
a natural infirmity, a most powerful ^versary, all men are 

▼iores corporis an animi. Renoldo inter- destruit, concoctionem impedit, corpus 

pret. ut parum absit ^ furore, rapitur & exsiccat, intellectum pervertit. Quamo- 

Lyceo in concionem, ^ concione ad mare, ^ brem hsec omnia prorsus yitanda sunt^et 

mari in Siciliam, &c. ^ Ira bilem movet, pro virili fugienda. * De mel. cap. 26, 

sangninem adurit, vitales spiritus accend- ex illis solum remedium ; multi ex risis, 

it, moestitia uniyersum corpus iafrigidat, auditis, &c., sanati sunt, 
calorem innatum extinguit, appetitum 

212 Dure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 2. 

subject to passions, and melancholy above all others, as being 
distempered by their innate humours, abundance of choler 
adust, weakness of parts, outward occurrences ; and how shall 
they be avoided ? the wisest men, greatest philosophers of 
most excellent wit, reason, judgment, divine spirits, cannot 
moderate themselves in this behalf; such as are sound in 
body and mind, Stoics, heroes, Homer's gods, all are passion- 
ate, and furiously carried sometimes ; and how shall we that 
are already crazed, fracti antmis, sick in body, sick in mind, 
resist? we cannot perform it. You may advise and give 
good precepts, as who cannot ? But how shall they be put 
in practice ? I may not deny but our passions are violent, 
and tyrannize of us, yet there be means to curb them ; though 
they be headstrong, they may be tamed, they may be qualified, 
if he himself or his friends will but use their honest endeav- 
ours, or make use of such ordinary helps as are commonly 

He himself (I say) ; from the patient himself the first and 
chiefest remedy must be had ; for if he be averse, peevish, 
waspish, give way wholly to his passions, will not seek to be 
helped, or be ruled by his friends, how is it possible he should 
be cured ? But if he be willing, at least, gentle, tractable, 
and desire his oWn good, no doubt but he may magrmm morU 
deponere partem^ be eased at least, if not cured. He himself 
must do his utmost endeavour to resist and withstand the be- 
ginnings. PHndpiis obsta, « Give not water passage, no not 
a little," Ecclus. xxv. 27. If they open a little, they will 
make a greater breach at length. Whatsoever it is that run- 
neth in his mind, vain conceit, be it pleasing or displeasing, 
which so much aflfects or troubleth him, * " by all possible 
means he must withstand it, expel those vain, false, frivolous 
imaginations, absurd conceits, feigned fears and sorrows ; 
from which,*' saith Piso, " this disease primarily proceeds, 

1 Pro yiribus annltendum in prsedictis, titiia quaecnnque subierit propQlmtur, 

turn in aliis, & quibns malum velut 4 ant aliud agendo, ant ratione persnaden- 

primarift cau8& occasionem nactum est, do earum mutationem subitd fiu»re. 
imaginationes absurdse Iklsaeque et moes- 

Mem. 6, snbs. 1.] Pasdons rectified, 213 

and takes his first occasion or beginning, by doing something 
or other that shall be opposite unto them, thinking of some- 
thing else, persuading by reason, or howsoever to make a 
sudden alteration of them." Though he have hitherto run in 
a full career, and precipitated himself, following his passions, 
giving reins to his appetite, let him now stop upon a sudden, 
curb himself in ; and as ^ Lemnius adviseth, " strive against 
with all his power, to the utmost of his endeavour, and not 
cherish those fond imaginations, which so covertly creep into 
his mind, most pleasing and amiable at first, but bitter as gall 
at last, and so headstrong, that by no reason, art, counsel, or 
persuasion, they may be shaken off." Though he be far 
gone, and habituated unto such fantastical imaginations, yet 
as ^Tully and Plutarch advise, let him oppose, fortify, or 
prepare himself against them, by premeditation, reason, or as 
we do by a crooked staff, bend himself another way. 

8 '* Tn tamen interea ejQfngito quae tristia mentem 
Solicitant, procul esse jube carasque metamque 
PaUentem, ultrices iras, sint omnia laeta.'* 

''*■ In the mean time expel them from thy mind, 
Pale fears, sad cares, and griefs which do it grind,. 
Revengeful anger, pain and discontent, 
Let all thy soul be set on merriment." 

Ouras toUe graves, irasci crede profanum. If it be idle- 
ness hath caused this infirmity, or that he perceive himself 
given to solitariness, to walk alone, and please his mind with 
fond imaginations, let him by all means avoid it ; *tis a bosom 
enemy, 'tis delightful melancholy, a friend in show, but a 
secret devil, a sweet poison, it will in the end be his undoing ; 
let him go presently, task or set himself a work, get some 
good company. If he proceed, as a gnat flies about a candle 
so long till at length he bum his body, so in the end he will 
undo himself; if it be any harsh object, ill company, let him 
presently go from it. If by his own default, through ill diet, 

1 Lib. 2, c. 16, de occult, nat. Quisquis animo, blandas ab initio et amablles, sed 

huic malo obnoxius est, acriter obsistat, quae adeo convalescunt ut nulla ratione 

et 8uninia cura obluctetur, nee uUo modo excuti queant. 2 3 Tuac. ad ApoUonium. 

foyeat imaginationes tacite obrepentes ^ Fracastorius. 

214 Oure of Mehmclioly, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

bad air, want of exercise, &c., let him now begin to reform 
himself. " It would be a perfect remedy against all corrup- 
tion, if," as ^ Roger Bacon hath it, " we could but moderate 
ourselves in those six non-natural things." * *' If it be any 
disgrace, abuse, temporal loss, calumny, death of friends, im- 
prisonment, banishment, be not troubled with it, do not fear, 
be not angry, grieye not at it, but with all courage sustain it" 
(Gordonius, lib. 1, c. 15, <fe conser. vit) Tu contra audentior 
ito, * If it be sickness, ill success, or any adversity that hath 
caused it, oppose an invincible courage, " fortify thyself by 
Grod's word, or otherwise," mala bonis perstiadenda, set pros- 
perity against adversity, as we refresh our eyes by seeing 
some pleasant meadow, fountain, picture, or the like ; recreate 
thy mind by sqme contrary object, with some more pleasing 
meditation divert thy thoughts. 

Yea, but you infer again, facile consilium damns aliis, we 
can easily give counsel to others ; every man, as the saying 
is, can tame a shrew but he that hath her ; si hie esses, cUiter 
sentires ; if you were in our misery, you would find it other- 
wise, 'tis not so easily performed. We know this to be true ; 
we should moderate ourselves, but we are furiously carried, 
we cannot make use of such precepts, we are overcome, sick, 
m^Jtle sani, distempered and habituated to these courses, we 
can make no resistance ; you may as well bid him that is dis- 
eased not to feel pain, as a melancholy man not to fear, not 
to be sad ; 'tis within his blood, his brains, his whole tem- 
perature, it cannot be removed But he may choose whether 
he will give way too far unto it, he may in some sort correct 
himself. A philosopher was bitten with a mad dog, and as 
the nature of that disease is to abhor all waters, and liquid 
things, and to think still they see the picture of a dog before 

1 Bpist. de secretis ariis et naturae, cap. pro alia re, neo irasearis, neo timeas, nee 

7, de retard, sen. Remediumesset contra doleaa, 8ed cum summa prseaentia hseo 

corruptionem propriam, si qnilibet exer- sustineas. SQuodsi incommoda adver- 

ceret regimen sanitatis, quod consistit in sitatis infortnnia hoc malum inTezerint, 

rebus sex non naturalibus. 3 pro all- his infinactum animum opponas, Dei verbo 

quo Tituperio non iudigneris, nee pro ^usque flducia te suffvdciaB, &e. Lem- 

amissione alicujus rei, pro morte alien- nius, lib. 1, c. 16. 
jus, neo pro carcere, nee pro exilio, nee 

Mem. 6, subs. 1.] Persians rectified, 215 

them : he went for all this, rductante se, to the bath, and see- 
ing there (as he thoaght) in the water the picture of a dog, 
with reason overcame this conceit, quid cam cum balneof 
what should a dog do in a bath ? a mere conceit. Thou . 
thinkest thou hearest and seest devils, black men, &c., 'tis not 
so, 'tis thy corrupt fantasy ; settle thine imagination, thou art 
well. Thou thinkest thou hast a great nose, thou art sick, 
every man observes thee, laughs thee to scorn ; persuade thy- 
self 'tis no such matter ; this is fear only, and vain suspicion. 
Thou art discontent, thou art sad and heavy; but why? upon 
what ground ? consider of it ; thou art jealous, timorous, sus- 
picious ; for what cause ? examine it thoroughly, thou shalt 
find none at all, or such as is to be contemned, such as thou 
wilt surely deride, and contemn in thyself, when it is past. 
Rule thyself then with reason, satisfy thyself, accustom thy- 
self, wean thyself from such fond conceits, vain fears, strong 
imaginations, restless thoughts. Thou mayest do it ; £st in 
nobis assuescere (as Plutarch saith), we may frame ourselves 
as we will. As he that useth an upright shoe, may correct 
the obliquity, or ch)okedness, by wearing it on the other side ; 
we may overcome passions if we will. Quicquid sibi im- 
peravit animtis oUinuit (as ^ Seneca saith) nvM tarn feri 
affectum, ut non disciplind perdomentury whatsoever the will 
desires, she may command ; no such cruel affections, but by 
discipline they may be tamed ; voluntarily thou wilt not do 
this or that, which thou oughtest to do, or refrain, &c., but 
when thou art lashed like a dull jade, thou wilt reform it ; 
fear of a whip will make thee do, or not do. Do that volun- 
tarily then which thou canst do, and must do by compulsion ; 
thou mayest refrain if thou wilt, and master thine affections. 
^ " As in a city (saith Melancthon) they do by stubborn, rebel- 
lious rogues, that will not submit themselves to political judg- 
ment, compel them by force ; so must we do by our affections. 

1 lib. 2, de Tra. s Cap. 8, de affect, affectum, membra fonts coeroenda sunt, 

snim. Ut in civltatibus contumaces qui ne ruant in quod a£fectus impellat ; et 

non oedunt politico imperio vi coercendi locomotiva, quse herili imperio obtempe- 

snnt; ita Deus nobis indidit alteram im- rat, alteri resistat. 
periiformam ; si cor non deponit yitiosum 

216 Cure of Meloiicholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

If the heart will not lay aside those vicious motions, and the 
fantasy those fond imaginations, we have another form of gov- 
ernment to enforce and refrain our outward members, that 
they be not led by our passions. If appetite will not obey, 
let the moving faculty overrule her, let her resist and compel 
her to do otherwise.*' In an ague the appetite would drink ; 
sore eyes that itch would be rubbed ; but reason saith no, and 
therefore the moving faculty will not do it. Our fantasy 
would intrude a thousand fears, suspicions, chimeras upon us, 
but we have reason to resist, yet we let it be overborne by 
our appetite ; ^ " imagination enforceth spirits, which, by an 
admirable league of nature, compel the nerves to obey, and 
they our several limbs ; " we give too much way to our pas- 
sions. And as to him that is sick of an ague, all things are 
distasteful and unpleasant, non ex cihi vitio, saith Plutarch, 
not in the meat, but in our taste : so many things are offen- 
sive to us, not of themselves, but out of our corrupt judgment, 
jealousy, suspicion, and the like; we pull these mischiefs 
upon our own heads. 

If then our judgment be so depraved,* our reason over- 
ruled, will precipitated, that we cannot seek our own good, 
or moderate ourselves, as in this disease commonly it is, the 
best way for ease is to impart our misery to some friend, not 
to smother it up in our own breast ; alitur vitium crescitque 
tegendo, &c., and that which was most offensive to us, a 
cause of fear and grief, quod nunc te coqwit, another hell ; for 
^strangulat inclums dohr atque excestuat intus, grief con- 
cealed strangles the soul ; but when as we shall but impart 
it to some discreet, trusty, loving friend, it is • instantly re- 
moved, by his counsel happily, wisdom, persuasion, advice, 
his good means, which we could not otherwise apply unto 
ourselves. A friend's counsel is a charm, like mandrake 
wine, euros sopit ; and as a * bull that is tied to a fig-tree 

1 Imaglnatio impelUt spirltus, et Inde Trist. lib. 5. * Participes inde calami- 

nervi moyentur. &c., et obtemperant tatis nostra sunt, et velut ezonerata in 

imaginationi et appglitui mirabili foedere, eos sarcina onere levamar. Arist. Etb. 

ad exequendum qilOd Jubeut. 3 Qyid. lib. 9. * Oamerarius, Embl. 26, cent. 2. 

Mem. 6, subs. 1.] Passions rectified, 217 

becomes gentle on a sudden (which some, saith ^ Plutarch, 
interpret of good words), so is a savage, obdurate heart 
mollified by fair speeches. " All adversity finds ease in com- 
plaining, (as ^Isidore holds,) and 'tis a solace to relate it," 
* 'Ayadfi 6e napaii^cic kariv haZpov, Friends' confabulations are 
comfortable at all times, as fire in winter, shade in summer, 
quale sopor fessts in fframine, meat and drink to him that is 
hungry or athirst ; Democritus's oollyrium is not so sov- 
ereign to the eyes as this is to the heart ; good words are 
cheerfiil and powerful of themselves, but much more from 
friends, as so many props, mutually sustaining each other 
like ivy and a wall, which Camerarius hath well illustrated 
in an emblem. Lenit animum simplex vel sape narratio, the 
simple narration many times easeth our distressed mind, and 
in the midst of greatest extremities ; so divers have been re- 
lieved, by * exonerating themselves to a faithful friend ; he 
sees that which we cannot see for passion and discontent, 
he pacifies our minds, he will ease our pain, assuage our 
anger; quanta inde voluptas, quanta securitas, Chrysostom 
adds, what pleasure, what security by that means ! ^ " Noth- 
ing so available, or that so much refresheth the soul of man." 
TuUy, as I remember, in an epistle to his dear friend Atti- 
cus, much condoles the defect of such a friend. •"! live 
here (saith he) in a great city, where I have a multitude of 
acquaintance, but not a man of all that company with whom 
I dare familiarly breathe, or freely jest. Wherefore I ex- 
pect thee, I desire thee, I send for thee ; for there be many 
things which trouble and molest me, which had I but thee in 
presence, I could quickly disburden myself of in a walking 
discourse." The like, perad venture, may he and he say with 
that old man in the comedy. 

1 Svmpos. lib. 6, cap. 10. * Epist. 8, tnrba ma^nm nemlnem reperire possTunxu 

lib. 8. Adversa fortuna habet in quere- qnocum auspinure fiuniliariter ant jocari 

lisleyamentum; etmalorum relatio, &c. Uberd possimns. Quare te ezpecttunus, 

s AUoqninm chari JuTat, et solamen ami- te desideramns, te arcessimns. Multa 

ci. Emblem. 64, cent. 1. ^ As David sunt enim quaa me golicitant et angunt, 

did to Jonathan, 1 Sam. xz. ^ Seneca, quae mihi videor auiMtuas nactus, uniua 

Epist. 67. * Hie in civitate magna et ambulationis sermofll exliaurire posse. 

218 Chtre of Melancholy, [Pan. II. sec. 2. 

" Nemo est meorum amicorum hodie, 
Apud quern expromere occulta mea audeam/* ^ 

and mach inconvenience may both he and he suffer in the 
mean time bj it. He or he, or whosoever then labours of 
this malady, bj all means let him get some trusty friend, 
^Semper habens Pylculemqtie altqtiem qui curet Orestem, a 
Pjlades, to whom freely and securely he may open himsel£ 
For as in all other occurrences, so it is in this, Si quis in 
coelum ascendisset, c&c., as he said in " TuUy, if a man had 
gone to heaven, " seen the beauty of the skies," stars errant, 
fixed, <&c., insuavis erit ctdmiraiio, it will do him no pleasure, 
except he have somebody to impart to what he hath seen. 
It is the best thing in the world, as ^ Seneca therefore ad- 
viseth in such a case, ^ to get a trusty friend, to whom we 
may freely and sincerely pour out our secrets ; nothing so 
delighteth and easeth the mind, as when we have a prepared 
bosom, to which our secrets may descend, of whose con- 
science we are assured as our own, whose speech may ease 
our succourless estate, counsel relieve, mirth expel our 
mourning, and whose very sight may be acceptable unto 
us." It was the counsel which that politic ^Commineus 
gave to all princes, and others distressed in mind, by oc- 
casion of Charles Duke of Burgundy, that was much per- 
plexed, " first to pray to God, and lay himself open to him, 
and then to some special friend, whom we hold most dear, 
to tell all our grievances to him; nothing so forcible to 
strengthen, recreate, and heal the wounded soul of a miser- 
able man." 

1 '* I have not a single Mend this day leniat, sententia consilium expediat, hi- 

to whom I dare disclose mj secrets." laritas tristitiam dissipet, conspectusque 

* Ovid. 8 De amicitia. * De tran- ipse delectet. ^ Comment. 1. 7. Ad 

quil. c. 7. Optimum est amicum fidelem Deum confugiamus, et peccatis Teniam 

nancisci in quern secreta nostra Infunda- precemur, inde ad amicos, et cui pluri- 

mus ; nihil »qui oblectat animum, quam mum tribuimus, nos patefiioiamus totos, 

ubi sint praeparata pectora. in quae tutd et animi vulnus quo affligimur: nihil ad 

secreta descendant, quorum consdentia reficiendum animum efl&cadus. 
aeque ac tua : quorum sermo solitudinem 

Mem. 6, subs. 2.] Mind rectified. 219 

SuBSECT. n. — Hdp from Friends hy Counsel^ Comfort^ fair 
and fovl Means, witty Devices, Satisfaction, Alteration of 
Ms Course of Life, removing Objects, Sf^c. 

When the patient of himself is not able to resist, or over- 
come these heart-eating passions, his friends or physician 
must be ready to supply that which is wanting. Stue erit 
humanitatis et sapientia (which ^ TuUy enjoineth in like case) 
siquid erratum, curare, aut improvisum, sud diligentid cor- 
rigere. They must all join ; nee satis medico, saith ^ Hip- 
pocrates, suum fedsse officium, nisi suum quoque agrotus, 
suum astantes, &c. First, they must especially beware, a 
melancholy discontented person (be it in what kind of melan- 
choly soever) never be left alone or idle ; but as physicians 
prescribe physic, cum custodid, let them not be left unto 
themselves, but with some company or other, lest by that 
means they aggravate and increase their disease ; non oportet 
agros kttfusmodi esse solos vel inter ignotos, vel inter eos quos 
non amant aut negligurU, as Rod. a Fonseca, torn, 1, consul, 
35, prescribes. Lugentes custodire solemus (saith ^ Seneca) 
ne solitudine male utantur ; we watch a sorrowful person, 
lest he abuse his solitariness, and so should we do a melan- 
choly man ; set him about some business, exercise or recrea- 
tion, which may divert his thoughts, and still keep him other- 
wise intent ; for his fantasy is so restless, operative and quick, 
that if it be not in perpetual action, ever employed, it will 
work upon itself, melancholize, and be carried away instantly 
with some fear, jealousy, discontent, suspicion, some vain con- 
ceit or other. If his weakness be such that he cannot dis- 
cern what is amiss, correct, or satisfy, it behooves them by 
counsel, comfort, or persuasion, by fair or foul means, to 
alienate his mind, by some artificial invention, or some con- 
trary persuasion, to remove all objects, causes, companies, 
occasions, as may any ways molest him, to humour him, 
please him, divert him, and if it be possible, by altering his 

1 Ep. Q. frat. s Aphor. prim. * Epist. 10. 

220 Cure of Mdcmcholy, [Pai-t. IL sec. 2. 

course of life, to give him securitj and satisfaction. If he 
conceal his grievances, and will not he known of them, 
* " they must observe hy his looks, gestures, motions, fantasy, 
what it is that offends," and then to apply remedies unto him ; 
many are instantly cured, when their minds are satisfied. 
* Alexander makes mention of a woman, " that by reason of 
her husband's long absence in travel, was exceeding peevish 
and melancholy, but when she heard her husband was re- 
turned, beyond all expectation, at the first sight of him, she 
was freed from all fear, without help of any other physic 
restored to her former health." Trincavellius, consiL 12, lib. 
1, hath such a story of a Venetian, that being much troubled 
with melancholy, ' " and ready to die for grief, when he heard 
his wife was brought to bed of a son, instantly recovered." 
As Alexander concludes, * " If our imaginations be not in- 
veterate, by this art they may be cured, especially if they 
proceed from such a cause." No better way to satisfy, than 
to remove the object, cause, occasion, if by any art or means 
possible we may find it out If he grieve, stand in fear, be 
in suspicion, suspense, or any way molested, secure him, Sol- 
vitur malum, give him satisfaction, the cure is ended ; alter 
his course of life, there needs no other physic. If the party 
be sad, or otherwise affected, ** consider (saith ^Trallianus) 
the manner of it, all circumstances, and forthwith make a 
sudden alteration," by removing the occasions, avoid all ter- 
rible objects, heard or seen, •" monstrous and prodigious 
aspects," tales of devils, spirits, ghosts, tragical stories; to 
such as are in fear they strike a great impression, renewed 
many times, and recall such chimeras ai;d terrible fictions 
into their mind. ^ ^ Make not so much as mention of them 

1 Observando motus, gestos, manus, toll axtifloio imnf^nationes carare oportet, 

pedes, oculos, phantaniam, Piso. > Ma- pnesertiin nbi malum ab his velut k. pri- 

lier melancholiSl correpta ex longa viri maria causa occasionem habuerit. & Lib. 

peregrinatione, et Iracnndi omnibus re- 1, cap. 16. Si ex trlHtitia aut alio affectu 

spondeos, quum maritus domum rever- ooeperit,speciemconsidera. aut aliud quid 

BUS. prseter spem, &c. > Prae dolore eorum, quse subitam alterationem fiicere 

mcriturus quum nunciatum esset ux- possunt. ^ Evitandi monHtriflci aspee- 

orem peperiffse flliura subito recuperavit. tus, &c. ^ Neque enim tarn actio, aut 

^ Nisi affectus longo tempore iufestayerit, recordatio rerum hujusmodi diflplicet. Bed 

Mem. 6, subs. 2. J Mind rectified. 221 

in private talk, or a dumb show tending to that purpose ; such 
things (saith Galateus) are offensive to their imaginations." 
And to those that are now in sorrow, * Seneca " forbids all 
sad companions, and such as lament ; a groaning companion 
is an enemy to quietness." * Or if there be any such party 
at whose presence the patient is not well pleased, he must be 
removed ; gentle speeches, and fair means, must first be tried ; 
no harsh language used, or uncomfortable words; and not 
expel, as some do, one madness with another; he that so 
doth, is madder than the patient himself; " all things must be 
quietly composed ; eversa non evertenda, sed erigenda, things 
down must not be dejected, but reared, as Crato counselleth ; 
• " he must be quietly and gently used," and we should not do 
anything against his mind, but by little and little effect it 
As a horse that starts at a drum or trumpet, and will not en- 
dure the shooting of a piece, may be so manned by art, and 
animated, that he cannot only endure, but is much more gen- 
erous at the hearing of such things, much more courageous 
than before, and much delighteth in it : they must not be re- 
formed, ex abrupto, but by all art and insinuation, made to 
such companies, aspects, objects they could not formerly away 
with. Many at first cannot endure the sight of a green 
wound, a sick man, which afterward became good chirurgeons, 
bold empirics ; a horse starts at a rotten post afar off, which 
coming near he quietly passeth. *Tis much in the manner 
of making such kind of persons, be they never so averse 
from company, tashful, solitary, timorous, they may be made 
at last with those Roman matrons, to desire nothing more 
than in a public show, to see a full company of gladiators 
breathe out their last. 

If they may not otherwise be accustomed to brook such 
distasteful and displeasing objects, the best way then is gen- 
us Tel gestns alterius ImagiDationi adum- horrent, prtesentla amovenda, nee ser- 
brare, vehementer molestum. monibus ingratis obtundendi ; si quis in- 
mor. cap. 7. ^ Tranquil. Prwcipue saniam ab insania sic cnrari aestlmet, e( 
Vitentnr tristes, et omnia deplorantes ; proterve utitur, magis quam eeger insa- 
tranquillitati inimicus est comes pertur- nit. Crato, consil. 184, Scoltsii. ^ Mol- 
batos, omnia gemens. s niorum quo- liter ac suariter eeger tractetur, nee ad e« 
qne hominum, & qaorom consortio ab- adigatnr qnse non curat. 

222 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

erally to avoid them. Montanus, cormL 229, to the Earl of 
Montfort, a courtier, and his melancholy patient, adviseth 
him to leave the court, by reaaon of those continual discon- 
tents, crosses, abuses, ^ ^ cares, suspicions, emulations, ambi- 
tion, anger, jealousy, which that place afforded, and which 
surely caused him to be so melancholy at the first;" Maxima 
quteque domus serms est plena superUs ; a company of scof- 
fers and proud jacks are commonly conversant and attendant 
in such places, and able to make any man that is of a soft, 
quiet disposition (as many times they do) ex stulio insanum, 
if once they humour him, a very idiot, or stark mad. A 
thing too much practised in all common societies, and they 
have no better sport than to make themselves merry by abus- 
ing some silly fellow, or to take advantage of another man's 
weakness. In such cases as in a plague, the best remedy is 
citd, lonffey tarde ; (for to such a party, especially if he be 
apprehensive, there can be no greater misery,) to get him 
quickly gone far enough off, and not to be over-hasty in his 
return. If he be so stupid that he do not apprehend it, his 
friends should take some order, and by their discretion supply 
that which is wanting in him, as^in all other cases they ought 
to do. If they see a man melancholy given, solitary, averse 
from company, please himself with such private and vain 
meditations, though he delight in it, they ought by all means 
seek to divert him, to dehort him, to tell him of the event 
and danger that may come of it. If they see a man idle, 
that by reason of his means otherwise will betake himself to 
no course of life, they ought seriously to admonish him, he 
makes a noose to entangle himself, his want of employment 
will be his undoing. If he have sustained any great loss, 
suffered a repulse, disgrace, &c., if it be possible, relieve him. 
If he desire aught, let him be satisfied ; if in suspense, fear, 
suspicion, let him be secured ; and if it may conveniently be, 
give him his heart's content ; for the body cannot be cured 

1 Ob snspiciones, curas, semulationem, minifltiat, et quse feclssenfc melancholi- 
ambitionem, iras, &c., quas locos ille com. 

Mem. 6, sabs. 2.] MiTid rectified. 223 

till the mind be satisfied. ^ Socrates, in Plato, would prescribe 

no physic for Charmides's headache, ^ till first he had eased 

his troubled mind ; body and soul must be cured together, as 

head and eyes.'* 

3 ** Ocnlam non cnrabis sine toto capite, 
Nee caput sine toto corpore. 
Nee totnm corpus sine anima/' 

If that may not be hoped or expected, yet ease him with 
comfort, cheerful speeches, fair promises, and good words, 
persuade him, advise him. " Many," saith ' Galen, " have 
been cured by good counsel and persuasion alone." " Heavi- 
ness of the heart of man doth bring it down, but a good word 
rejoiceth it," Prov. xii. 25. " And there is he that speaketh 
words like the pricking of a sword, but the tongue of a wise 
man is health," ver. 18. Oratio namque satuni animi est 
remedtum, a gentle speech is the true cure of a wounded soul, 
as * Plutarch contends out of JEschylus and Euripides : " if 
it be wisely administered it easeth grief and pain, as diverse 
remedies do many other diseases." 'Tis incantcUionis instar, 
a charm, cestvantis animi refngerium^ that true Nepenthe of 
Homer, which was no Indian plant, or feigned medicine, 
which Epidamna, Thonis's wife, sent Helena for a token, as 
Macrobius, 7 Satumal,, Goropius Hermat lib. 9, Greg. Na- 
zianzen, and others suppose, but opportunity of speech ; for 
Helena's bowl, Medea's unction, Venus's girdle, Circe's cup, 
cannot so enchant, so forcibly move or alter as it doth. A 
letter sent or read will do as much ; midtum aUevor quum tuas 
literas lego^ I am much eased, as * Tully wrote to Pomponius 
Atticus, when I read thy letters, and as Julianus the Apostate 
once signified to Maxim us the philosopher; as Alexander 
slept with Homer's works, so do I with thine epistles, tanquam 
PcBoniis medicamentis, easque assidue tanquam recentes et 

1 Nisi prius animum turbstisBimum noe non paucos sanaTimus, animi moti- 

coriBset ; ocali sine capite, nee corpus bus ad debitum revocatis, lib. 1, de sanit. 

sine animSi curari potest. 2 E Graeoo. tuend. * Consol. ad Apollonium. Si 

" You shall not cure the eye, unless you quia sapienter et suo tempore adhibeat, 

cure the whole head also ; nor the head, Bemedia morbis diversis diversa sunt ; 

unless the whole body; nor the whole dolentem sermo benignus sublevat. 

body, unless the soul besides." 3£t slab. 12, fipist. 

224 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 2. 

novas iteramus ; scribe ergo, et assidue scribe, or else come 
thyself; amicus ad amicum venies. Assuredly a wise and 
well-spoken man may do what he will in such a case ; a good 
orator alone, as ^ TuUy holds, can alter affections by power of 
ills eloquence, " comfort such as are afflicted, erect such as 
are depressed, expel and mitigate fear, lust, anger," &c. And 
how powerful is the charm of a discreet and dear friend ? 
Hie regit dictis animos et temperat iras. What may not he 
effect ? As ^ Chremes told Menedemus, " Fear not, conceal 
it not, O friend ! but tell me what it is that troubles thee, and 
I shall surely help thee by comfort, counsel, or in the matter 
itself." *Amoldus, Ub, 1, breviar. cap. 18, speaks of a 
usurer in his time, that upon a loss, much melancholy and 
discontent, was so cured. As imagination, fear, grief, cause 
such passions, so conceits alone, rectified by good hope, coun- 
sel, &c., are able again to help ; and 'tis incredible how much 
they can do in such a case, as * Trincavellius illustrates by 
an example of a patient of his ; Porphyrins, the philosopher, 
in Plotinus's life (written by him), relates, that being in a 
discontented humour through insufferable anguish of mind, 
he was going to make away himself; but meeting by chance 
his master Plotinus, who perceiving by his distracted looks 
all was not well, urged him to confess his grief ; which when 
he had heard, he used such comfortable speeches, that he 
redeemed him e faucibus Erebi, pacified his unquiet mind, 
insomuch that he was easily reconciled to himself, and much 
abashed to think afterwards that he should ever entertain so 
vile a motion. By all means, therefore, fair promises, good 
words, gentle persuasions, are to be used, not to be too rigor- 
ous at first, * " or to insult over them, not to deride, neglect, 
or contemn, but rather," as Lemnius exhorteth, " to pity, and 
by all plausible means to seek to redress them ; " but if satis- 

1 De nat. deoriijn, consolatur afflictos, meos sic cnratum, qui multam pecu- 

deducit perterritos &. timore, cupiditatea niam amiserat. * Lib. 1, consil. 12. 

imprimis, et iracundias comprimit. Incredibile dictu quantum jurent. 

2 Heautoa. Act. 1, Seen. 1. Ne metue, ^ Nemo istiusmodi conditionis homini- 

ne verere, orede inquam milii, aut con- bus insultet, aut in illos sit severior, 

solando, aut consilio, aut re jnvero. verum miseries potins indolescat, tI- 

> NoTi fiieneratorem ararum apud cemque depioret. lib. 2, cap. 16. 


Mem. 6, subs. 2.] Mind rectified, 225 

faction may not be had, mild courses, promises, comfortable 
speeches, and' good counsel will not take place ; then as Chris- 
tophorus k Vega determines, lib, 3, cap, 14c, de Mel. to handle 
them more roughly, to threaten and chide, saith ^Altomarus, 
terrify sometimes, or as Salvianus will have them, to be 
lashed and whipped, as we do by a starting horse, ^ that is 
affrighted without a cause, or as ' Rhasis adviseth, <^ one while 
to speak fair and flatter, another while to terrify and chide, 
as they shall see cause." 

When none of these precedent remedies will avail, it will 
not be amiss, which Savanarola and ^lian Montaltus so 
much commend, clavum clavo peUere, ^ " to drive out one pas- 
sion with another, or by some contrary passion,'* as they do 
bleeding at nose by letting blood in the arm, to expel one 
fear with another, one grief with another. * Christophorus k 
Vega accounts it rational physic, non cdienum a ratione ; and 
Lemnius much approves it, '^ to use a hard wedge to a hard 
knot," to drive out one disease with another,, to pull out a 
tooth, or wound him, to geld him, saith ' Platerus, as they did 
epileptical patients of old, because it quite alters the temper- 
ature, that the pain of the one may mitigate the grief of the 
other ; ^ " and I knew one that was so cured of a quartan 
ague, by the sudden coming of his enemies upon him." If 
we may believe ® Pliny, whom Scaliger calls mendaciorum 
patrem, the father of lies, Q. Fabius Maximus, that renowned 
consul of Rome, in a battle fought with the king of the Allo- 
broges, at the river Isaurus, was so rid of a quartan ague. 
Valesius, in his controversies, holds this an excellent remedy, 
and if it be discreetly used in this malady, better than any 

1 Cap. 7 Idem Piso Lanrentius, cap. 8. cap. 14. oCap.8. CastratioolimdiTeteri- 

s Quod timet nihil eet, ubi cogitur et vi- bus usa in morbis desperatis, &o. ? Lib. 

det. 8 Una vice blandiantur, una vice 1, cap. 6, Bic morbnm morbo, ut clavum 

ilsdem terrorem incutiant. * Si yero clavo, retnndimus, et malo nodo malum 

fuerit ex novo malo andito, vel ex animi cuneum adhibemus. Novi ego qui ex 

accidente, aut deami88ionemercium,aut subito hostium incursu et kiopi nato 

morte amici, introducantur nova coutra* timore quartanam depulerat. ^ Lib. 7, 

ria Ilia qu8B ipsum ad gaudia moveant ; de cap- 50- In acie pugnans febre quartana 

hoc semper niti debemus, &c. ^ Lib. 8, liberatus est. 

VOL. II. 16 

226 Gwre of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

Sometimes again by some ^ feigned lie, strange news, witty 
device, artificial invention, it is not amiss to deceive them. 
* " As they hate those," saith Alexander, " that neglect or de- 
ride, so they will give ear to such as will soothe them up. If 
they say they have swallowed frogs or a snake, by all means 
grant it, and tell them you can easily cure it ; 'tis an ordi- 
nary thing. Philodotus, the physician, cured a melancholy 
king, that thought his head was off, by putting a leaden cap 
thereon ; the weight made him perceive it, and freed him of 
his fond imagination. A woman, in the said Alexander, 
swallowed a serpent as she thought ; he gave her a vomit, 
and conveyed a serpent, such as she conceived, into the basin ; 
upon the sight of it she was amended. The pleasantest 
dotage that ever I read, saith * Laurentius, was of a gentle- 
man at Senes in Italy, who was afraid to piss, lest all the 
town should be drowned ; the physicians caused the bells to 
be rung backward, and told him the town was on fire, where- 
upon he made water, and was immediately cured. Another 
supposed his nose so big, that he should dash it against the 
wall if he stirred ; his physician took a great piece of flesh, 
and holding it in his hand, pinched him by the nose, making 
him believe that flesh was cut from it. Forestus, oh%, lib, 1, 
had a melancholy patient, who thought he was dead, * " he 
put a fellow in a chest, like a dead man, by his bedside, and 
made him rear himself a little, and eat ; the melancholy man 
asked the counterfeit, whether dead men use to eat meat ? 
He told him yea ; whereupon he did eat likewise and was 
cured." Lemnius, lib. 2, cap. 6, c^ 4 complex, hath many 
such instances, and Jovianus Pontanus, lib. 4, cap. 2, of 
Wisd. of the like ; but amongst the rest I find one most 
memorable, registered in the ^ French chronicles of an advo- 
cate of Paris before mentioned, who believed verily he was 

1 Jacchinus, c. 15, in 9 Rhasis, Mont, cura facere. > Cap. 8, de mel. * Ois- 

cap. 26. 3 lib. 1, cap. 16, aversantur tarn postiit ex Medicorum consilio prope 

606 qui eorum afifectus rident, contem- eum, in quern alium se mortuum fingen- 

nunt. Si raDas et viperas comedisse se tern posuit ; hie in cista jacens, &c. 

putant, concedere debemus, et spem de ^ Serres. 1550. 

Mem. 6, subs. 8.] Perturbations rectified. 227 

dead, &c. I read a multitude of examples of melancholy men 
cured by such artificial invenBons. 

SuBSECT. III. — Music a Remedy. 

Many and sundry are the means which philosophers and 
physicians have prescribed to exhilarate a sorrowful heart, to 
divert those fixed and intent cares and meditations, which in 
this malady so much offend; but in my judgment none so 
present, none so powerful, none so apposite as a cup of strong 
drink, mirth, music, and merry company. Ecclus. xl. 20. 
" Wine and music rejoice the heart" * Rhasis, cont. 9, Tmct. 
15, Altomarus, cap, 7, JBlianus Montaltus, c. 26, Ficinus, 
Bened. Victor. Faventinus are almost immoderate in the 
commendation of it; a most forcible medicine ^Jacchinus 
calls it; Jason Pratensis, ^^a most admirable thing, and 
worthy of consideration, that can so mollify the mind, and 
stay those tempestuous affections of it." Musica est mentis 
medidna mcestce, a roaring-meg against melancholy, to rear 
and revive the languishing soul; *" affecting not only the 
ears, but the very arteries, the vital and animal spirits, it 
erects the mind, and makes it nimble." Lemnius, instit 
cap, 44. This it will effect in the most dull, severe and 
sorrowful souls, * " expel grief with mirth, and if there be 
any clouds, dust, or dregs of cares yet lurking in our 
thoughts, most powerfully it wipes them all away," Salisbur. 
polit. lib, 1, cap, 6, and that which is more, it will perform 
all this in an instant ; ^ " Cheer up the countenance, expel 
austerity, bring in hilarity (Girald. Oamb, cap, 12, Topog, 
lEber.), inform our manners, mitigate anger;" Athenaeus 
{DipnosopMst. lib, 14, cap, 10,) calleth it an infinite treas- 
ure to such as are endowed with it ; Dulcisonum rejicit tristia 

1 In 9 Rhasis. Ifagnam Tim habet spiricus turn vitales tiim animales excitat, 

musica. s Oap. de Mania. Admiranda mentem reddens agilem, &c. * Musica 

profect6 res est, et digna ezpensione, renustate sua mentes severlores capit, 

quod sonorum concinnitas mentem emol- &c. 6 Animos tristes subitd exhilarat, 

liat, sistatque prooellosas ipsius aflfeo- nubilos yultus serenat. austeritatem re- 

tiones. ^ Languens animus inde erigi- ponit, jucnnditatem exponit, barbariem- 

tur et reviyiscit, nee tarn aures afficit, que &cit deponere gentes, mores Institult, 

Bed et sonitu per arteriaa undiqne diffuso, iracundiam mltigat. 

228 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

corda melos, Eobanus Hessus. Many other properties ^ Cas- 
siodorus, epist 4, reckons up of this our divine music, not 
only to expel the greatest griefs, but "it doth extenuate 
fears and furies, appeaseth cruelty, abateth heaviness, and to 
such as are watchful it causeth quiet rest; it takes away 
spleen and hatred," be it instrumental, vocal, with strings, 
wind, ^ Qius a spiritu, sine manuum dexteritate gubeme- 
tur, &c., it cures all irksomeness and heaviness of the soul. 

* Labouring men that sing to their work, can tell as much, 
and so can soldiers when they go to fight, whom terror of 
death cannot so much affright as the sound of trumpet, drum, 
fife, and such like music animates; metus enim mortis, as 

* Censorinus informeth us, musicd depellitur. " It makes a 
child quiet," the nurse's song, and many times the sound of a 
trumpet on a sudden, bells ringing, a carman's whistle, a boy 
singing some ballad tune early in the street, alters, revives, 
recreates a restless patient that cannot sleep in the night, &c. 
In a word, it is so powerful a thing that it ravisheth the soul, 
regina sensuum, the queen of the senses, by sweet pleasure 
(which is a happy cure), and corporal tunes pacify our in- 
corporeal soul, sine ore loqtiens, dominatum in animam ex- 
ercet, and carries it beyond itself, helps, elevates, extends it 
Scaliger, exerdt. 302, gives a reason of those effects, * ** be- 
cause the spirits about the heart take in that trembling and 
dancing air into the body, are moved together, and stirred up 
with it,** or else the mind, as some suppose harmonically com- 
posed, is roused up at the tunes of music. And 'tis not only 
men that are so affected, but almost all other creatures. 
You know the tale of Hercules Gallus, Orpheus, and Am- 
phion, fcdices animas. Ovid calls them, that could saxa 
movere sono testudinis, &c., make stocks and stones, as well 
as beasts and other animals dance after their pipes ; the dog 
and hare, wolf and lamb; vicinumque lupo prmhiit agna 

1 Cithara tristitiam jucundat, timidos spiritus qui in corde agitant tremTdum 

furores attenuat, cruentam saevitiaiu et subsaltantem recipiant aSrem in peo- 

blande reficit, languorem, &c. > pet. tas, et iade excitantur, k spiritu muscu- 

Aretine. ^ Castillo, de aulic. lib. 1, fol. li moventur, &c. 
27. 4 Lib. de NataU, cap. 12. 6 Quod 

Mem. 6, subs. 8.] Perturbations rectified. 229 

latiLs ; clamosus ffraculuSj stridula comixj et Jovis aquila^ as 
Philostratus describes it in his images, stood all gaping upon 
Orpheus ; and ^ trees pulled up by the roots came to hear 
him, £k comitem quercum pinus arnica trahit. 

Arion made fishes follow him, which, as common experi- 
ence evinceth, ^are much affected with music All singing 
birds are much pleased with it, especially nightingales, if we 
may believe Calcagninus ; and bees amongst the rest, though 
they be flying away, when they hear any tingling sound, 
will tarry behind. ' " Harts, hinds, horses, dogs, bears, are 
exceedingly delighted with it." Seal, exerc, 302. Elephants, 
Agrippa adds, lib. 2, cap. 24, and in Lydia in the midst of a 
lake there be certain floating islands (if ye will believe it), 
that afler music will dance. 

But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise * of divine 
music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides 
that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it 
is a sovereign remedy against * despair and melancholy, and 
will drive away the devil himself. Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, 
in ^ Philostratus, when ApoUonius was inquisitive to know 
what he could do with- his pipe, told him, " That he would 
make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry 
much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a relig- 
ious man more devout." Ismenias the Theban, ^ Chiron the 
centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases 
by music alone ; as now they do those, saith ^ Bodine, that 
are troubled with St Vitus's Bedlam dance. • Timotheus, 
the musician, compelled Alexander to skip up and down, 
and leave his dinner (like the tale of the Friar and the Boy), 
whom Austin, de civ. Dei, lib. 17, cap. 14, so much com- 

1 Arbores radidbus ayubue, &c. > M. desperatis conciliavit opem. > Lib. 6, 

Garew of Anthony, in descript. Corn- cap. 7. Moerentibus moerorem adimam, 

wall, saith of whales, that they will come laetantem vero seipso reddam hilariorem, 

and show themseWes dancing at the amantem calidiorem, religioeum divine 

sound <^a trumpet, fol. 85, 1, et fol. 164, numine correptum, et ad Deos colendos 

2 book. * De cervo, eqno, cane, urso paratiorem. 7 Natalis Comes Myth. lib. 

idem compertum ; musica afflciuntnr. 4, cap. 12. ^ Lib. 5, de rep. Curat Mu- 

* Numen inest numeiis. ^ Ssepe graves sica furorem Sancti Viti. <* Ezilire ^ 

morbos modulatnm carmen abegit, Et convivio, Cardan, subtil, lib. 18. 

230 (Jure of Mehncholy. [Part. H. sec. 2. 

mends for it. Who hath not heard how David's harmonj 
drove away the evil spirits from King Saul, 1 Sam. xvi. and 
Elisha, when he was much troubled by importunate kings, 
called for a minstrel, ^' and when he played, the hand of the 
Lord came upon him," 2 Eangs iii. ? Censorinus, de naicdi, 
cap. 12, reports how Asclepiades the physician helped many 
frantic persons by this means, phreneticorum merUes morbo 
turbatas — Jason Fratensis, cap. de Mama, hath many ex- 
amples, how Clinias and Empedocles cured some desperately 
melancholy, and some mad, by this our music. Which be- 
cause it hath such excellent virtues, belike * Homer brings in 
Phemius playing, and the Muses singing at the banquet of 
the gods. Aristotle, JPblit. I. 8, c. 5, Plato, 2, de hgihus^ 
highly approve it, and so do all politicians. The Greeks, 
Eomans, have graced music, and made it one of the liberal 
sciences, though it be now become mercenary. All civil 
Commonwealths allow it; Cneius Manlius (as ^Livius re- 
lates) anno ah urh, cond. 567, brought first out of Asia to 
Rome singing wenches, players, jesters, and all kind of 
music to their feasts. Your princes, emperors, and persons 
of any quality, maintain it in their courts ; no mirth without 
music. Sir Thomas More, in his absolute Utopian common- 
wealth, allows music as an appendix to every meal, and that 
throughout, to all sorts. Epictetus calls mensam mutam 
prcBsepey a table without music a manger ; for " the concert 
of musicians at a banquet, is a carbuncle set in gold ; and as 
the signet of an emerald well trimmed with gold, so is the 
melody of music in a pleasant banquet." Ecclus. xxxii. 5, 6. 
• Louis the Eleventh, when he invited Edward the Fourth to 
come to Paris, told him that as a principal part of his enter- 
tainment, he should hear sweet voices of children, Ionic and 
Lydian tunes, exquisite music, he should have a —  — , and 
the cardinal of Bourbon to be his confessor, which he used 
as a most plausible argument ; as to a sensual man indeed it 

1 niad. 1. s Libro 9, cap. 1. Psal- dorum oblectameata addita epulis ex 

trias, sambucistriasque, et conviyalia lu- Asia invexit in urbem. ' Comineus. 

Mem. 6, sabs. 3.] Perturhatiom rectified, 231 

is. ^Lucian in his book, de saltatiane, is not ashamed to 
confess that he took infinite delight in singing, dancing, 
music, women's company, and such like pleasures ; " and if 
thou (saith he) didst but hear them play and dance, I know 
thou wouldst be so well pleased with the object, that thou 
wouldst dance for company thyself, without doubt thou wilt 
be taken with it." So Scaliger ingenuously confesseth, 
exerciu 274. ^"I am beyond all measure affected with 
music, I do most willingly behold them dance, I am mightily 
detained and allured with that grace and comeliness of fair 
women, I am well pleased to be idle amongst them." And 
what young man is not ? As it is acceptable and conducing 
to most, so especially to a melancholy man. Provided 
always, his disease proceed not originally from it, that he be 
not some light inamorato^ some idle fantastic, who capers in 
conceit all the day long, and thinks of nothing else, but how 
to make jigs, sonnets, madrigals, in commendation of his 
mistress. In such cases music is most pernicious, as a spur 
to a free horse will make him run himself blind, or break his 
wind ; Incitamentum enim amoris musica, for music enchants, 
as Menander holds, it will make such melancholy persons 
mad, and the sound of those jigs and hornpipes will not be 
removed out of the ears a week after. 'Plato for this 
reason forbids music and wine to all young men, because 
they are most part amorous, ne ignis addatur igni, lest one 
fire increase another. Many men are melancholy by hear- 
ing music, but it is a pleasing melancholy that it causeth ; 
and therefore to such as are discontent, in woe, fear, sorrow, 
•or dejected, it is a most present remedy ; it expels cares, 
alters their grieved minds, and easeth in an instant. Other- 
wise, saith ^ Plutarch, Musica magis demerUat quam vinum ; 
music makes some men mad as a tiger ; like Astolphos's horn 
in Ariosto ; or Mercury's golden wand in Homer, that made 

1 lata libenter et magnSL cum voluptate choreas libentissim^ aspiclo. pulchrarom 

spectare soleo. Et gcio te illecebris hisce foemiiiAruin venastate detineor, otiari in- 

captum iri et insuper tripudiaturum, ter has solutus curis possum. ^3, Oe 

haud dubid demulcebere. ^Inmusicis legibus. ^ Sympos. qusest. 6. Musica 

supra omnem fidem capior et oblector ; multos magis dementat quam viaum. 


Cure of Melancholy, 

[Part. n. sec. 2. 

some wake, others sleep, it hath divers effects ; and ^ Theo- 
phrastus right well prophesied, that diseases were either pro- 
cured bj music or mitigated. 

SuBSECT. rV. — Mirih and merry Company^ fair Objects, 


Mirth and merry company may not be separated from 
music, both concerning and necessarily required in this busi- 
ness. " Mirth " (saith ^ Vives) " purgeth the blood, confirms 
health, causeth a fresh, pleasing and fine colour," prorogues 
life, whets the wit, makes the body young, lively and fit for any 
manner of employment. The merrier the heart the longer the 
life ; " A merry heart is the life of the flesh," Prov. xiv. 30. 
" Gladness prolongs his days," Ecclus. xxx. 22 ; and this is 
one of the three Salernitan doctors, Dr. Merryman, Dr. Diet, 

Dr. Quiet, ' which cure all diseases Mens hilaris, requies, 

moderata dieta, ^ Gomesius, preefat, lib. 3, de sal. gen, is a 
great magnifier of honest mirth, by which (saith he) " we 
cure many passions of the mind in ourselves, and ia our 
friends ; " which * Galateus assigns for a cause why we love 
merry companions ; and well they deserve it, being that as 
*Magninus holds, a merry companion is better than any 
music, and as the saying is, com^ jucundus in via pro ve- 
hictilo, as a wagon to him that is wearied on the way. 
Jucunda confabukuio, sales, joci, pleasant discourse, jests, 
conceits, merry tales, melliti verborum globidi, as Petronius, 
^ Pliny, ® Spondanus, ® Caelius, and many good authors plead, 
are that sole Nepenthes of Homer, Helena's bowl, Venus's 
girdle, so renowned of old ^° to expel grief and care, to cause 

1 Animi morbi rel k musicSl curantur 
Tel inferuntur. > Lib. 8, de animft. 
Leetitia pui^t sanguinem, Taletudinem 
conservat, colorem inducit florenteixi, 
nitidum, gratum. > Spiritus temperat, 
caloiem excitat, natnralem yirtutem cor- 
roborat, juvenile corpus diu serrat, vitam 
prorogat, ingenium acuit, et hominem 
negotUs qoibuslibet aptiorem reddit. 
Schola Salem. * Dum contumeli& va- 
cant et festiva lenitate mordent, medio- 

cres animi aegritudines sanari solent, &e. 
6 De mor. fol. 67. Amamus ideo eos qui 
sunt Ikoeti et jucundi. ^ Regim. sanit. 
part. 2. Nota quod amicus bonus et di- 
lectus socins, narratlonibus suis jucun- 
dis superat omnem melodiam. 7 Lib. 
21, cap. 27. ^ Comment, in 4 Odjss. 
9 Lib. 26, c. 15. ^o Homericum illud 
Nepenthes quod moerorem tolUt, et 
cuthimiam, et hilaritatem parit. 

Mem. 6, subs. 4.] Mind rectified by Mirth, 233 

mirth and gladness of heart, if they be rightlj understood, or 
seasonably applied. In a word, 

1 " Amor, voluptas, Venus, gaudinm, 
Jocus, Indus, sermo suavis, suaviatio," 

" Gratification, pleasure, love, joy, 
Mirth, sport, pleasant words and no alloy,** 

are the true Nepenthes. For these causes our physicians 
generally prescribe this as a principal engine to batter the 
walls of melancholy, a chief antidote, and a sufficient cure 
of itself. " By all means (saith ^ Mesne) procure mirth to 
these men in such things as are heard, seen, tasted or smelled, 
or any way perceived, and let them have all enticements and 
fair promises, the sight of excellent beauties, attires, orna- 
ments, delightsome passages to distract their minds from fear 
and sorrow, and such things on which they are so fixed and 
intent. "Let them use hunting, sports, plays, jests, merry 
company,*' as Rhasis prescribes, " which will not let the mind 
be molested, a cup of good drink now and then, hear music, 
and have such companions with whom they are especially de- 
lighted ; ^ merry tales or toys, drinking, singing, dancing, and 
whatsoever else may procure mirth ; " and by no means, saith 
Guianerius, suffer them to be alone. Benedictus Victorius 
Faventinus, in his empirics, accounts it an especial remedy 
against melancholy, '^^^to hear and see singing, dancing, 
maskers, mummers, to converse with such merry fellows and 
fair maids." " For the beauty of a woman cheereth the 
countenance," Ecclus. xxxvi. 22. • Beauty alone is a sov- 
ereign remedy against fear, grief, and all melancholy fits ; a 
charm, as Peter de la Seine and many other writers affirm, 

1 Plant. Bacch. > De aBgritud. capitilf . et cantn et loci mntatione, et biberia, et 

Omni modo generet Iffititiiun in iis, de Us gaudio, ex quibus preecipue delectantur. 

qusB audiuntur et yidentur, aut odoran- ^ Piao, ex Ikbulis et Indis quaerenda de- 

tnr, ant gustantur, aut quocunque modo lectatio. His Tersetur qui maxima grati 

tentiri possunt, et aspectu fbrmarum mul- sunt, cantus et chorea ad laetitiam pro- 

ti decoris et omat(\s, et n^otiatione Ju- sunt. ^ PrsBcipue valet ad expellen- 

cnnd^, et blandientiVus ludis, et promissis dam melancholiam stare in cantibus, 

distrahantur eorum animi, de re aliqua ludls, et sonis, et habitare cum fltmiliari- 

quam timent et dolent. 'ntanturvena- bus, et pnecipue cum puellis jucundis. 

tionibu8,ludi8,Joci8,amicorumcon8ortiis, « Par. 6, de avoeamentis, lib. de absol- 

quee non sinnnt animum turbari, Tino Tendo Inctn. 

234 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

a banquet itself; he gives instance in discontented Menelaus, 
that was so often freed by Helena's fair face; and ^ Tally, 3 
7\l8c. cites Epicurus as a chief patron of this tenet. To ex- 
pel grief, and procure pleasure, sweet smells, good diet, 
touch, taste, embracing, singing, dancing, sports, plays, and 
above the rest, exquisite beauties, quihus ocuK juciinde 
maventur et animi^ are most powerful means, ohvia forma^ to 
meet or see a fair maid pass by, or to be in company with 
her. He found it by experience, and made good use of it in 
his own person, if Plutarch belie him not ; for he reckons up 
the names of some more elegant pieces ; ^ Leontia, Boedina, 
Hedieia, Nicedia, that were frequently seen in Epicurus's 
garden, and very familiar in his house. Neither did he try 
it himself alone, but if we may give credit to ' Athenseus, he 
practised it upon others. For when a sad and sick patient 
was brought unto him to be cured, ^*he laid him on a down 
bed, crowned him with a garland of sweet-smelling flowers, 
in a fair perfumed closet delicately set out, and after a por- 
tion or two of good drink, which he administered, he brought 
in a beautiful young ^ wench that could play upon a lute, sing, 
and dance," &c., Tully, 3 Tusc. scoffs at Epicurus, for this his 
profane physic (as well he deserved), and yet Phavorinus 
and Stobaius highly approve of it ; most of our looser physi- 
cians in some cases, to such parties especially, allow of this ; 
and all of them will have a melancholy, sad, and discontented 
person, make frequent use of honest sports, companies, and 
recreations, et incitandos ad Venerem, as * Rodericus k Fon- 
seca will, aspectu et contactu ptdcherrimarum foeminarum, to 
be drawn to such consorts whether they will or no. Not to 
be an auditor only, or a spectator, but sometimes an actor 
himself. Didce est desipere in loco, to play the fool now and 
then is not amiss, there is a time for all things. Grave Soc- 
rates would be merry by fits, sing, dance, and take his liquor 

1 Corporum complexus, cantus, ludl, culcitra plamea collocavit dulcicalam 

fbrmse, &o. > Circa hortoa Epicuri fre- potionem propinans, psaltriam addnxitf 

quentes. > Dipaosoph. lib. lO- Coro- &c. * Ut reclinatSL suaviter in lectum 

naTlt florido serto iacendens odores, in puell&, &c. ^ Tom. 2, consult. 86. 

Mem. 6, subs. 4.] Mind rectified hy Mirth. 235 

too, or else Theodoret belies him ; so would old Cato, * Tully 
by his own confession, and the rest. Xenophon, in his Sym- 
pos. brings in Socrates as a principal actor, no man mer- 
rier than himself, and sometimes he would * " ride a cockhorse 

with his children," equitare in arundine hngd (though 

Alcibiades scoffed at him for it), and well he might ; for now 
and then (saith Plutarch) the most virtuous, honest, and 
gravest men will use feasts, jests, and toys, as we do sauce to 
our meats. So did Scipio and LsbHus, 

> " Qui ubi se a vulgo et scena in secreta remorant, 
Virtus Scipiadffi et mitis sapientia Lseli, 
Nugari cum illo, et discincti ludere, donee 
Decoqueretur olus, soliti " 

^ Valorous Scipio and gentle Laelius, 
Removed from the scene and rout so clamorous, 
Were wont to recreate themselves their robes laid by 
Whilst supper by the cook was making ready.'' 

Machiavel, in the eighth book of his Florentine history, gives 
this note of Cosmo de' Medici, the wisest and gravest man 
of his time in Italy, that he would * " now and then play the 
most egregious fool in his carriage, and was so much given to 
jesters, players, and childish sports, to make himself merry, 
that he that should but consider Jiis gravity on the one part, 
his folly and lightness on the other, would surely say, there 
were two distinct persons in him." Now methinks he did 
well in it, though ^ Salisburiensis be of opinion, that magis- 
trates, senators, and grave men, should not descend to lighter 
sports, ne respMica ludere videatur ; but as Themistocles, 
still keep a stem and constant carriage. I commend Cosmo 
de' Medici and Castruccius Castrucanus, than whom Italy 
never knew a worthier captain, another Alexander, if ® Ma- 
chiavel do not deceive us in his life : " when a friend of his 
reprehended him for dancing beside his dignity" (belike at 

1 Spist. Fam. lib. 7, 22 epist. Heri gravitatem quam leTitatem considerare 

demum bene potus, seroque redieram. liberet, doaspenoxiaa distinctas Ineoesse 

> Valer. Max. cap. 8, lib. 8. InterpositJSl diceret. 6 De nugis curial. lib. 1, cap. 4. 

arundine cruribus suis, cum fiHlB ludena, Magiatratns et viri graves, 4 India leiiori- 

abAlcibiade rlBusest. >Hor. ^Ho- busarcendi. 0MachiaTel,Tita^U8. Ab 

minibus ikcetis, et ludls puerilibus ultra amico reprehensus, quod prseter digDita- 

modnm deditns, adeo ut si eui in eo tarn tem tripudiis operam daret, re8pondet,&c. 

236 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 2. 

some cushion dance), he told him again, qui sapit inter diuy 
vix unqiMim noctu desipit, he that is wise in the day may dote 
a little in the night. Paulus Jovius relates as much of Pope 
Leo Decimus, that he was a grave, discreet, staid man, yet 
sometimes most free, and too open in his sports. And 'tis not 
altogether ^ unfit or misbeseeming the gravity of such a man, 
if that decorum of time, place, and such circumstances be 
observed. ^ Misce stuUitiam consiliis hrevem ; and as *he 
said in an epigram to his wife, I would have every man say 
to himself, or to his friend, 

" Moll, once in pleasant company by chance, 
I wished that you for company would dance : 
Which you refused, and said, your years require, 
Now, matron-like, both manners and attire. 
Well, Moll, if needs you will be matron-like. 
Then trust to this, I will thee matron like : 
Yet so to you my love may never lessen, 
As you for church, house, bed, observe this lesson: 
Sit in the church as solemn as a saint. 
No deed, word, thought, your due devotion taint. 
Veil, if you will, your head, your soul reveal 
To him that only wounded souls can heal : 
Be in my house as busy as a bee. 
Having a sting for every one but me ; 
Buzzing In every corne|, gathering honey : 
Let nothing waste, that costs or yieldeth money. 
^ And when thou seest my heart to mirth incline. 
Thy tongue, wit, blood, warm with good cheer and wine : 

Then of sweet sports let no occasion 'scape, 

But be as wanton, toying as an ape." 

Those old * Greeks had their Lubentiam Deam, goddess of 
pleasure, and the Lacedemonians, instructed from Lycurgus, 
did Deo Rtmi sacrijicare, after their wars especially, and in 
times of peace, which was used in Thessaly, as it appears by 
that of ^Apuleius, who was made an instrument of their 
laughter himself: ^ " Because laughter and merriment was to 
season their labours and modester life." ® Hisus enim divum 

1 There is a time for all things, to weep, nocte volo. 6 Lil. GiraJdus, hist. deor. 

laugh, monm, dance, Eccles. iii. 4. Syntag. 1. Lib. 2, de aur. as. 

s Hor. 8 Sir John Harrington, Epigr. 60. 7 Eo quod risus esset laboris et modest! 

* Lucretia toto sis licet usque die, Thaida Tict&s condimentum. ^ Calcag. epig. 

Mem. 6, subs. 4.] Mind rectified hy Mirth, 237 

aique hominum est cetema voluptas. Princes use jesters, play- 
ers, and have those masters of revels in their courts. The 
Romans at every supper (for they had no solemn dinner) 
used music, gladiators, jesters, &c., as ^ Suetonius relates of 
Tiberius, Dion of Conunodus, and so did the Greeks. Be- 
sides music, in Xenophon's Sympos. Philippus ridendi arti- 
fex, Philip, a jester, was brought to make sport Paulus 
Jovius, in the eleventh book of his history, hath a pretty 
digression of our English customs, which howsoever some 
may misconstrue, I, for my part, will interpret to the best. 
^ " The whole nation beyond all other mortal men, is most 
given to banqueting and feasts ; for they prolong them many 
hours together, with dainty cheer, exquisite music, and facete 
jesters, and afterwards they fall a dancing and courting their 
mistresses, till it be late in the night" Volateran gives the 
same testimony of this island, commending our jovial manner 
of entertainment and good mirth, and methinks he saith well, 
there is no harm in it ; long may they use it, and all such 
modest sports. Ctesias reports of a Persian king, that had 
one hundred and fifty maids attending at his table, to play, 
sing, and dance by turns ; and ' Lil. Geraldus of an Egyp- 
tian prince, that kept nine virgins still to wait upon him, and 
those of most excellent feature, and sweet voices, which after- 
wards gave occasion to the Greeks of that fiction of the nine 
Muses. The king of ^Ethiopia in Africa, most of our Asiatic 
princes have done so and do ; those Sophies, Mogors, Turks, 
&c., solace themselves after supper amongst their queens and 
concubines, qiUB jucundioris ohlectamenti caixsa (* saith mine 
author) coram rege psaUere et saUare consuenerant, taking 
great pleasure to see and hear them sing and dance. This 
and many such means to exhilarate the heart of men, have 
been still practised in all ages, as knowing there is no better 

1 Gap. 61. In deliciis habuit scurras et ac subinde productis choreis et amoribus 

adulatores. > Universa gens supra foeminarum indulgent, &c. ^ Syntag. 

mortales cseteros conviyiorum studiosis- de Musis. * AthensBas, lib. 12 et li| 

sima. Ea enim per varias et exquisitas aasiduis mulierum vocibus, cantuque 

dapes, interpoflitis musicis et joculatori- symphonise Palatium Persarum regis to- 

bU8, in multas saepius horas eztrahunt, turn personabat. Joyius, hist. lib. 18. 

238 Cure of Melancholy, [Part n. sec. 2. 

thing to the preservation of man's Ufe. What shall I saj 
then, but to every melancholy man, 

1 " Utere convivis, non tristibas utere amicis, 
Qaos nugsB et risus, et joca salsa javant.'* 

" Feast often, and use friends not still so sad, 
Whose jests and merriments may make thee glad.** 

Use honest and chaste sports, scenical shows, plays, games ; 
^Accedant juvenumque Ohori, mist€eqtie pueUa. And as Mar- 
silias Ficinus concludes an epistle to Bernard Canisianus, and 
some other of his friends, will I this tract to all good students, 
' " Live merrily, my friends, free from cares, perplexity, 
anguish, grief of mind, live merrily," IcetiticB codum vos crea- 
vit : * " Again and again I request you to be merry, if any- 
thing trouble your hearts, or vex your souls, neglect and 
contemn it, * let it pass. • And this I enjoin you, not as a 
divine alone, but as a physician ; for without this mirth, which 
is the life and quintessence of physic, medicines, and what- 
soever is used and applied to prolong the life of man, is dull, 
dead, and of no force." Dumfata sinunt, vivite kett (Seneca), 

I say be merry. 

T " Nee lasibns virentem 
Viduemus hanc javentam.*' 

It was Tiresias the prophet's counsel to ^Menippus, that 
travelled all the world over, even down to hell itself to seek 
content, and his last farewell to Menippus, to be merry. 
* ^ Contemn the world (saith he), and count that is in it 
vanity and toys; this only covet all thy life long; be not 
curious, or over solicitous in anything, but with a well com- 
posed and contested estate to enjoy thyself, and above all 
things to be merry." 

1 Eobanus Hessns. ^ Fmcastorius. medicinsB omnes ad vitam producen- 

> Viyite ergo Iseti, amid, procul ab an- dam adhibltae morinntur : Tiyite Iseti. 

gustia^ yiyite laeti. * Iterum precor et 7 Locheus Aoacreon. ^ Lucian. Necyo- 

obtestor, viyite laeti : illud quod cor nrit, mantia. Tom. 2. * Omnia mundana 

negligite. ^ Laetus in prsesens animus nugas aestima. Hoc solum tota Tita per- 

quod ultra oderit curare. Hor. He was sequere. ut praoflentibus beqe compositis, 

both Saeerdos et Medicus. ^ Haec au- mioime curiosus, aut ulla in re solicitus, 

tem non tam ut saoerdos, amici, mando quam plurimum potes Titam hilarem 

Tobis, quam ut medicus; nam absque tntducas. 
hac una tanquam medicinarum yita, 

Mem. 6, subs. 4.] Mind rectified by Mlrih, 289 

** Si Namerus uti censet sine amore jocisque, 
Nil est jucaDdam, vivas in amore jocisqae.*' ^ 

Nothing better (to conclude with Solomon, Eccles. iii. 22), 
*' Than that a man should rejoice in his affairs." 'Tis the 
same advice which every physician in this case rings to his 
patient, as Capivaccius to his, * " avoid overmuch study and 
perturbations of the mind, and as much as in thee lies, live 
at heart's-ease ; " Prosper Calenus to that melancholy Cardi- 
nal Caesius, ^ ^ amidst thy serious studies and business, use 
jests and conceits, plays and toys, and whatsoever else may 
recreate thy mind." Nothing better than mirth and merry 
company in this malady. *"It begins with sorrow (saith 
Montanus), it must be expelled with hilarity." 

But see the mischief; many men, knowing that merry 
company is the only medicine against melancholy, will there- 
fore neglect their business ; and in another extreme, spend 
all their days among good fellows in a tavern or an alehouse, 
and know not otherwise how to bestow their time but in 
drinking ; maltworms, men-fishes, or water-snakes, * Qui hi- 
hunt solum ranarum more, nihil comedentes, like so many 
frogs in a puddle. *Tis their sole exercise to eat, and drink ; 
to sacrifice to Volupia, Rumina, Edulica, Potina, Mellona, is 
all their religion. They wish for Philoxenus's neck, Jupiter's 
trinoctium, and that the sun would stand still as in Joshua's 
time, to satisfy their lust, that they might dies noctesque per- 
grcecari et hihere. Flourishing wits, and men of good parts, 
good fashion, and good worth, basely prostitute themselves to 
every rogue's company, to take tobacco and drink, to roar 
and sing scurrilous songs in base places. 

6 " Invenies aJiquem cum percussore jacentem, 
Permistum nautis, aut furibus, aut fugitivis." 

1 '* If the world think that nothing jocos, et quae solent animum relaxare. 
can be happy without loye and mirth, ^ Consil. ^, mala raletudo aucta et con- 
then live in joy and jollity." < Hilde- tracta est tristitia, ac propterea exhilara- 
shehn, spicel. 2, de Mania, fol. 161. tione animi remorenda. ^ Athen. 
Studia literamm et animi perturbationes dipnosoph. lib. 1. <> Juren. sat. 8. 
fugiat, et quantum potest jucunde Tivat. "You will find him beside some cut- 
s Lib. de atra bile. Grayioribus curia throat, along with sailors, or thieves, or 
ludos et fibcetias aliquando Interpone, runaways." 

240 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 2. 

Which Thomas Erastus objects to Paracelsus, that he 
would lie drinking all day long with carmen and tapsters, in 
a brothel-house, is too frequent amongst us, with men of bet- 
ter note ; like Timocreon of Rhodes, muha bibens, et muUa 
vorans, &c. They drown their wits, seethe their brains in ale, 
consume their fortunes, lose their time, weaken their temper- 
atures, contract filthy diseases, rheums, dropsies, calentures, 
tremor, get swoln jugulars, pimpled red faces, sore eyes, &c ; 
heat their livers, alter their complexions, spoil their stomachs, 
overthrow their bodies ; for drink drowns more than the sea 
and aJl the rivers that fall into it (mere funges and casks), 
confound their souls, suppress reason, go from Scylla to Cha- 
rybdis, and use that which is a help to their undoing. ^Qmd 
refert morbo an ferro pereamve ruind f ^ When the Black 
Prince went to set the exiled king of Castile into his king- 
dom, there was a terrible battle fought between the English 
and the Spanish ; at last the Spanish fied, the English followed 
them to the river-side, where some drowned themselves to 
avoid their enemies, the rest were killed. Now tell ine what 
difference is between drowning and killing? As good be 
melancholy still, as drunken beasts and beggars. Company 
a sole comfort, and an only remedy to all kind of discontent, 
is their sole misery and cause of perdition. As Hermione 
lamented in Euripides, make mtdieres me fecerunt malam. 
Evil company marred her, may they justly complain, bad 
companions have been their bane. For, ' malus malum indt 
ut sit sui similis ; one drunkard in a company, one thief, one 
whoremaster, will by his good-will make all the rest as bad as 

4 " Et si 
Nocturnos jures te formidare vapores/' 

be of what complexion you will, inclination, love or hate, be 
it good or bad, if you come amongst them, you must do as 

i Hor. " What does it signify whether gam se dedenint, &c. Prsecipites in fln- 

I perish by disease or by the sword ! " vium se dederunt, ne in hostium maniis 

* Frossard. hist. lib. 1. Hispani cum yenirent. > Ter. < Hor. '' Although 

Anglorum Tires ferre non possent, in fti- you swear that you dread the night air." 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Remedies against DiseorUfnts, 241 

they do ; yea, ^ though it be to the prejudice of your health, 
you must driok vejienum pro vino. And so like grasshoppers, 
whilst they sing over their cups all summer, they starve in 
winter ; and for a little vain merriment shall find a sorrowful 
reckoning in the end. 

SECT. m. MEMB. I. 

SuBSECT. I. — A Consolatory Digression, containing the Hem- 
edies of all manner of Discontents. 

Because in the preceding section I have made mention of 
good counsel, comfortable speeches, persuasion, how necessa- 
rily they are required to the cure of a discontented or troub- 
led mind, how present a remedy they yield, and many times 
a sole sufficient cure of themselves ; I have thought fit in this 
following section, a little to digress (if at least it be to digress 
in this subject), to collect and glean a few remedies, and com- 
fortable speeches out of our best orators, philosophers, di- 
vines, and fathers of the church, tending to this purpose. I 
confess, many have copiously written of this subject, Plato, 
Seneca, Plutarch, Xenophon, Epictetus, Theophrastus, Xe- 
nocrates. Grantor, Lucian, Boethius ; and some of late, Sado- 
letus. Cardan, Budaeus, Stella, Petrarch, Erasmus, besides 
Austin, Cyprian, Bernard, &c. And they so well, that as 
Hierome in like case said, si nostrum areret ingenium, de iUo- 
rum posset fontihus irrigari, if our barren wits were dried 
up, they might be copiously irrigated from those wellsprings ; 
and I shall but actum agere ; yet because these tracts are not 
so obvious and common, I will epitomize, and briefly insert 
some of their divine precepts, reducing their voluminoiis and 
vast treatises to my small scale ; for it were otherwise impos- 
sible to bring so great vessels into so little a creek. And 
although (as Cardan said of his book de consol,) ^ '^ I know 

^ "H irWi ^ ant&i, " either drink or depart." ^ Lib. de lib. proprils. Hos libros 
VOL. II. 16 

24S . Cure of MeUxnchohf. [Part. II. sec. 3. 

beforehand, this tract of mine many will contemn and reject ; 
they that are fortunate, happy, and in flourishing estate, have 
no need of such consolatory speeches; they that are mis- 
erable and unhappy, think them insufficient to ease their 
grieved minds, and comfort their misery ; yet I will go on ; 
for this must needs do some good to such as are happy, to 
bring them to a moderation, and make them reflect and know 
themselves, by seeing the inconstancy of human felicity, oth- 
ers' misery ; and to such as are distressed, if they will but 
attend and consider of this, it cannot choose but give some 
content and comfort." ^ " Tis true, no medicine can cure all 
diseases, some affections of the mind are altogether incurable ; 
yet these helps of art, physic, and philosophy must not be 
contemned." Arrianus and Plotinus are stiff in the contrary 
opinion, that such precepts can do little good. Boethius 
himself cannot comfort in some cases, they will reject such 
speeches like bread of stones, Insana stuUtB mentis Jubc so- 

Words add no courage, which • Catiline once said to his 
soldiers, ^^a captain's oration doth not make a coward a 
valiant man ; " and as Job * feelingly said to his friends, " you 
are but miserable comforters all." *Tis to no purpose in that 
vulgar phrase to use a company of obsolete sentences, and 
familiar sayings ; as * Plinius Secundus, being now sorrowful 
and heavy for the departure of his dear friend, Cornelius 
Rufus, a Roman senator, wrote to his fellow Tiro in like case, 
adhibe solatia, sed nova aliqua, sed fortia^ quce audierim nun- 
qttam, legerim nunquam : nam qtUB audivi, qtue Ugi omnia, 
tanto dolore superaniur, either say something that I never 
read nor heard of before, or else hold thy peace. Most men 
will here except trivial consolations, ordinary speeches, and 

scio multos spemere, nam felices big se aunt affectus animi qui proraug aunt in- 

non indigere putant, infelices ad sola- sanabiles; non tamen artis opus spemi 

tiooem miseriae non sufflcere. Et tamen debet^ aut medicinae, aut philosophiiB. 

felicibus moderationem, dum inconstan- > ^* Tbe insane consolations of a foolish 

tiambumansefelicitatisdooent, praestant; mind." ^Salust. Verba virtutem non 

infelices si omnia rect^ aestimare Telint, addunt, neo imperatoris oratio taucxlh timi- 

felices reddere possunt. ^ Nullum do fortem. * Job, cap. 16. ^ Epist. 

medicamentum omnes sanare potest ; 18, lib. 1. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Remedies against Discontents, 243 

known persuasions in this behalf will be of small force; 
what can any man say that hath not been said ? To what 
end are such parenetical discourses ? yoa may as soon re- 
move Mount Caucasus, as alter some men's affections. Yet 
sure I think they cannot choose but do some good, and com- 
fort and ease a little, though it be the same again, I will say 
it, and upon that hope I will adventure. ^Won mens hie 
sermo, 'tis not my speech this, but of Seneca, Plutarch, 
Epictetus, Austin, Bemard, Christ and his Apostles. If I 
make nothing, as ' Montaigne said in like case, I will mar 
nothing ; 'tis not my doctrine but my study, I hope I shall 
do nobody wrong to speak what I think, and deserve not 
blame in imparting my mind. If it be not for thy ease, it 
may for mine own; so Tully, Cardan, and Boethius wrote 
de consol as well to help themselves as others ; be it as it 
may I will essay. 

Discontents and grievances are either general or particular ; 
general are wars, plagues, dearths, famine, fires, inundations, 
unseasonable weather, epidemical diseases which afflict whole 
kingdoms, territories, cities ; or peculiar to private men, ' as 
cares, crosses, losses, death of friends, poverty, want, sick- 
ness, orbities, injuries, abuses, &c. Grenerally all discontent 

* homines quatimur fortuntB solo. No condition free, quisque 
suos patimur manes. Even in the midst of our mirth and 
jollity, there is some grudging, some complaint, as '^ he saith, 
our whole life is a glucupricon, a bitter-sweet passion, honey 
and gall mixed together, we are all miserable and discontent, 
who can deny it ? If all, and that it be a common calamity, 
an inevitable necessity, all distressed, then as Cardan infers, 

* " who art thou that hopest to go free ? Why dost thou not 
grieve thou art a mortal man, and not governor of the 

1 Hor. s Lib. 2, Essays, cap. 6. maquaque lletitiasubestqtuedamqueri- 
< Alium paupertas, alium orbitas, huno monia, coi\jugatione quadam mellis et 
morbi, ilium timor, alium ipjurise, hunc fellis. « Si omnes promantur, quis tu 
insidiaB, ilium uxor, filii distrahunt, es qui solus evadere cupis ab ea lege quae 
Cardan. * Boethius, 1. 1, met. 5. neminem prseterit? cur te mortalem fec- 
5 Apuleius, 4, florid. Nihil homini tarn tum et universi non orbis r^;em fieri non 
prosper^ datum dlvinitus, quin ei admix- doles? 
tum sit aliquid difllcnltatis, in amplissi- 

244 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. 11. sec. 3. 

world ? " Ferre quam soriem patiuntur omnes, Nemo recuset, 
* " If it be common to all, why should one man be more dis- 
quieted than another?" If thou alone wert distressed, it 
were indeed more irksome, and less to be endured ; but when 
the calamity is common, comfort thyself with this, thou hast 
more fellows, Solamen miserts socios hahuisse doloris ; 'tis not 
thy sole case, and why shouldst thou be so impatient ? * " Ay, 
but alas we are more miserable than others, what shall we 
do ? Besides private miseries, we liVte in perpetual fear and 
danger of common enemies ; we have Bellona's whips, and 
pitiful outcries, for epithalamiums ; for pleasant music, that 
fearful noise of ordnance, drums, and warlike trumpets still 
sounding in our ears; instead of nuptial torches, we have 
firing of towns and cities ; for triumphs, lamentations ; for joy, 
tears." • " So it is and so it was, and so it ever will be. He 
that refuseth to see and hear, to suffer this, is not fit to live 
in this world, and knows not the common condition of all 
men, to whom so long as they live, with a reciprocal course, 
joys and sorrows are annexed, and succeed one another." It 
is inevitable, it may not be avoided^ and why then shouldst 
thou be so much troubled ? Grave nihil est homini quod fert 
necessitas, as * TuUy deems out of an old poet, " that which 
is necessary cannot be grievous." If it be so, then comfort 
thyself in this, ® " that whether thou wilt or no, it must be 
endured ; " make a virtue of necessity, and conform thyself 
to undergo it. • Si longa est, levis est ; si gravis est, brevis 
est. J£ it be long, 'tis light ; if grievous, it cannot last. It 
will away, dies dolorem minuit, and if nought else, time will 
wear it out ; custom will ease it ; "^ oblivion is a common med- 

1 Puteanug, ep. 75. Neque cuiquam huic seculo parum apt\u es, ant potius 

preecipue dolendum eo quod accidit uni- nostrorum omniam conditionein ignonu, 

versis. ^ Lorchan. Gallobel^cus, lib. quibiu reciproco quodam nezu Iseta trifl- 

3. Anno 1598, de Belgis. Euge ! sed tibus, tristia Isetis, inyicem succedunt. 

eheninquisqaidagemns? ubiproEpith- « In Tusc. ^ retere poeta. 6 Cardan, 

alamio BellonsB flagellum, pro musica lib. 1, de coneol. Est consolationis genus 

harmonia terribilem lituorum et tuba- non leve, quod ii necessitate fit ; sire fens, 

rum audias claagorem, pro tsedis nupti- give non feras, ferendum est tamen. 

aUbus, villarum, pagorum. urbium vide- 6 Seneca. 7 Omni dolori tempus est med- 

asincendia; ubi pro jubilo lamenta. pro icina; ipsum luctum extinguit, injurias 

risu fletus a^rem complent. s Ita est delet, omnis mall obliyionem adfert. 
profecto, et quisquis haec yidere abnuis, 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] . Remedies against Discontents. 245 

icine for all losses, injuries, griefs, and detriments whatso- 
ever, ^ " and when they are once past, this commodity comes 
of infelicity, it makes the rest of our life sweeter unto us : " 
^ Atque hcec olim meminisse juvabit, ^ recollection of the past 
is pleasant ; " " the privation and want of a thing many times 
makes it more pleasant and delightsome than before it was." 
We must not think, the happiest of us all, to escape here 
without some misfortunes, 

> *^ Usque ade6 nulla est sincera voluptas, 
Solicitumque aliquid l»tis intervenit.*' 

Heaven and earth are much unlike ; ^ ^' Those heavenly bodies 
indeed are freely carried in their orbs without any impediment 
or interruption, to continue their course for innumerable ages, 
and make their conversions ; but men are urged with many 
difficulties, and have diverse hinderances, oppositions still cross- 
ing, interrupting their endeavours and desires, and no mortal 
man is free from this law of nature." We must not there- 
fore hope to have all things answer our own expectation, to 
have a continuance of good success and fortunes, Fortuna 
nunquam perpetud est bona. And as Minutius Felix, the 
Roman consul, told that insulting Coriolanus, drunk with 
his good fortunes, look not for that success thou hast hitherto 
had ; * " It never yet happened to any man since the begin- 
ning of the world, nor ever will, to have all things according 
to his desire, or to whom fortune was never opposite and ad- 
verse." Even so it fell out to him as he foretold. And so to 
others, even to that happiness of Augustus ; though he were 
Jupiter's almoner, Pluto's treasurer, Neptune's admiral, it 
could not secure him. Such was Alcibiades's fortune, Nar- 
setes, that great Gronsalvus, and most famous men's, that as 

1 Habet hoc qnoque oommodum (Hniiis veniones suas Jam gseealis iBnamerabili- 

infelicitaa, snayiorem yitam cum abierit bus constantiflsim^ conflciunt ; Tcrum 

relinqoit. *Virg. sOyid. "For there homines magais aogiutlis. Neqne hac 

is no pleasure perfect, some anxiety al- naturae lege est quisquam mortalium 

-ways intervenes." * Lorchan. Sunt solutus. 6 Dionysius Halicar- lib. 8, 

namque Infera superis, humana terrenis non enim unquam contigit, nee post 

longe disparia. Etenim beatse mentes homines natos inyenies quenquam, cui 

feruuturliberi, et siDeulIoimpedimeuto, omnia ex animi sententia successerint, 

stellsB, sethereique orbes cursus et con- ita ut nulla in re fortuna ait ei adyersata. 

246 Cure of Mdarwholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

* Jovius concludes, " it is almost fatid to great princes, through 

their own default or otherWfee cifcumvented with envy and 

malice, to lose their honours, and die contumeliously." 'Tls 

so, still hath heen, and ever will he, Nihil est ab omni parte 


" There's no perfection is so absolute, 
That some impurity doth not pollute." 

Whatsoever is under the moon is subject to corruption, al- 
teration ; and so long as thou livest upon earth look not for 
other. *"Thou shalt not here find peaceable and cheerful 
days, quiet times, but rather clouds, storms, calumnies ; such 
is our fate." And as those errant planets in their distinct 
orbs have their several motions, sometimes direct, stationary, 
retrograde, in apogee, perigee, oriental, occidental, combust, 
fei-al, free, and as our astrologers will, Iiave their fortitudes 
and debilities, by reason of those good and bad irradiations, 
conferred to each other's site in the heavens, in their terms, 
houses, case, detriments, &c. So we rise and fall in this 
world, ebb and flow, in and out, reared and dejected, lead 
a troublesome life, subject to many accidents and casualties 
of fortunes, variety of passions, infirmities as well from our- 
selves as others. 

Yea, but thou thinkest thou art more miserable than the 
rest, other men are happy but in respect of thee, their mis- 
eries are but fiea-bitings to thine, thou alone art unhappy, 
none so bad as thyself. Yet if, as Socrates said, * " All men 
in the world should come and bring their grievances together, 
of body, mind, fortune, sores, ulcers, madness, epilepsies, agues, 
and all those common calamities of beggary, want, servitude, 
imprisonment, and lay them on a heap to be equally divided, 
wouldst thou share alike, and take thy portion ? or be as thou 
art ? " Without question thou wouldst be as thou art. If 
some Jupiter should say, to give us all content, 

1 Vit. Gtonsalvi, lib. ult. Ut ducibus nimbos potius, procellas, calamnlas. 

£itale sit clarissimis k culpa sua, secus Lips. cent. misc. ep. 8. ^ Si omne« 

circumTeniri cum malitia et invidia, im- homines sua mala suasquecuras in unum 

minutaque di^nitate per coatumeliam cumulum conferxent, sequis diyisuri por- 

mori. 2 In terris purum ilium eethe- tionibus, &c. 
rem non inrenies, et yentos serenos; 


Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Remediea against ZHacontents. 247 

1 " Jam faciam quofl yultis ; eris tn, qui modb miles, 
Mercator; tu c^nsultus modb, rusticus; hinc vos, 
Vos hinc mutatis dlscedite partibu^ ; eia 
Quid Btatis ? nolint/' 

'* Well be*t so then: jou master soldier 
Shall be a merchant; you sir lawyer 
A country gentleman; go you to this. 
That side you; why stand yeV It*s weil as 'tis.** 

* " Every man knows his own, but not others' defects and 
miseries ; and 'tis the nature of aU men still to reflect upon 
themselves, their own misfortunes," not to examine or con- 
sider other men's, not to compare themselves with others ; 
To recount their miseries, but not their good gifts, fortunes, 
benefits, which they have, or ruminate on their adversity, but 
not once to think on their prosperity, not what they have, but 
what they want ; to look still on them that go before, but not 
on those infinite numbers that come after. • " Whereas many 
a man would think himself in heaven, a petty prince, if he had 
but the least part of that fortune which thou so much repinest 
at, abhorrest, and accountest a most vile and wretched estate." 
How many thousands want that which thou hast ? how many 
myriads of poor slaves, captives, of such as work day and 
night in coal-pits, tin-mines, with sore toil to maintain a poor 
living, of such as labour in body and mind, live in extreme 
anguish and pain, all which thou art free from ? fortuna- 
to8 nimium bona si sua ndrint : Thou art most happy if thou 
couldst be content, and acknowledge thy happiness ; * Bern 
carendo non fruendo cognoscimus, when thou shalt hereafter 
come to want that which thou now loathest, abhorrest, and art 
weary of, and tired with, when 'tis past thou wilt say thou 
wert most happy ; and after a little miss, wish with all thine 
heart thou hadst the same content again, mightest lead but 

such a life, a world for such a life ; the remembrance of it is 


I Hor. ser. lib. 1. * Quod nniuqtiis- rent,totidem reguloa, si de ibrtunsB tun 

que propria mala novit, aliomm nesclat, reliquUs pars lis minima contiDgat. 

in causa est, ut se inter alim miaerum Boeth. de consol. lib. 2, proe. 4. ^ ^* You 

putet. Cardan, lib. 8, de consol. PIu- know the Talue of a thing from wanting 

tarch. de consol ad Apollonium. > Quam more than from ei^oying it." 
multos putas qui se ooelo proximos putar 

248 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 8 

pleasant. Be silent then, ^ rest satisfied, desine, intuensque in 
aliorum infortunia solare mentem, comfort thyself with other 
men's misfortunes, and as the mouldwarp in JBsop told the 
fox, complaining for want of a tail, and the rest of his com- 
panions, tacete, quando me ocvlis captum videtis, you complain 
of toys, but I am blind, be quiet. I say to thee, be thou sat- 
isfied. It is ^ recorded of the hares, that with a general con- 
sent they went to drown themselves, out of a feeling of their 
misery ; but when they saw a company of frogs more fearful 
than they were, they began to take courage and comfort 
again. Compare thine estate with others. Similes cUiorum 
resptce casus, miliums ista feres. Be content and rest satisfied, 
for thou art well in respect to others ; be thankful for that 
thou hast, that God hath done for thee, he hath not made 
thee a monster, a beast, a base creature, as he might, but a 
man, a Christian, such a man ; consider aright of it, thou art 
full well as thou art ' Quicquid vult, habere nemo potest no 
man can have what he will, lUud potest nolle quod non habet, 
he may choose whether he will desire that which he hath not 
Thy lot is fallen, make the best of it * " If we should all 
sleep at all times (as Endymion is said to have done), who 
then were happier than his fellow ? " Our life is but short, 
a very dream, and while we look about, * immjortalitas adest, 
eternity is at hand ; ^ " our life is a pilgrimage on earth, which 
wise men pass with great alacrity." K thou be in woe, sor- 
row, want, distress, in pain, or sickness, think of that of our 
apostle, " God chastiseth them whom he loveth : they that 
sow in tears shall reap in joy," Psal. cxxvi. 5. " As the fur- 
nace proveth the potter^s vessel, so doth temptation try men's 
thoughts," Ecclus. xxv. 5, 'tis for ' thy good, Periisses nisi 
periisses : hadst thou not been so visited, thou hadst been 
utterly undone; "as gold in the fire," so men are tried in 

1 Hesiod. Esto quod es ; quod sunt alii, 6 Seneca de Ira. * Plato, Axiocho. An 
sine quemlibet esse ; Quod non es, nolis ,* ii^onis yitam banc peregrinadonem, &c., 
quod potes esse, veils. * iEsopi fiib. quam sapientes cum gaudio percurrant? 
8 Seneca. * Si dormirent semper om- 7 Sic expedit; medicus non dat quod pa- 
nes, nullns alio faelicior esset. Card, tiens vult, sed quod ipse bonum sdt. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Remedies against Discontents. 249 

adversity. TVibulatto ditat ; and which Camerarius hath 
well shadowed in an emblem of a thresher and corn. 

" Si tritura absit paleis sunt abdita grana, 
Nos crux mundanis separat k paleis ; " 

"As threshing separates from straw the corn, 
By crosses from the world's chaff are we borne." 

Tis the very game which ^ Chrysostom comments, horn. 2, in 
3 Mat. " Corn is not separated but by threshing, nor men 
from worldly impediments but by tribulation." 'Tis that 
which * Cyprian ingeminates, Ser, 4, de immort. 'Tis that 
which • Hierom, which all the fathers inculcate, " so we are 
catechized for eternity." 'Tis that which the proverb insin- 
uates. Nocumentum dacumentum ; 'tis that which all the 
world rings in our ears. Deus unicum Jiabet jUium sins peC' 
catOf nuUum sine fiageUo : God, saith ^ Austin, hath one son 
without sin, none without correcti<Mi. * " An expert seaman 
is tried in a tempest, a runner in a race, a captain in a battle, 
a valiant man in adversity, a Christian in tentation and mis- 
ery." Basil, horn. 8. We are sent as so many soldiers into 
this world, to strive with it, the flesh, the devil ; our life is a 
warfare, and who knows it not ? • Nbn est ad astra mollis e 
terris via ; ' " and therefore peradventure this world here is 
made troublesome unto us," that as Gregory notes, " we should 
not be delighted by the way, and forget whither we are 

8 " Ite nunc fortes, ubi celsa magni 
Ducit exempli via: cur inertes 
Terga nudatis ? superata tellus 
Sidera domat." 

Go on then merrily to heaven. If the way be troublesome, 

1 Fmmentum non egreditur nisi tritu- stars Is not so downy." f Ideo Dens 

Tatnm, &o. SNon est poena damnan- asperum fecit iter, ne dum delaotantnr 

tis sed flagellnm corrigentis. > Ad hse- in via, obliviscantnr eorum quae sunt in 

reditatem aeternam sic erudimur. ^Con- patria. ^ Boethius, 1. 6, met. ult. 

ftss. 6. 6 Nanclerum tempestas, athle- "Gk), now, brave fellows, whither the 

tarn stadium, ducem pugna, magnani- lofty path of a great example leads, 

mum calamitas, Christianum vero tenta- Why do you stupidly expose your backs ? 

tio probat et examinat. « Sen Here. The earth brings the stars to subjection." 
Fnr. " The way from the earth to the 

250 (hire of Melancholy* [Part. n. sec. 8. 

and jou in misery, in many grievances : on the other side 
you have many pleasant sports, objects, sweet smells, delight- 
some tastesj music, meats, herbs, flowers, &c., to recreate 
your senses. Or put case thou art now forsaken of the 
world, dejected, contemned, yet comfort thyself, as it was said 
to Agar in the wilderness, * " God sees thee, he takes notice 
of thee : *' there is a God above that can vindicate thy cause, 
that can relieve thee. And surely ^ Seneca thinks he takes 
delight in seeing thee. " The gods are well pleased when 
they see great men contending with adversity,** as we are to 
see men fight, or a man with a beast But these are toys in 
respect, • " Behold," saith he, " a spectacle worthy of God ; 
a good man contented with his estate.*' A tyrant is the best 
sacrifice to Jupiter, as the ancients held, and his best object 
" a contented mind." For thy part then rest satisfied, " cast 
all thy care on him, thy burden on him, * rely on him, trust 
on him, and he shall nourish thee, care for thee, give thee 
thine heart's desire ; " say with David, " God is our hope and 
strength, in troubles ready to be found," Psal. xlvi. 1, " for 
they that trust in the Lord shall be as Mount Zion, which 
cannot be removed," PsaL cxxv. 1, 2, ^ as the mountains are 
about Jerusalem, so is the Lord about his people, from hence- 
forth and for ever." 

MEMB. n. 

Deformity of Body^ Sickness, Baseness of Birth^ peculiar 


Particulab discontents and grievances, are either of 
body, mind, or fortune, which as they wound the soul of 
man, produce this melancholy, and many great inconven- 
iences, by that antidote of good counsel and persuasion may 

1 l(oeth. pro. nit. Manet spectator aiquando magnoe Tiros oolluctaates cnm 

cnnetorum desuper prsescius deus, bonis calamitate vldent. > Ecce spectacnlum 

pnemia, malls suppUcia dispensans. Deo dignum. Vir fortis mala fortuna 

3 Lib. de proTid. Vofuptatem capiunt dii compodtus. * 1 Pet. t. 7. Psal. It. 22. 

Mem. 2.] Remedies against Discontents, 251 

be eased or expelled. Deformities and imperfections of our 
bodies, as lameness^ crookedness, deafness, blindness, be they 
innate or accidental, torture many men ; yet tiiis may com- 
fort them, that those imperfections of the body do not a whit 
blemish the soul, or hinder the operations of it, but rather 
help and much increase it Thou art lame of body, deformed 
to the eye, yet this hinders not but that thou mayest be a 
good, a wise, upright, honest man. ^ ^' Seldom,** saith Plutarch, 
" honesty and beauty dwell together," and oftentimes under 
a threadbare coat lies an excellent understanding, stspe svh 
attritd latitat sapientia veste, ^Cornelius Mussus, that fa- 
mous preacher in Italy, when he came first into the pulpit in 
Venice, was so much contemned by reason of his outside, a 
little, lean, poor, dejected person, "they were all ready to 
leave the church; but when they heard his voice they did 
admire him, and happy was that senator could enjoy his 
company, or invite him first to his house. A silly fellow to 
look to, may have more wit, learning, honesty, than he that 
struts it out AmpuHis jactans, Sfc, grandia gradiens, and is 
admired in the world's opinion : Vilis scepe cadus nobile 
nectar habet, the best wine comes out of an old vessel. How 
many deformed princes, kings, emperors, could I reckon up, 
philosophers, orators? Hannibal had but one eye, Appius 
Claudius, Timoleon, blind, Muleasse, king of Tunis, John, 
king of Bohemia, and Tiresias the prophet *"The night 
hath his pleasure ; " and for the loss of that one sense such 
men are commonly recompensed in the rest; they have 
excellent memories, other good parts, music, and many rec- 
reations ; much happiness, great wisdom, as TuUy well dis- 
courseth in his * Tusculan questions : Homer was blind, yet 
who (saith he) made more accurate, lively, or better descrip- 
tions, with both his eyes? Democritus was blind, yet as 
Laertius writes of him, he saw more than all Greece besides, 

1 Rsro sub eOdem lare honestag et ft»r- emditioiiem et eloquentiam ftAmimtl 

ma habitant. < Josephiu Miusns, yita sunt. * Nox habet suas yolnptates. 

^us. * Homuncio brevis, macilentus, 3 Lib. 5, ad finem, csbcus potest esse sapi- 

umbra hominis, &o. Ad stuporem ^us ens et beatus, &o. 

252 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 3, 

as ^ Plato concludes, Turn sane mentis ocvlus acute tnctjnt 
cemerey quum primum corporis ocvlus dejlorescit, when our 
bodily eyes are at worst, generally the eyes of our soul see 
best. Some philosophers and divines have evirated them- 
selves, and put out their eyes voluntarily, the better to con- 
template. Angelus Politianus had a tetter in his nose con- 
tinually running, fulsome in company, yet no man so elo- 
quent and pleasing in his works, ^sop was crooked, Soc- 
rates purblind, long-legged, hairy ; Democritus withered ; 
Seneca lean and harsh, ugly to behold, yet show me so many- 
flourishing wits, such divine spirits ; Horace, a little blear- 
eyed contemptible fellow, yet who so sententious and wise ? 
Marsilius Ficinus, Faber Stapulensis, a couple of dwarfs ; 
^Melancthon a short hard-favoured man, parvus ercU, sed 
mojgnus erat, &c., yet of incomparable parts all three. * Ig- 
natius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, by reason of a hurt 
he received in his leg, at the siege of Pampeluna, the chief 
town of Navarre in Spain, unfit for wars, and less service- 
able at court, upon that accident betook himself to his beads, 
and by those means got more honour than ever he should 
have done with the use of his limbs, and properness of per- 
son ; * Vvlnus non penetrat animum, a wound hurts not the 
soul. Galba the emperor was crook-backed, Epictetus lame ; 
that great Alexander a little man of stature; * Augustus 
Caesar of the same pitch ; Agesilaus despicaUli forma ; 
Boccharis a most deformed prince as ever Egypt had, yet as 
^ Diodorus Siculus records of him, in wisdom and knowledge 
far beyond his predecessors. A. Dom» 1306. "^ Uladeslaus 
Cubitalis that pigmy king of Poland reigned and fought 
more victorious battles than any of his longshanked pred- 
ecessors. NvUam virtus respuit staturam^ virtue refuseth 
no stature, and commonly your great vast bodies, and fine 
features, are sottish, >dull, and leaden spirits. What's in 

1 In conviTio, lib. 25. ^ Joachimus ceeteros praeyeniens. ^ Alexander Ga- 

Camenurius, Tit. ejus. * Riber. Tit. gainu.<», hiBt. Pol&ndiae. iGorpore paxms 

^ns. * Macrobius. 6 Sueton. c 7, 9. eram, cubito vix altlor uno, sed tamen in 

9 lib. 1. Corpora exili et de^pecto, sed parvo corpore m^piiM eram. 
ingenio et prudentia longe ante se reges 

Hem. 2.] Remedies against Discontents. 258 

them ? ^ Quid nisi pondus iners stolidceqne ferocia mentis^ 
What in Osus and Ephialtes (Neptune's sons in Homer), 
nine acres long? 

2 " Qui ut magnus Orion, 

Cum pedes incedit, medii per maxima Nerei 
Stagna, viam findens humero supereminet undas." 

" Like tall Orion stalking d'er the flood: 
When with his brawny breast he cuts the waves, 
His shoulder scarce the topmost billow laves." 

What in Maximinus, Ajax, Caligula, and the rest of those 

great Zanzummins, or gigantical Anakims, heavy, vast, bar-' 

barous lubbers ? 

"i^ " si membra tibi dant grandia Parcse, 
Mentis eges? '* 

Their body, saith * Lemnius, " is a burden to them, and their 
spirits not so lively, nor they so erect and merry : " Non est 
in magno corpore mica salis : a little diamond is more worth 
than a rocky mountain; which made Alexander Aphrodi- 
seus positively conclude, "The lesser, the * wiser, because 
the soul was more contracted in such a body." Let Bodine 
in his 5 c, method, hist, plead the rest ; the lesser they are, 
as in Asia, Greece, they have generally the finest wits. 
And for bodily stature which some so much admire, and 
goodly presence, *tis true, to say the best of them, great men 

are proper, and tall, I grant,— caput inter ntdnla condunt 

(hide their heads in the clouds) ; but beUi ptisiUi, little men 
are pretty : " Sed si heUus homo est GoUa, pusiUus homo est J* 
Sickness, diseases, trouble many, but without a cause ; * " It 
may be 'tis for the good of their souls : " Pars fati fuit^ the 
flesh rebels against the spirit; that which hurts the one, 
must needs help the other. Sickness is the mother of 
modesty, putteth us in mind of our mortality; and when we 
are in the full career of worldly pomp and jollity, she pulleth 

1 Ovid. s Vii^. ^nei. 10. * " If prudentiores quum noarctata sit anima. 

the &tes give you lai^ proportions, do Ingenio pollet cui vim natura negayit. 

jou not require fkculties?" ^ Lib. 2, 6 Multia ad salutem animee profuit cor- 

cap. 20. Oneri est illis corporis moles, et poris segritudo, Petrarch. 
Bpiritus minus Tiridi. ^ Corpore breves 

254 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

us bj the ear, and maketh us know ourselves. ^ Pliny calls 
it, the sum of philosophy, '^ If we could but perform that in 
our health, which we promise in our sickness." Quum in- 
firmi 8umu-s, * optimi sumtu ; for " what sick man " (as * Se- 
cundus expostulates with Rufus) ^was ever lascivious, 
covetous, or ambitious ? he envies no man, admires no 
man, flatters no man, despis^th no man, listens not after 
lies and tales," &c And were it not for such gentle remem- 
brances, men would have no moderation of themselves, they 
would be worse than tigers, wolves, and lions; who should 
' keep them in awe ? ^ princes, masters, parents, magistrates, 
judges, friends, enemies, fair or foul means cannot contain us, 
but a little sickness (as * Chrysostom observes), will correct 
and amend us." And therefore with good discretion, * Jovi- 
anus Pontanus caused this short sentence to be engraven on 
his tomb in Naples : " Labour, sorrow, grief, sickness, want 
and woe, to serve proud masters, bear that superstitious 
yoke, and bury your dearest friends, &c., are the sauces of our 
life." If thy disease be continuate and painful to thee, it 
will not surely last ; " and a light affliction which is but for a 
moment, causeth unto us a far more excellent and eternal 
weight of glory," 2 Cor. iv. 17, bear it with patience ; women 
endure much sorrow in childbed, and yet they will not contain ; 
and those that are barren, wish for this pain; "be coura- 
geous, • there is as much valour to be shown in thy bed, as in 
an army, or at a sea-fight : " atU vincetur, aut vincet, thou 
shalt be rid at last In the mean time, let it take its course, 
thy mind is not any way disabled. Bilibaldus Pirkimerus, 
senator to Charles the Fifth, ruled all Germany, lying most 
part of his days sick of the gout upon his bed. The more 

iLib.7. SummaesttottusPhilosophiae, Cytraus Earop. deliciia. Labor, dolor, 

si tales, &c. 2 '* When we are sick we are segritudo, luctus, servire superbis domi- 

most amiable." ' Plinius, epist. 7, lib. nis, jugum ferre superstitionis, quos 

Quern inflrmum libido solicitat, aut avari- habet charos sepelire, &c., condimenta 

tia, aut hoDores ? nemini inridet, nemi- vitae sunt. ^ Non tarn mari quixn proe- 

nem miratur, neminem despicit, sermone lio yirtus, etiam lecto exhibetur : vinoe- 

maligno non alitur. * Non terret prin- tur aut vincet ; aut tu febrem relinquefl, 

ceps, magister, parens, judex ; at s^^tndo aut ipsa te. Seneca, 
superreniens, omnia correxit. 6 Nat. 

Mem. 2.] Remedies against Discontents. 255 

violent thy torture is, the less it will continue ; and though 
it be severe and hideous for the time, comfort thjself as 
martyrs do, with honour and immortality. ^That famous 
philosopher Epicurus, being in as miserable pain of stone 
and coUc, as a man might endure, solaced himself with a 
conceit of immortaUtj ; " the joy of his soul for his rare in- 
ventions repelled the pain of his bodily torments." 

Baseness of birth is a great disparagement to some men, 
especially if they be wealthy, bear office, and come to pro- 
motion in a commonwealth; then (as 'he observes), if their 
birth be not answerable to their calling, and to their fellows, 
they are much abashed and ashamed of themselves. Some 
scorn their own father and mother, deny brothers and sisters, 
with the rest of their kindred and friends, and will not suffer 
them to come near them, when they are in their pomp, ac- 
counting it a scandal to their greatness to have such beggarly 
beginnings. Simon in Lucian, having now got a little wealth, 
changed his name from Simon to Simonides, for that there 
were so many beggara of his kin, and set the house on fire 
where he was bom, because nobody should point at it. Others 
buy titles, coats of arms, and by all means screw themselves 
into ancient families, falsifying pedigrees, usurping scutcheons, 
and all because they would not seem to be base. The reason 
is, for that this gentility is so much admired by a company 
of outsides, and such honour attributed unto it, as amongst 
• Germans, Frenchmen, and Venetians, the gentry scorn the 
commonalty, and will not suffer them to match with them ; 
they depress, and make them as so many asses, to carry 
burdens. In our ordinary talk and fallings out, the most 
opprobrious and scurrile name we can fasten upon a man, or 
first give, is to call him base rogue, beggarly rascal, and the 
like ; whereas in my judgment, this ought of all other griev- 
ances to trouble men least. Of all vanities and fopperies, to 

I TuIUus, lib. 7, fam. ep. Vesicae mor- memoriam inveatorum. > Booth, lib. 

bo laborans, et urinse mittendse difflcul- 2, pr. 4. Huic sensus exuperat, i«il e»t 

tate tanta, ut tIx incrementum caperet ; pudori degener sanguis. ^ Qaspar. ViM 

repellebat haoc omnia animi gaudium ob polit. thes. 


Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 8. 

brag of gentiiitj is the greatest ; for what is it they crack so 
much of, and challenge such superiority, as if they were 
demigods? Birth? Tantane vos generis tenuit Jiducia vestrt f ^ 
It is nan ens, a mere flash, a ceremony, a toy, a thing of 
nought. Consider the beginning, present estate, progress, 
ending of gentry, and then tell me what it is. ^ " Oppression, 
fraud, cozening, usury, knavery, bawdry, murder, and tyranny, 
are the beginning of many ancient families : * one hath been 
a bloodsucker, a parricide, the death of many a silly soul in 
some unjust quarrels, seditions, made many an orphan and 
poor widow, and for that he is made a lord or an earl, and 
his posterity gentlemen forever after. Another hath been a 
bawd, a pander to some great men, a parasite, a slave, ^ pros- 
tituted himself, his wife, daughter," to some lascivious prince, 
and for that he is exalted. Tiberius preferred many to 
honours in his time, because they were famous whoremasters 
and sturdy drinkers; many come into this parchment-row 
(so *one calls it), by flattery or cozening; search your old 
families, and you shall scarce find of a multitude (as ^neas 
Sylvius observes), qui sceleraium nan hahent artum, that have 
not a wicked beginning ; aut qui vi et dolo ea fastigii non 
cucendunt, as that plebeian in ^Machiavel in a set oration 
proved to his fellows, that do not rise by knavery, force, 
foolery, villany, or such indirect means. "They are com- 
monly able that are wealthy ; virtue and riches seldom settle 
on one man : who then sees not the beginning of nobility ? 
spoils enrich one, usury another, treason a third, witchcraft a 
fourth, flattery a fifth, lying, stealing, bearing false witness a 
sixth, adultery the seventh," &c. One makes a fool of him- 

1 " Does such presamption in yonr 
origin possess you? " « Alii pro pecu- 
nia emunt nobilitatem. alii illam lenocin- 
io, alii veneflciis, alii parricidiis ; multis 
perditio nobilitate conciliat, plerique ad- 
nlatione, detractione, calumniis, &c. 
Agrip. de yanit. sclent. > Ex homi- 
cidio saepe orta nobilitu et strenua car- 
niflcina. * Plures ob prostitutas filias, 
nxores, nobiles facH ; multos yeaationes. 
rapinie, caedes, preestigia, &c. ^ Sat. 

Menip. * Cum enim hos dici nobiles 
yidemua, qui divitiis abundant, diyitiae 
▼ero raro ylrtutis sunt comites, quia non 
yidet ortum nobilitatis degenerem ? hune 
naune ditftrunt, ilium spoUa, proditiones; 
hio yeneficiis ditatua, ille adulationibua, 
huic adulteria lucrum pnebent, nonnul- 
lia mendaeia, quidam ex eoQJuge quaes- 
turn jbciunt, plerique ex natiB, fce. 
Florent. hist. lib. 8. 

Mem. 2.] Remedies against Discontents, 257 

self to make his lord meny, another dandles my young mas- 
ter, bestows a little nag on him, a third marries a cracked 
piece, &C. Now may it please your good worship, your lord- 
ship, who was the first founder of your family ? The poet 
answers, ^^' Aut Pastor fuit^ aut iUud quod dicere nohP 
Are he or you the better gentleman ? If he, then we have 
traced him to his form. If you, what is it of which thou 
boastest so much ? That thou art his son. It may be his 
heir, his reputed son, and yet indeed a priest or a serving- 
man may be the true father of him ; but we will not contro- 
vert that now ; married women are all honest ; thou art his 
son's son's son, begotten and bom infra qwjiuor maria, &c. 
Thy great great great grandfather was a rich citizen, and then 

in all likelihood a usurer, a lawyer, and then a ^a courtier, 

and then a ^a country gentleman, and then he scraped it 

out of sheep, &c. And you are the heir of all his virtues, 
fortunes, titles ; so then, what is your gentry, but as Hierom 
saith. Opes aniiqua, inoeteratce diviticBy ancient wealth ? that 
is the definition of gentility. The father goes often to the 
devil, to make his son a gentleman. For the present, what 
is it? "It began (saith ^Agrippa), with strong impiety, 
with tyranny, oppression," &c., and so it is maintained ; wealth 
began it (no matter how got), wealth continue th and increaseth 
it. Those Roman knights were so called, if they could dis- 
pend per annum so much. ' In the kingdom of Naples and 
France, he that buys such lands, buys the honour, title, barony 
together with it ; and they that can dispend so much amongst 
us, must be called to bear office, to be knights, or fine for it, 
as one observes, ^nobiliorem ex censu judicant, our nobles 
are measured by their means. And what now is the object 
of honour ? What maintains our gentry but wealth ? * NoUU 
itas sine re projectd vilior alga. Without means gentry is 
nought worth, nothing so contemptible and base. ^Disputare 

1 Juven. " A shepherd, or something * Gressems, Itinerar. fol. 266. * Hor. 

that I should rather not tell." « Ro- " Nobility without wealth is more worth- 

busta improbltas k tyrannide incepta, less than sea- weed." 6 Syl. nup. lib. 4) 

&c. s Qaspar Ens thesauro polit. num. 111. 

VOL. II. 17 

258 Cure of Melanchohf, [Part. n. sec. 8. 

de nohilitate generis, sine cUvttiis, est disputare de nohUitaU 
stercoris, saith Nevisanus the lawyer, to dispute of gentry 
without wealth, is (saving your reyerence), to discuss the 
original of a merd. So that it is wealth alone that denom- 
inates, money which maintains it, gives esse to it, for which 
every man may have it. And what is their ordinary exer- 
cise ? ^ "sit to eat, drink, lie down to sleep, and rise to play ; " 
wherein lies their worth and sufficiency ? in a few coats of 
arms, eagles, lions, serpents, bears, tigers, dogs, crosses, bends, 
fesses, &C.9 and such like baubles, which they commonly set 
up in their galleries, porches, windows, on bowls, platters, 
coaches, in tombs, churches, men's sleeves, &c. ' " If he can 
hawk and hunt, ride a horse, play at cards and dice, swagger, 
drink, swear," take tobacco with a grace, sing, dance, wear 
his clothes in fashion, court and please his mistress, talk big 
fustian, ' insult, scorn, strut, contemn others, and use a little 
mimical and apish compliment above the rest, he is a com- 
plete, (Egregiam verd kmdem) a well-qualified gentleman; 
these are most of their employments, this their greatest com- 
mendation. What is gentry, this parchment nobility theo^ 
but as *Agrippa defines it, "a sanctuary of knavery and 
naughtiness, a cloak for wickedness and execrable vices, of 
pride, fraud, contempt, boasting, oppression, dissimulation, 
lust, gluttony, malice, fornication, adultery, ignorance, im- 
piety ? " A nobleman therefore, in some likelihood, as he con- 
cludes, is an ^'atheist, an oppressor, an epicure, a ^guU, a diz- 
zard, an illiterate idiot, an outside, a glowworm, a proud fool, 
an arrant ass," Ventris et inguinis mancipium, a slave to his 
lust and belly, soldque Uhidme fortis* And as Salvianus ob- 
served of his countrymen the Aquitanes in France, sicut 
titulis primi fuere, sic et vitiis (as they were the first in rank 
so also in rottenness) ; and Cabinet du Roy, their own writer, 

1 Exod. xxxii. ^ Omnium nobiliiun Austia. ser. 24. * Nobilitas nihil alind 

safficientiaiaeoprobatursiyenaticanov- nisi improbitas, (tiror, rapina, latrocini- 

erint, si aleam, si corporis vires ingenti- nm, homicidium, Inxus, yenatio, violen- 

bus poculis commonstrent, si natarse tia, &c. s The fbol took avray my lord- 

robur numerosa yenere probent, &c. in the mask, 'twas apposite. 
8 DiflBciie est, ut non sit superbus dives, 

Mem. 2.] Remedies against IHscantents, 259 

distinctlj of the rest " The nobles of Berry are most part 
lechers, they of Touraine thieves, they of Narbonne covetous, 
they of Gruienne coiners, they of Provence atheists, they of 
Rheims superstitious, they of Lyons treacherous, of Nor- 
mandy proud, of Picardy insolent," &c "We may generally 
conclude, the greater men, the more vicious. In fine, as 
1 -^neas Sylvius adds, ** they are most part miserable, sottish, 
and filthy fellows, like the walls of their houses, fair without, 
foul within." What dost thou vaunt of now ? * « What 
dost thou gape and wonder at ? admire him for his brave ap- 
parel, horses, dogs, fine houses, manors, orchards, gardens, 
walks ? Why ? a fool may be possessor of this as well as 
he ; and he that accounts him a better man, a nobleman for 
having of it, he is a fool himself." Now go and brag of thy 
gentility. This is it belike which makes the ' Turks at this 
day scorn nobility, and all those huffing bombast titles, which 
so much elevate their poles ; except it be such as have got it 
at first, maintain it by some supereminent quality, or ex- 
cellent worth. And for this cause, the Ragusian common- 
wealth, Switzers, and the United Provinces, in all their aris- 
tocracies, or democratical monarchies (if I may so call them), 
exclude all these degrees of hereditary honours, and will ad- 
mit of none to bear office, but such as are learned, like those 
Athenian Areopagites, wise, discreet, and well brought up. 
The * Chinese observe the same customs, no man amongst 
them noble by birth ; out of their philosophers and doctors 
they choose magistrates ; their politic nobles are taken from 
such as be moraliter nobiles, virtuous noble ; nohilitas ut olim 
ab officio^ non a naturd, as in Israel of old, and their office 
was to defend and govern their country in war and peace, 
not to hawk, hunt, eat, drink, game alone, as too many do. 
Their Loysii, Mandarini, literati, licentiati, and such as have 

1 De miser, curial. Miseii sunt, inepd sequi potest. Pandalus noster lenocinio 

sunt, turpes sunt, multi ut parfetes sedi- nobilitatus est. ^neas Sylvius. ^ Bel- 

um suarum speciosi. s Miraris aureas lonius, obsenr. lib. 2. * Mat. Rlccius. 

veetes, equoe, canes, ordinem Ikmulorum, lib. 1, cap. 8. Ad regpendam remp. soil 

lautas mensas. ssdes, villas, pnedia, pis- doctores, aut licentiati adsciscuntur, &c. 
cinas, sylTas, &c., haec omnia stultus as- 

2 GO Cure of Melancholy, [Part, n. sec. 8. 

raised themselves by their worth, are their noblemen only, 
though fit to govern a state ; and why then should any that 
is otherwise of worth be ashamed of his birth? why should 
not he be as much respected that leaves a noble posterity, as 
he that hath had noble ancestors ? nay, why not more ? for 
plures solem orientem^ we adore the sun rising most part ; and 
how much better is it to say, Ego meis majoribus virtute •prcR- 
luxi (I have outshone my ancestors in virtues), to boast him- 
self of his virtues, than of his birth ? Cathesbeius, sultan 
of Egypt and Syria, was by his condition a slave, but for 
worth, valour, and manhood second to no king, and for that 
cause (as ^ Jovius writes) elected emperor of the Mamelukes. 
That poor Spanish Pizarro for his valour made by Charles 
the Fifth Marquess of Anatillo ; the Turkey Pachas are all 
such. Pentinax, Philippus Arabs, Maximinus, Probus, Au- 
relius, &c., from common soldiers became emperors, Cato, 
Cincinnatus, &c., consuls. Pius Secundus, Sixtus Quintus, 
Johan Secundus,. Nicholas Quintus, &c., popes. Socrates, 
Virgil, Horace, lihertino paJtre nattis, ^ The kings of Den- 
mark fetch their pedigree, as some say, from one Ulfo, that 
was the son of a bear. * JS tenui casd scepe vir magnus exit, 
many a worthy man comes out of a poor cottage. Hercules, 
Romulus, Alexander (by Olympiads confession), lliemistocles, 
Jugurtha, King Arthur, William the Conqueror, Homer, 
Demosthenes, P. Lumbard, P. Comestor, Bartholus, Adrian 
the fourth Pope, &c., bastards ; and almost in every king- 
dom, the most ancient families have been at first princes' 
bastards ; their worthiest captains, best wits, greatest scholars, 
bravest spirits in all our annals, have been base. * Cardan, 
in his Subleties, gives a reason why they ai'e most part better 
able than others in body and mind, and so, per consequens^ 
more fortunate. Castruccius Castrucanus, a poor child, found 
in the field, exposed to misery, became prince of Lucca and 

1 Lib. 1, hist, conditione semu. csete- icus, it quo rex Sueno et cfletera Danonim 

rum acer bello, et animi magnitudlDe regnm stemmata. > Seneca de €k>ntTO. 

nmximonim regum nemini secundus : Philos. epist. ^ Corpore sunt et ani- 

Dh haec & Mameluchis in r^(em electus. mo fortiores spurii, plemmque ob amoria 

- Glaus Magnus, lib. 18. Saxo Gnunmat- yehementiam, seminis crass., &c. 

Mem. 2.] Remedies against Discontents. 261 

Senes in Italy, a most complete soldier and wortlij captain ; 
Machiavel compares him to Scipio or Alexander. ^ And 'tis 
a wonderful thing Q saith he) to him that shall consider of it, 
that all those, or the greatest part of them, that have done 
the greatest exploits here upon earth, and excelled the rest 
of the nohles of their time, have been still bom in some ab- 
ject, obscure place, or of base and obscure abject parents." 
A most memorable observation, ^ Scaliger accounts it, et non 
praetereunduniy maximorum virorum plerosque patres ignora- 
tos, matres impudicas fuisse} '^ I could recite a great cata- 
logue of them," every kingdom, every province will yield 
innumerable examples; and why then should baseness of 
birth be objected to any man ? Who thinks worse of Tully 
for being Arpinas, an upstart? Or Agathocles, that Sici- 
lian king, for being a potter's son ? Iphicrates and Marius 
were meanly bom. What wise man thinks better of any 
person for his nobility? as he said in ^Machiavel, amnes 
eodem patre nati, Adam's sons, conceived all and bom in sin, 
&C. " We are by nature all as one, all alike, if you see us 
naked ; let us wear theirs and they our clothes, and what is 
the difference ? " To speak truth, as * Bale did of P. Scha- 
lichius, " I more esteem thy worth, learning, honesty, than thy 
nobility ; honour thee more that thou art a writer, a doctor 
of -divinity, than Earl of the Huns, Baron of Skradine, or 
hast title to Quch and such provinces," &c. " Thou art more 
fortunate and great " (so ^ Jovius writes to Cosmo de' Medici, 
then Duke of Florence) " for thy virtues, than for thy lovely 
wife, and happy children, friends, fortunes, or great duchy of 

1 Vita Castruccii. Nee praeter rationem nium una eademqae eiit fitcles ; nam si 

mirum yideri debet, si qois rem oonside- ipsi nostnu, nos eorum yeates induamus, 

rare yelit, omnes e<M yel saltern maximam nos, &c. ^ Ut merito dicam, quod simpli- 

partem, qui in hoc terrarum orbe res citer sentiam, Paulom Schalichium scrip- 

pnestantiores aggressi sunt, atque inter torem, et doctorem, pluris ftcio quam 

eeeteros SBvi sui heroas excelluerunt, aut oomitem Hunnorum, et Baronem Skradi- 

dbscuro, aut abjecto loco editos, et prog- num ; Enoyclopsediam tuam et orbem dis- 

natos Aiisse abjectis parentibus. Eorum ciplinarnm omnibus proyinciis antefero. 

ego Oatalogum infinitum recensere pos< Balseus, epist. nuncupat. ad 5 cent, ulti- 

sem. > Bxercit. 265. « " It is a mam script. Brit. « Prseikt. hist. lib. 

thing deserving of our notice, that most 1, virtute tua nu^or, quam aut Hetrusci 

great men were bom in obscurity, and of imperii fortuna, aut numerosee et decorsd 

unchaste mothers." * Flor. hist. 1. 8. prolis fielicitate beatior evadis. 
Quod si nudoB nos conspici contingat, om- 

262 Cure of Melanchofy. [Part. II. sec. d. 

Tuscany." So I account thee ; and who doth not so indeed ? 
^ Abdolominus was a gardener, and jet by Alexander for liis 
virtues made king of Syria. How much better is it to be 
born of mean parentage, and to excel in worth, to be morally 
noble, which is preferred before that natural nobility, by 
divines, philosophers, and ^ politicians, to be learned, honest, 
discreet, well qualified, to be fit for any manner of employ- 
ment, in country and commonwealth, war and peace, than to 
be Degeneres Neoptolemi, as many brave nobles are, only 
wise because rich, otherwise idiots, illiterate, unfit for any 
manner of ' service ? * Udalricus, Earl of Cilia, upbraided 
John Huniades with the baseness of his birth, but he replied, 
in te Giliensis comitatus turpiter extinguttur^ in me gloriase 
Bistricensis exoritur, thine earldom is consumed with riot, 
mine begins with honour and renown. Thou hast had so 
many noble ancestors ; what is that to thee ? Vix ea nostra 
voco, * when thou art a dizzard thyself: quodprodest, Pontice, 
longo stemmate censeri f &c. I conclude, hast thou a sound 
body, and a good soul, good bringing up ? Art thou virtuous, 
honest, learned, well qualified, religious, are thy conditions 
good ? — ^thou art a true nobleman, perfectly noble, although 

bom of Thersites — dum modo tu sis .^Sadda similis, non 

natiis, sed foetus, noble /car' k^ox^^ * " for neither sword, nor 
fire, nor water, nor sickness, nor outward violence, nor the 
devil himself can take thy good parts from thee." Be not 
ashamed of thy birth then, thou art a gentleman all the world 
over, and shalt be honoured, when as he, strip him of his 
fine clothes, • dispossess him of his wealth, is a funge (which 
■^ Polynices in his banishment found true by experience, gentry 
was ' not esteemed) like a piece of coin in another country, 
that no man will take, and shall be contemned. Once more, 
though thou be a barbarian, bom at Tontonteac, a villain, a 

1 CurtiuB. s Bodine, de rep. lib. 8, aquaram yoragine absorberi, Tel vi mor- 

cap. 8. 3 ^aeas Sylvius, lib. 2, cap. 29! bi destrui potest. « Send them both to 

^ '^ If children be proud, haughty, fool- some strange place naked, ad ignotoe, as 

ish, they defile the nobility of their kin- Aristippus said, you shall see the di^r- 

dred," Eecl. xxii. 8. ^ Cujus possessio ence. Bacon's Kssays. t Familin 

nee rarto eripi, nee incendio absumi, nee splendor nihil opis attuiit, &c. 

Mem. 2.] Remedies against Discontents. 263 

slave, a Saldanian negro, or a rude Virginian in Dasamon* 
qaepec, he a French monsieur, a Spanish don, a seignior of 
Italy, I care not how descended, of what family, of what 
order, baron, count, prince, if thou be well qualified, and he 
not, but a degenerate Neoptolemus, I tell thee in a word, 
thou art a man, and he is a beast 

Let no terr€B Jilius, or upstart, insult at this which I have 
said, no worthy gentleman take offence. I speak it not to 
detract from such as are well deserving, truly virtuous and 
noble ; I do much respect and honour true gentry and no- 
bility ; I was bom of worshipful parents myself; in an ancient 
family, but I am a younger brother, it concerns me not ; or 
had I been some great heir, richly endowed, so minded as I 
am, I should not have been elevated at all, but so esteemed 
of it, as of all other human happiness, honours, &c , they have 
their period, are brittle and inconstant As ^ he said of that 
great river Danube, it riseth from a small fountain, a little 
brook at first, sometimes broad, sometimes narrow, now slow, 
then swifl, increased at last to an incredible greatness by the 
confluence of sixty navigable rivers, it vanisheth in conclu- 
sion, loseth his name, and is suddenly swallowed up of the 
Euxine sea : I may say of our greatest families, they were 
mean at first, augmented by rich marriages, purchases, offices, 
they continue for some ages, with some little alteration of cir- 
cumstances, fortunes, places, &c., by some prodigal son, for 
some default, or for want of issue they are defaced in an 
instant, and their memory blotted out 

So much in the mean time I do attribute to gentility, that 

if he be well descended, of worshipful or noble parentage, he 

will express it in his conditions, 

* " nee enim feroces 
Progenerant aquilaB columbas.'* 

And although the nobility of our times be much like our 

1 Flavins hie illustrls. humanamm re- randam maii^itadinem excrescit, tandem- 

mm imago, qa» parris ductas sub initiis, que in mari Euxino eyaoescit. I. Stuck- 

in immensum creseunt, et subito eyanea- ius, pereg. mar. Euxini. * '* For fierce 

cunt. BxiUfl hie prime fluvius, in admi- eagles do not proereate timid ringdoyes." 

264 Cure of Mdancho^. [Part. II. sec. 8. 

coins, more in number and value, but less in weight and 
goodness, with finer stamps, cuts, or outsides than of old ; yet 
if he retain those ancient characters of. true gentry, he will 
be more affable, courteous, gently disposed, of fairer carriage, 
better temper, or a more magnanimous, heroical, and generous 
spirit, than that vvlgua homtnum, those ordinary boors and 
peasants, qui adeo improhi, agrestes, et incvki plerumque sunt, 
ne dicam mcditiost, tU nemini vUum humanitatis officium 
prasteni, ne ipsi Deo si advenerit, as * one observes of them, 
a rude, brutish, uncivil, wild, a currish generation, cruel and 
malicioua Incapable of discipline, and such as have scarce 
common sense. And it may be generally spoken of all, 
which ^Lemnius the physician said of his travel into Eng- 
land, the common people were silly, sullen, dogged clowns, 
sed mitior nobilitas, ad omne humanitatis officium paratis- 
sima, the gentlemen were courteous and civil. If it so fall 
out (as often it doth) that such peasants are preferred by rea- 
son of their wealth, chance, error, &c., or otherwise, yet as 
the cat in the fable, when she was turned to a fair maid, 
would play with mice ; a cur will be a cur, a clown will be a 
down, he will likely savour of the stock whence he came, 
and that innate rusticity can hardly be shaken off. 

8 " Licet superbus ambulet pecani&, 
Fortuna non mutat genus." 

And though by their education such men may be better 
qualified, and more refined ; yet there be . many symp- 
toms by which they may likely be descried, an affected fan- 
tastical carriage, a tailor-like spruceness, a peculiar garb in 
all their proceedings ; choicer than ordinary in his diet, and 
as * Hierome well describes such a one to his Nepotian : " An 
upstart bom in a base cottage, that scarce at first had coarse 
bread to fill his hungry guts, must now feed on kickshaws 

1 Sabinufl, in 6 Ovid. Met. &b. 4. nature." ^ Lib. 2, ep. 15. Natiis sor- 

s Lib. 1, de 4 Complexionibus. > Hor. dide tuguriolo et paupere domo, qui tIz 

ep. Od. 2. " And although he boast of milio rugientem yentrem, &e. 
his wealth, Fortune has not changed his 

Mem. 2.] Remedies ctgainst Discontents, 265 

and made dishes, will have all variety of ilesb and fisb, the 
best oysters," &c. A beggar's brat will be commonly more 
scornful, imperious, insulting, insolent, than another man of 
his rank ; " Nothing so intolerable as a fortunate fool," as 
^ Tully found out long since out of his experience ; Asperius 
nihil est humili cum surgit in altum, set a beggar on horse- 
back, and he will ride a gallop, a gallop, &c., 

2 '* desffivit in omnes 
Dum 86 posse putat^ nee bellua ssevior alia est, 
Qnam servi rabies in libera colla furentis ; " 

he forgets what he was, domineers, &c., and many such other 
symptoms he hath, by which you may know him from a true 
gentleman. Many errors and obliquities are on both sides, 
noble, ignoble, factis, natis ; yet still in all callings, as some 
degenerate, some are well deserving, and most worthy of their 
honours. And as Bosbequius said of Solyman the Magnifi- 
cent, he was tarUo dignus imperio, worthy of that great em- 
pire : Many meanly descended are most worthy of their 
honour, politice nohiles, and well deserve it. Many of our 
nobility so bom (which one said of Hephsestion, Ptolemeus, 
Seleucus, Antigonus, &c., and the rest of Alexander's follow- 
ers, they were all worthy to be monarchs and generals of 
armies) deserve to be princes. And I am so far forth of 
• Sesellius's mind, that they ought to be preferred (if capable) 
before others, ^ as being nobly bom, ingenuously brought up, 
and from theif infancy trained to all manner of civility." 
For learning and virtue in a nobleman is more eminent, and, 
as a jewel set in gold is more precious, and much to be re- 
spected, such a man deserves better than others, and is as 
great an honour to his family as his noble family to him. In 
a word, many noblemen are an ornament to their order; 
many poor men's sons are singularly well endowed, most 
eminent, and well deserving for their worth, wisdom, learn- 
ing, virtue, valour, integrity ; excellent members and pillars 

1 Nihil fortunato iasipiente intolerabi- utuntur oonditione, et hoDMtiore looo 
lias. > Claud. 1. 9, ia Eatrop. 'Lib. nad, jam inde it panruUs ad morum ciTil- 
1, de Bep. Gal. Quoniam et commodiore itatem educati sunt, et asauefiicti. 

266 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

of a commonwealth. And therefore to conclude that which 
I first intended, to be base bj birth, meanly bom, is no such 
disparagement. Et sic demonstratury quod ercU demanstrca^ 

MEMB. m. 

Against Poverty and Want, taith such other Adversities. 

One of the greatest miseries that can befall a man, in the 
world's esteem, is poverty or want, which makes men steal, 
bear false witness, swear, forswear, contend, murder and 
rebel, which breaketh sleep, and causeth death itself. ohSkv 
nevlac pofwrepov ioTc i^priov, no burden, (saith ^Menander) so 
intolerable as poverty ; it makes men desperate, it erects and 
dejects, census honores^ census amidtias ; money makes, but 
poverty mars, &c., and all this in the world's esteem ; yet if 
considered aright, it is a great blessing in itself, a happy es- 
tate, and yields no cause of discontent, or that men should 
therefore account themselves vile, hated of Grod, forsaken, 
miserable, unfortunate. Christ himself was poor, bom in a 
manger, and had not a house to hide his head in all his life, 
^ " lest any man should make poverty a judgment of God, or 
an odious estate." And as he was himself, so he informed 
his Apostles and Disciples, they were all poor. Prophets poor, 
Apostles poor, (Acts iii. ** Silver and gold have I none.") 
"As sorrowing (saith Paul) and yet alwajrs rejoicing; as 
having nothing, and yet possessing all things," 1 Cor. vi. 10. 
Your great Philosophers have been voluntarily poor, not only 
Christians, but many others. Crates Thebanus was adored 
for a god in Athens, * " a nobleman by birth, many servants 
he had, an honourable attendance, much wealth, many 
manors, fine apparel; but when he saw this, that all the 

1 Nullum paupertate grayiuB onus. Thebanos numeratus. lectum habuit ge- 

3 Ne quia irae divinse judicium putaretf nna. AwmiAnii fiLmnlitium. dnmna lun- 

aut paupertas exosa foret. Oault. in cap. 
2, yer. 18 Luc». > Inter proceres 

Ne quia irae divinse judicium putaret, nus, frequena fiunuUtium, domus am' 
aut paupertas exosa foret. Oault. in cap. plas, &c. Apuleius Florid. 1. 4. 


Mem. 3.] Remedies against Discontents. 267 

wealth of the world was but brittle, uncertain and no whit 
availing to live well, he flung his burden into the sea, and 
renounced his estate." Those Curii and Fabricii will be 
ever renowned for contempt of these fopperies, wherewith 
the world is so much affected. Amongst Christians I could 
reckon up manj kings and queens, that have forsaken their 
crowns and fortunes, and wilfully abdicated themselves from 
these so much esteemed toys ; ^ many that have refused hon- 
ours, titles, and all this vain pomp and happiness, which oth- 
ers so ambitiously seek, and carefully study to compass and 
attain. Riches I deny not are God's good gifts and blessings ; 
and honor est in honorante, honours are from God ; both re- 
wards of virtue, and fit to be sought after, sued for, and may 
well be possessed ; yet no such great happiness in having, or 
misery in wanting of them. Daniur quidem bonis, saith 
Austin, ne quis mala aestimet: malis aviem ne quis nimis 
bona, good men have wealth that we should not think it evil ; 
and bad men that they should not rely on or hold it so good ; 
as the rain falls on both sorts, so are riches given to good and 
bad, sed bonis in bonum, but they are good only to the godly. 
But ^compare both estates, for natural parts they are not 
unlike ; an^ a beggar's child, as * Cardan well observes, '^ is 
no whit inferior to a prince's, most part better;" and for 
those accidents of fortune, it will easily appear there is no 
such odds, no such extraordinary happiness in the one, or 
misery in the oUier. lie is rich, wealthy, fat ; what gets he 
by it? pride, insolency, lust, ambition, cares, feare, suspicion, 
trouble, anger, emulation, and many filthy diseases of body 
and mind. He hath indeed variety of dishes, better fare, 
sweet wine, pleasant sauce, dainty music, gay clothes, lords it 
bravely out, &c., and all that which Misillus admired in * Lu- 
cian ; but with them he hath the gout, dropsies, apoplexies, 

1 p. BleMDBis, ep. 72 et 282, oblatos hie inedia cruciatur. Ber. ser. sin 

respoi hoaores ex ODere mefcieiui ; motus Hysperchen. Natura aequa est. pue- 

ambitioeos rogatus non ivi, &e. ^ Su- rosque videmus mendicorum nulla ex 

d&t pauper fbras in opere. dives in cog- parte r<>gum flliis diwimiles, plerumque 

itatione; hie os aperit oscitatione, ille saniores. < Qallo, Tom. 2. 
ructatione; graylus ille fieustidio, quam 

268 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 8. 

palsies, stone, pox, rheums, catarrhs, crudities, oppilations, 
^ melancholy, i&c, lust enters in, anger, ambition, according 
to * Ghrjsostom, " the sequel of riches is pride, riot, intemper- 
ance, arrogancy, fury, and all irrational courses." 

* " turpi fregenint sscnla lazu 
Divitis molles," 

with their variety of dishes, many such maladies of body and 
mind get in, which the poor man knows not of. As Saturn 
in *Lucian answered the discontented commonalty (which, 
because of their neglected Saturnal feasts in Rome, made a 
grievous complaint and exclamation against rich men), that 
they were much mistaken in supposing such happiness in 
riches ; • " you see the best (said he) but you know not their 
several gripings and discontents ; " they are like painted 
walls, fair without, rotten within ; diseased, filthy, crazy, full 
of intemperance's effects; '"and who can reckon half? if 
you but knew their fears, cares, anguish of mind and vexa- 
tion, to which they are subject, you would hereafter renounce 
all riches." 

7 " si pateant pectora divitum, 

Qaantos intus sublimis agit • 

Fortuna metus ! Bnitia Goro 
Pulsante fretum mitior unda est." 

" that their breasts were bat conspicnons, 
How full of fear within, how furious ! 
The narrow seas are not so boisterous." 

Yea, but he hath the world at will that is rich, the good 
things of the earth : suave est de magno toUere acervo (it is 
sweet to draw from a great heap), he is a happy man, 
* adored like a god, a prince, every man seeks to him, ap- 

1 Et ^ contubemio foedi atque olidi & Vos qaidem divites putatb felioes, Bed 

▼entrls mors tandem edacit. Seneca, ep. neecitis eorum miBexiaB. > £t quota 

103. * DiTitiarnm sequela, luxus, in- pan haec eorum quie istos discrudant? 

temperies, arrogantia, superbia, furor in- si nossetis metus et curas, quibns obnozii 

Justus, omnisque irrationabilis motns. sunt, plan^ ftagtendas Tobis divitias exi»- 

s JuTen. Sat. 6. *' Effeminate riches have timaretis. 7 Seneca in Hero. (Bteo. 

destroyed the age by the Introduction of 8 Et diis similes stulta cogitatio ftcit. 
shameful luxury.^' * Saturn. Epist. 

Mem. 3.] Remedies against Discontents. 269 

plauds, honours, admires him. He hath honours indeed, 
abundance of all things ; but (as I ssiid) withal ^^' pride, lust, 
anger, faction, emulation, fears, cares, suspicion enter with 
his wealth ; " for his intemperance he hath aches, crudities, 
gouts, and as fruits of his idleness, and fulness, lust, surfeit- 
ing and drunkenness, all manner of diseases : pecuniis auge- 
tur i/»jt?ro^'to5, the wealthier, the more dishonest. ^"He is 
exposed to hatred, envy, peril and treason, fear of death, 
degradation," &c., 'tis luhrica statio et proxima prcecipitio, 
and the higher he climbs, the greater is his fall. 

« " celsae graviore casu 
Decidunt turres, feriuntque summos 
Fulgura montes," 

the lightning commonly sets on fire the highest towers ; ^ in 
the more eminent place he is, the more subject to fall. 

" Rumpitur innumeris arbos uberrima pomis, 
Et 8abit6 nimiae prsecipitantur opes." 

As a tree that is heavy laden with fruit breaks her own 
boughs, with their own greatness they ruin themselves ; which 
Joachimus Camerarius hath elegantly expressed in his 13 
Emblem, cent. 1. Inopem se copia fecit. Their means is 
their misery, though they do apply themselves to the times, 
to lie, dissemble, collogue and flatter their lieges, obey, second 
his will and commands, as much as may be, yet too fre- 
quently they miscarry, they fat themselves like so many hogs, 
as ^-^neas Sylvius observes, that when they are full fed, 
they may be devoured by their princes, as Seneca by Nero 
was served, Sejanus by Tiberius, and Haman by Ahasuerus ; 
I resolve with Gregory, potestas culminis, est tempestas men- 
tis ; et quo dignitas aUior, casus gravior, honour is a tempest, 
the higher they are elevated, the more grievously depressed. 
For the rest of his prerogatives which wealth affords, as he 

1 Flamma simul libidinis ingreditur ; me felicem toties jactastis, amlci? Qui 

ira, foror et superbia, divitiarum sequela, cecidit, stabili non fait ille loco. Boeth. 

Glirys. 2 Omnium oculis, odio, insidUB ^ Ut postquam impinguati flierint, deyo- 

expositus, semper solicitus, fortunss lu- rentur. 
dibrium. s Hor. 2 1. od. 10. « Quid 

270 Oure of Mdcmchoh/* [Part. IL sec. 8. 

hath more his expenses are the greater. "When goods 
increase, they are increased that eat them ; and what good 
Cometh to the owners, but the beholding thereof with the 
eyes ? " Eccles. iv. 10. 

1 " Millia frumenti tna triverit area centum, 
Non tuus hinc capiet venter plus qnam mens " 

" an evil sickness,** Solomon calls it, ^ and reserved to them 
for an evil," 12 verse. "They that will be rich fall into 
many fears and temptations, into many foolish and noisome 
lusts, which drown men in perdition." 1 Tim. vi. 9. " Grold 
and silver hath destroyed many," Ecclus. viii. 2, cUvitia 
S(BcvU sunt laquei didboli: so writes Bernard; worldly 
wealth is the devil's bait; and as the Moon when she is 
fuller of light is still farthest from the Sun, the more wealth 
they have, the farther they are commonly from Grod. (K I 
had said this of myself, rich men would have pulled me to 
pieces ; but hear who saith, and who seconds it, an Apostle) 
therefore St. James bids them " weep and howl for the miseries 
that shall come upon them ; their gold shall rust and canker, 
and eat their flesh as fire," James v. 1, 2, 3. I may then 
boldly conclude with * Theodoret, quottescunque divitiis affltp- 
entem, &c " As often as you shall see a man abounding in 
wealth," qui gemmis bibit, et Serrano dormit in ostro, " and 
nought withal, I beseech you call him not happy, but esteem 
him unfortunate, because he hath many occasions offered to 
live unjustly ; on the other side, a poor man is not miserable, 
if he be good, but therefore happy, that those evil occasions 
are taken from him." 


• " Non possidentem mnlta vocaveris 
Recte beatum ; rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti, 

1 Hor. "Although a hundred thou- providentia; quotiescunque diyitiis afflu- 

fland bushels of wheat may have been entem hominem yidemus, eumque pessi- 

threshed in your granaries, your stomach mum, ne quaeso hunc beatLssimum pute- 

will not contain more than mine." mus, Bed infelicem cenBeamus, &o. 

3 Cap. 6, de curat, grsec. affect, cap. de 3 Hor. 1. 2, Od. 2. 

Mem. 3. J Remedies against Discontents. 271 

Daramqae callet pauperiem pati, 
Pejusque letho fli^tium timet/' 

^ He is not happy that is rich, 
And hath the world at will, 
But he that wisely can 6od*8 gifts 

Possess and use them still: 
That suffers and with patience 

Abides hard poverty, 
And chooseth rather for to die, 
/ Than do such villany." 

Wherein now consists his happiness? what privileges hath 
he more than other men? or rather what miseries, what 
cares and discontents hath he not more than other men ? 

I'^Non enim gazse, neque consolaris 
Summovet lictor miseros tumultus 
Mentis, et curas laqueata circum 
Tecta volantes." 

** Nor treasures, nor majors' officers remove 
The miserable tumults of the mind : 
Or cares that lie about, or fly above 
Their high-roofed houses, with huge beams combin'd." 

'Tis not his wealth can vindicate him, let him have Joh's 
inventory, sint Croesi et Orassi licet, non hos Pactolus aureas 
undas agens, eripiat unquam e miseriis, Croesus or rich 
Crassus cannot now command health, or get himself a stom- 
ach. *"His worship," as Apuleius describes him, in all his 
plenty and great provision, is forbidden to eat, or else hath 
no appetite (sick in bed, can take no rest, sore grieved with 
some chronic disease, contracted with full diet and ease, or 
troubled in mind,) when as, in the mean time, all his house- 
hold are merry, and the poorest servant that he keeps doth 
ex)ntinually feast." 'Tis JBracteata felicitas, as • Seneca terms 
it, tinfoiled happiness, infelix fdicitas, an unhappy kind of 
happiness, if it be happiness at all. His gold, guard, clat- 
tering of harness, and fortifications against outward enemies, 
cannot free him from inward fears and cares. 

►i-Hor. lib. 2. « Florid, lib. 4. Dives turn ejus servitium hilaie sit, atqu« ©pu- 
ille cibo interdicitnr, et ia omni copia letnr. 8 Epist. 116. 
sua cibam non acoipit, cum interea to- 

272 Owe of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 8. 

" Reveraque metas hominnm, cnrseque sequaces 
Nee metiinnt fremitus armoram, aut ferrea tela, 
Audacterque inter reges, regumque potentes 
Versantur, neqae fulgorem reverentur ab auro.'* 

" Indeed men still attending fears and cares 
Nor armoars clashing, nor fierce weapons fear: 
With kings converse they boldly, and kings' peers, 
Fearing no flashings that from gold appear." 

Look how many servants he hath, and so manj enemies he 
suspects ; for liberty he entertains ambition ; his pleasures 
are no pleasures; and that which is worst, he cannot be 
private or enjoy himself as other men do, his state is a servi- 
tude. ^ A countryman may travel from kingdom to kingdom, 
province to province, city to city, and glut his eyes with 
delightful objects, hawk, hunt, and use those ordinary dis- 
ports, without any notice taken, all which a prince or a great 
man cannot do. He keeps in for state, ne majestatis dignitas 
evilescat, as our China kings of Borneo, and Tartarian Chams, 
those aurea manctpia, are said to do, seldom or never seen 
abroad, lU major sit hominum erga se ohservantia, which the 

* Persian kings so precisely observed of old. A poor man 
takes more delight in an ordinary meal's meat, which he 
hath but seldom, than they do with all their exotic dainties 
and continual viands ; Quippe voluptatem commendat rarior 
usits, 'tis the rarity and necessity that makes a thing accept- 
able and pleasant. Darius, put to flight by Alexander, 
drank puddle water to quench his thirst, and it was pleas- 
anter, he swore, than any wine or mead. All excess, as 

• Epictetus argues, will cause a dislike ; sweet will be sour, 
which made that temperate Epicurus sometimes voluntarily 
fast. But they being always accustomed to the same * dishes 
(which are nastily dressed by slovenly cooks, that after their 
obscenities never wash their bawdy hands), be they fish, 
flesh, compounded, made dishes, or whatsoever else, are 

1 Hor. et mihi curto Ire licet mulo Tel et paeri iUotis manibus ab ezoneratione 

si libet usque Tarentum. 2 Brisoniuii. ventris omnia tractant, &o. Cardan. L 

s Si modum excesseris, suavissima sunt 8, cap. 46, de rerum yarietate. 
molesta. * £t in cupediis gulie, coqnus 

Mem. 8.] Remedies against Discontents. 273 

therefore cloyed ; nectar's self grows loathsome to them, they 
are weary of all their fine palaces, they are to them but as so 
many prisons. A poor man drinks in a wooden dish, and 
eats his meat in wooden spoons, wooden platters, earthen 
vessels, and such homely stuff; the other in gold, silver, and 
precious stones ; but with what success ? in auro hibitur 
venenum, fear of poison in the one, security in the other. 
A poor man is able to write, to speak his mind, to do his 
own business himself; locuples mittit parasitum, saith ^ Phi- 
lostratus, a rich man employs a parasite, and as the major of 
the city, speaks by the town-clerk, or by Mr. Recorder, 
when he cannot express himself. ^ Nonius the senator hath 
a purple coat as stiff with jewels as his mind is full of vices ; 
rings on his fingers worth 20,000 sesterces, and as • Perox 
the Persian king, an union in his ear worth one hundred 
pounds weight of gold; * Cleopatra hath whole boars and 
sheep served up to her table at once, drinks jewels dissolved, 
40,000 sesterces in value ; but to what end ? 

6 " Nam tibi cum fauces urit sitis, aurea quseris 

Doth a man that is adry desire to drink in gold ? Doth not 
a cloth suit become him as well, and keep him as warm, as 
all their silks, satins, damasks, taffeties and tissues ? Is not 
homespun cloth as great a preservative against cold, as a 
coat of Tartar lambs*-wool, died in grain, or a gown of 
giants' beards ? Nero, saith ® Sueton., never put on one gar- 
ment twice, and thou hast scarce one to put on ! what's the 
difference ? one's sick, the other sound ; such is the whole 
tenor of their lives, and that which is the consummation and 
upshot of all, death itself makes the greatest difference. One 
like a hen feeds on the dunghill all his days, but is served 
up at last to his Lord's table ; the other as a falcon is fed 
with partridge and pigeons, and carried on his master's fist, 

1 Epist. « PUn. lib. 57, cap. 6. ^ua. ^ Hor. Ser. lib. 1, Sat. 2. «Ca?. 

s Zonanui, 8, annal. * Plutarch, vit. 90, nullam yefltem bis induit. 

VOL. II. 18 

274 Cure of Mdmicholy. [Part. n. sec. 8. 

but when he dies is flung to the muckhill, and there lies. 
The rich man lives like Dives jovially here on earth, temu- 
lentus divitiis, make the best of it ; and ^ boasts himself in 
the multitude of his riches," Psalm xlix. 6, 11, he thinks his 
house ^' called after his own name, shall continue for ever ; " 
" but he perisheth like a beast," verse 20, " his way utters 
his folly," verse 13, male parta male dilahuntur; "like sheep 
they lie in the grave," verse 14, Puncto descendunt ad infer- 
num, "they spend their days in wealth, and go suddenly 
down to hell," Job xxi. 13. For all physicians and medi- 
cines enforcing nature, a swooning wife, families' complaints, 
friends' tears, dirges, masses, nenias, funerals, for all ora- 
tions, counterfeit hired acclamations, eulogiums, epitaphs, 
hearses, heralds, black mourners, solemnities, obelisks, and 
Mausoleum tombs, if he have them, at least, ^ he, like sL hog, 
goes to hell with a guilty conscience (propter has dilatavU 
infemus os suum), and a poor man*s curse; his memoiy 
stinks like the snuff of a candle when it is put out ; scurri- 
lous libels, and infamous obloquies accompany him. When 
as poor Lazarus is Dei sacrarium, the temple of God, lives 
and dies in true devotion, hath no more attendants but his 
own innocency, the heaven a tomb, desires to be dissolved, 
buried in his mother's lap, and hath a company of ^ Angels 
ready to convey his soul into Abraham's bosom, he leaves an 
everlasting and a sweet memory behind him. Crassus and 
Sylla are indeed still recorded, but not so much for their 
wealth as for their victories ; Croesus for his end, Solomon 
for his wisdom. In a word, *"to get wealth is a great 
trouble, anxiety to keep, grief to lose it" 

*" Quid dignum stolidis mentibus imprecer? 
Opes, honores ambiant: 
Et cum falsa gravi mole paraverint, 
Turn vera cognoscant bona." 

1 Ad generum Gereris sine caede et san- sicfmagni timoris, amissio magni doloris. 

gnine panel deBceDdunt reges, et sicca * Boethius, de consol. phil. 1. 8. *'How con- 

morte tyranni. s « Qod shall deliver his temptible stolid minds ! They covet riches 

soul from the power of the grave,-' Psal. and titles, and when they have obtained 

xlix. 15. ^ Contempl. Tdiot. Cap.STi di- these commodities of false weight and 

vitiarum acquisitio magni laboris, posses- measures, then, and not before, they an- 

Mem. 8.] Remedies against Discontents. 275 

But consider all those other unknown, concealed happi- 
nesses, which a poor man hath (I call them unknown, be- 
cause thej be not acknowledged in the world's esteem, or so 
taken), Ofortunatos nimium bona si sua ndrint : happj they 
are in the mean time if they would take notice of it, make use, 
or apply it to themselves. " A poor man wise is better than 
a foolish king," Eccles. ii. 13. * " Poverty is the way to 
heaven, *the mistress of philosophy, 'the mother of religion, 
virtue, sobriety, sister of innocency, and an upright mind." 
How many such encomiums might I add out of the fathers, 
philosophers, orators ? It troubles many that are poor, they 
account of it as a great plague, curse, a sign of God's hatred, 
ipsum scelus, damned villany itself, a disgrace, shame and 
reproach ; but to whom, or why ? * " If fortune hath envied 
me wealth, thieves have robbed me, my father hath not left 
me such revenues as others have, that I am a younger broth- 
er, basely bom, cui sine luce genus^ surdumque parentum 

namen, of mean parentage, a dirt-dauber's son, am I 

therefore to be blamed ? an eagle, a bull, a lion is not rejected 
for his poverty, and why should a man ? " 'Tis ^ fartunts 
telwn, non culpce, fortune's fault, not mine. " Good Sir, I am 
a servant (to use 'Seneca's words), howsoever your poor 
friend ; a servant, and yet your chamber-fellow, and if you 
consider better of it, your fellow-servant." I am thy drudge 
in the world's eyes, yet in God's sight peradventure thy bet- 
ter, my soul is more precious, and I dearer unto him. Etiam 
servi diis curcR sunt, as Evangelus at large proves in Ma- 
crobius, the meanest servant is most precious in his sight. 
Thou art an epicure, I am a good Christian ; thou art many 
parasangs before me. in means, favour, wealth, honour, Clau- 
dius's Narcissus, Nero's Massa, Domitian's Parthenius, a 
favourite, a golden slave ; thou coverest thy floors with mar- 

dentaod what is truly Taluable." ^ Aus- quod latro ei9plt, aut pater non reliquit, 

tin in Ps. Ixxri. omnia Philosophia ma- cur mibi yitio daretor, si fortuna divitias 

gistra, ad coelum via. « Bonce mentis invidit? non aquilee, non, &c. * Tully. 

soror paupertas. » Paedagoga pietatis • Epist. 74, servus, summe homo ; servus 

sobria, pia mater, culfa simplex, habitu sum, immo contubernalls, servus sum, 

secura, consilio benesuada. Apul. ^Car- at humilis amicus, immo conservus si 

dan. Opprobrium non est paupertas: cogitaveris. 

276 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 8. 

ble, thj roofs with gold, thy walls with statues, fine pictures, 
curious hangings, &c., what of all this ? calcas opes, &&, 
what's all this to true happiness ? I live and breathe under 
that glorious heaven, that august capitol of nature, enjoy the 
brightness of stars, that clear light of sun and moon, those 
infinite creatures, plants, birds, beasts, fishes, herbs, all that 
sea and land afford, far surpassing all that art and opulentia 
can give. I am free, and which ^Seneca said of Rome, 
culmen liberos texit, sub marmore et auro postea servitus hahi- 
tavit, thou hast AmaUhecB comu, plenty, pleasure, the world 
at will, I am despicable and poor ; but a world overshot, a 
blow in choler, a game at tables, a loss at sea, a sudden fire, 
the prince's dislike, a little sickness, &c., may make us equal 
in an instant ; howsoever take thy time, triumph and insult 
awhile, cinis eequat, as ^ Alphonsus said, death will equalize 
us all at last. I live sparingly, in the mean time, am clad 
homely, fare hardly ; is this a reproach ? am I the worse for 
it? am I contemptible for it? am I to be reprehended? 
A learned man in "Nevisanus was taken down for sitting 
amongst gentlemen, but he replied, " my nobility is about the 
head, yours declines to the tail," and they were silent Let 
them mock, scoff, and revile, 'tis not thy scorn, but his that 
made thee so ; " he that mocketh the poor, reproacheth him 
that made him," Prov. xi. 5, " and he that rejoiceth at afflic- 
tion, shall not be unpunished." For the rest, the poorer thou 
art, the happier thou art, ditior est, at non meltor, saith 
* Epictetus, he is richer, not better than thou art, not so free 
from lust, envy, hatred, ambition. 

" Beatus ille qui procul negotiis 
Patema rura bobus exercet suis.*' 

Happy he, in that he is ^ freed from the tumults of the world, 

1 Epist. 66 et 90. 2 Panonnitan. re- amoribus inseirit, non appetit honoras, 

bus gestis Alph. 8 Lib. 4, num. 218, et qualitercunque relictus satis habet, 

quidam deprehensus quod sederet loco hominem se esse meminit, invidet nemi- 

nobilium, mea nobilitas, ait, est circa ca- ni, nAminem despicit, neminem miratur, 

put, vestra declinat ad caudam. * Tan- sermonibus malignis non attendit ant 

to beatior es, quanto collectior. 5 Non alitur. Plinius. 

^-,ji I J— I i^i^^^m^m^'^^tr^^^am 

Mem. 3.] Remedies agcdnsi Discontents, 211 

he seeks no honours, gapes afler no preferment, f atters not, 
envies not, temporizeth not, but lives privately, and well con- 
tented with his estate ; 

^ Nee spes corde avidns, nee coram pascit inanem 
Seenrus qu6 fata cadant.** 

He is not troubled with state matters, whether kingdoms 
thrive better by succession or election ; whether monarchies 
should be mixed, temperate, or absolute ; the house of Otto- 
mon's and Austria is all one to him ; he inquires not af^er 
colonies or new discoveries ; whether Peter were at Rome, or 
Constantine's donation be of force ; what comets or new stars 
signify, whether the earth stand or move, there be a new 
world in the moon, or infinite worlds, &c. He is not touched 
with fear of invasions, factions or emulations ; 

1 ^ Foelix ille animi, divisqne simillimus ipsis, 
Quern non mordaci resplendens gloria fuco 
Solicitat, non fastosi mala gaudia luxus, 
Sed tacitos sinit ire dies, et paupere cultu 
2 Exigit innocasB tranquilla silentia vitse.'* 

" A happy soul, and like to God himself, 
Whom not vain gloiy macerates or strife. 
Or wicked joys of that proud swelling pelf, 
But leads a still, poor, and contented life.'* 

A secure, quiet, blissful state he hath, if he could acknowl- 
edge it. But here is the misery, that he will not take notice 
of it ; he repines at rich men's wealth, brave hangings, dainty 
fare, as ' Simonides objecteth to Hiero, he hath all the pleas- 
ures of the world, ^in Uctis eburneis dormit, vinum phiaUs 
hibit, optimis unguentis delibuitur, ^ he knows not the afflic- 
tion of Joseph, stretching himself on ivory beds, and singing 
to the sound of the viol/' And it troubles him that he hath 
not the like; there is a difference (he grumbles) between 
Laplolly and Pheasants, to tumble i' th' straw and lie in a 
down bed, betwixt wine and water, a cottage and a palace. 

1 PolitlaiiiiB in mstieo. * Oygea, nunquam ezoesaerat, rare suo eontentos. 

regno Lydi» inflatus, sciscitatum misit Val. lib. 1, c. 7. > Hor. haoo est Vita 

Apollinem, an quia mortalinm se feUcior solutorum misera ambitione, gravique. 

eeaet. Aglaium Arcadnm pauperrimnm * Amos vi. 
Apollo praetulit, qui terminos agri 8^ 

278 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. 11. sec. a. 

*^ He hates nature (as ^ Pliny characterizeth him) that she 
hath made him lower than a god, and is angry with the gods 
that any man goes before him ; " and although he hath re- 
ceived much, yet (as ^ Seneca follows it) " he thinks it an 
injury that he hath no more, and is so far from giving thanks 
for his tribuneship, that he complains he is not praetor, neither 
doth that please him, except he may be consul." Why is he 
not a prince, why not a monarch, why not an emperor ? Why 
should one man have so much more than his fellows, one have 
all, another nothing ? Why should one man be a slave or 
drudge to another ? One surfeit, another starve, one live at 
ease, another labour, without any hope of better fortune? 
Thus they grumble, mutter, and repine ; not considering that 
inconstancy of human affairs, judicially conferring one con- 
dition with another, or well weighing their own present 
estate. What they are now, thou mayest shortly be ; and 
what thou art they shall likely be. Expect a little, compare 
future and times past with the present, see the event, and 
comfort thyself with it. It is as well to be discerned in com- 
monwealths, cities, families, as in private men's estates. Italy 
was once lord of the world, Rome the queen of cities, vaunted 
herself of two * myriads of inhabitants ; now that all-com- 
manding country is possessed by petty princes, ^Bome a 
small village in respect Greece of old the seat of civility, 
mother of sciences and humanity ; now forlorn, the nurse of 
barbarism, a den of thieves. Germany then, saith Tacitus, 
was incult and horrid, now full of magnificent cities ; Athens, 
Corinth, Carthage, how flourishing cities, now buried in their 
own ruins ! Corvorum^ ferarum^ aprorum et hesHarum lustra, 
like so many wildernesses, a receptacle of wild beasts. Ven- 
ice, a poor fisher-town; Paris, London^ small cottages in 
Caesar's time, now most noble emporiums. Valois, Plan- 
tagenet, and Scaliger, how fortunate families, how likely to 

1 Pne&t. lib. 7. Odit naturam quod nata gratias, sed queritur quod oon sit 

infra deos flit ; irascitur diis qnod quia ad prseturam .perductus ; neque haec gra- 

ilii antecedat. a Be ira. cap. 31, lib. 8. ta, si desit consulatus. ^ XAjpe. admir. 

Et si multum acceperit, injuriam putat * Of some 90,000 inhabitants now. 
plura noQ accepisse ; non agit pro tribu- 

Mem. 8.J Remedies against ZHscantenU. 279 

continue ! now quite extinguished and rooted out He stands 
alofi to-daj, full of favour, wealth, honour, and prosperity, in 
the top of fortune's wheel ; to-morrow in prison, worse than 
nothing, his son's a beggar. Thou art a poor servile drudge, 
J'ax poptdt, a very slave, thy son may come to be a prince, 
with Maxi minus, Agathodes, &c., a senator, a general of an 
army ; thou standest bare to him now, workest for him, 
drudgest for him and his, takest an alms of him ; stay but a 
little, and his next heir peradventure shall consume all with 
riot, be degraded, thou exalted, and he shall beg of thee. 
Thou shalt be his most honourable patron, he thy devout ser- 
vant, his posterity shall run, ride, and do as much for thine, 
as it was with ^ Frisgobald and Cromwell, it may be for thee. 
Citizens devour country gentlemen, and settle in their seats ; 
after two or three descents, they consume all in riot, it returns 

to the city again. 

a " Novas incola venit; 
Nam proprisB telluris herum natara, neqae illam, 
Nee me, neo quenquam statuit; nos expulit ille: 
Ilium aut nequities, aut vafri inscitia juris." 

** have we liy*d at a more frugal rate 
Since this new stranger seiz'd on our estate ? 
Nature will no perpetual heir assign, 
Or make the farm his property or mine. 
He tum'd us out; but follies all his own, 
Or lawsuits and their knaveries yet unknown, 
Or, all his follies and his lawsuits past, 
Some long-lived heir shall turn him out at last" 

A lawyer buys out his poor client, after awhile his client's 
posterity buy out him and his ; so things go round, ebb and 


** Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 
Dictus erat, nulli proprius, sed cedit in usum 
Nunc mihi, nunc aliis ; " 

** The farm, once mine, now bears Umbrenus* name; 
The use alone, not property, we claim ; 
Then be not with your present lot deprest, 
And meet the future with undaunted breast; " 

1 Read the stozy at large in John Fox, his Acts and Monuments. s Hor. Sat. 
2, ser. lib. 2. 

280 (hire of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 8. 

as he said then, ager cujus, quot hahes Dominos ? So say I 
of land, houses, movables and money, mine to-day, his anon, 
whose to-morrow ? In fine (as ^ Machiavel observes), " vir- 
tue and prosperity beget rest ; rest idleness ; idleness riot ; 
riot destruction ; from which we come again to good laws ; 
good laws engender virtuous actions ; virtue, glory and pros- 
perity ; and 'tis no dishonour then (as Guicciardine adds) for 
a flourishing man, city, or state to come to ruin,^ nor infelicity 
to be subject to the law of nature." Sh-go terrena calcandoy 
stttenda coBlestia^ therefore (I say) scorn this transitory state, 
look up to heaven, think not what others are, but what thou 
art : ' Qua parte locatus es m re ; and what thou shalt be, 
what thou mayest be. Do (I say) as Christ himself did, 
when he lived here on earth, imitate him as much as in thee 
lies. How many great Caesars, mighty monarchs, tetrarchs, 
dynasties, princes lived in his days, in what plenty, what del- 
icacy, how bravely attended, what a deal of gold and silver, 
what treasure, how many sumptuous palaces had they, what 
provinces and cities, ample territories, fields, rivers, fountains, 
parks, forests, lawns, woods, cells, &c. ? Yet Christ had none 
of all this, he would have none of this, he voluntarily re- 
jected all this, he could not be ignorant, he could not err in his 
choice, he contemned all this, he chose that which was safer, 
better, and more certain, and less to be repented, a mean 
estate, even poverty itself; and why dost thou then doubt to 
follow him, to imitate him, and his apostles, to imitate all 
good men; so do thou tread in his divine steps, and thou 
shalt not err eternally, as too many worldlings do, that run 
on in their own dissolute courses, to their confusion and ruin, 
thou shalt not do amiss. Whatsoever thy fortune is, be con- 
tented with it, trust in him, rely on him, refer thyself wholly 
to him. For know this, in conclusion, JS^on est volentts nee 
currentiSf sed miserentis Dei, 'tis not as men, but as God will. 
^^ The Lord maketh poor and maketh rich, bringeth low, and 

1 5 Florent. hist. Tirtu8 quietem parat, berrinuu, &c. s Ouicciard. in Hiponest.; 
quies otium, otium porro luxum generat, nulla infelidtas subjectum easo legi naia- 
luxus interitum, k quo iterum ad salu- ras, &c. * Pexsius. 

Mem. 3.] Remedies against Discontents, 281 

exalteth (1 Sam. ii. ver. 7, 8), he lifteth the poor from the 
dust, and raiseth the beggar from the dunghill, to set them 
amongst princes, and make them inherit the seat of glory ; " 
'tis all as he pleaseth, how, and when, and whom ; he that 
appoints the end (though to us unknown) appoints the means 
likewise subordinate to the end. 

Yea, but their present estate crucifies and torments most 
mortal men, they have no such forecast, to see what may be, 
what shall likely be, but what is, though not wherefore, or 
from whom ; hoc angit, their present misfortunes grind their 
souls, and an envious eye which they cast upon other men's 
prosperities, Vicinumque pecus grandius uber hahet, how rich, 
how fortunate, how happy is he ? But in the mean time he 
doth not consider the other's miseries, his infirmities of body 
and mind, that accompany his estate, but still reflects upon 
his own false conceived woes and wants, whereas if the mat- 
ter were duly examined ^ he is in no distress at all, he hath 
no cause to complain. 

2 " toUe querelas, 
Pauper enim non est cui rerum snppetit usus/' 

** Then cease complaining, friend, and learn to live. 
He is not poor to whom kind fortune grants, 
Even with a frugal hand, what Nature wants," 

he is not poor, he is not in need. " • Nature is content with 
bread and water; and he that can rest satisfied with that, 
may contend with Jupiter himself for happiness." In that 
golden age, ^ somnos dedit umbra saltdtres, potum quoque, lur- 
bricus amnis, the tree gave wholesome shade to sleep under, 
and the clear rivers drink. The Israelites drank water in 
the wilderness ; Samson, David, Saul, Abraham's servant 
when he went for Isaac's wife, the Samaritan woman, and 
how many besides might I reckon up, Egypt, Palestine, 
whole countries in the * Indies, that drank pure water all 

1 Omnes divitefi qui coelo et terra frui Jove de felicitate contendat. Gibus sim- 

possunt. 2 Hot. lib. 1, epist. 12. plex famem sedat, vestis tennis frigus 

^ Seneca, epifit. 15, panem et aquam na- aroet. Senec. epist. 8. ^ BoethiuB. 

tura desiderat, et haec qui habet, ipso cum 5 MuflGaeus et alii. 

282 Cfure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 3. 

their lives. ^ The Persian kings themselves drank no other 
drink than the water of Chaospis, that runs by Susa, which 
was carried in bottles after them, whithersoever they went 
Jacob desired no more of Gk)d, but bread to eat, and clothes 
to put on in his journey : Gren. xxviii. 20. Bene est cut Deus 
ohtvlit Parca quod scUts est manu; bread is enough ^^'to 
strengthen the heart" And if you study philosophy aright, 
saith ' Maudarensis, '^ whatsoever is beyond this moderation, 
is not useful, but troublesome." ^ Agellius, out of Euripides, 
accounts bread and water enough to satisfy nature, "• of which 
there is no surfeit, the rest is not a feast, but a riot" ^ S. Hie- 
rome esteems him rich ^^ that hath bread to eat, and a potent 
man that is not compelled to be a slave : hunger is not ambi- 
tious, so that it hath to eat, and thirst doth not prefer a cup 
of gold." It was no epicurean speech of an epicure, he that 
is not satisfied with a little will never have enough ; and very 
good counsel of him in the •poet, " O my son, mediocrity of 
means agrees best with men ; too much is pernicious." 

" DivitisB grandes homini sunt vivere pared, 
^quo animo." 

And if thou canst be content, thou hast abundance, nihU egt, 

nihil deest, thou hast little, thou wantest nothing. 'Tis all 

one to be hanged in a chain of gold, or in a rope ; to be filled 

with dainties or coarser meat 

7 ^ Si ventri bene, si lateri, pedibusque tnis, nil 
Divitise poteront regales addere m^jos.*' 

" If belly, sides, and feet be well at ease, 
A prince's treasure can thee no more please." 

Socrates in a fair, seeing so many things bought and sold, 
«uch a multitude of people convented to that purpose, ex- 
claimed forthwith, " O ye gods, what a sight of things do not 
I want ? 'Tis thy want alone that keeps thee in health of 

1 Bxtoonius. < Psal. Ixxxiv > Si In. * Satis est dlTes qui pane non in- 

recte phlloflophemini, qaicquid aptam diget; nimlnm potena qui servire non 

moderationem supergreditur, oneri potius cogitur. Ambitiosa non est &me8, &e. 

qtUmoi Usui est. * Lib. 7, 16. Cereris ^ Euripides, Menalip. flli, mediocres 

munus et aquae poculnm mortales quae- diyitise hominibus oonreniunt, nimia Te- 

rnnt habere, et quorum saties nunqnam ro moles perniciosa. 7 Hor. 
est, lozns autem, sunt oaetera, non epa- 

Mem. 8.] Remedies against Discontents. 283 

body and mind, and that which thou persecutest and abhor- 
rest as a feral plague is thy physician and ^ chiefest friend, 
which makes thee a good man, a healthful, a sound, a vir- 
tuous, an honest and happy man/' For when Virtue came 
from heaven (as the poet feigns), rich men kicked her up, 
wicked men abhorred her, courtiers scoffed at her, citizens 
hated her, ^and that she was thrust out of doors in every 
place, she came at last to her sister Poverty, where she 
had found good entertainment. Poverty and Virtue dwell 

• '* vitsB tuta facnltas 
Pauperis, angustique lares, 5 munera nondum 
Intellecta deHm." 

How happy art thou if thou couldst be content. ^ Godliness 
is a great gain, if a man can be content with that which he 
hath," 1 Tim. vi. 6. And all true happiness is in a mean 
estate. I have a little wealth, as he said, ^ sed quas animus 
magnas facit, a kingdom in conceit : 

fi " nil amplius opto 
Maill nate, nisi at propria hsec mihi munera faxis ; " 

I have enough and desire no more. 

^ *' Dli bene fecerunt inopis me quodque pusilli 
Fecerunt animi *' 

'tis very well, and to my content. ' Vestem et fortunam con- 
cinnam potius quam laxam probo, let my fortune and my 
garments be both alike fit for me. And which ^ Sebastian 
Foscarinus, sometime Duke of Venice, caused to be engraven 
on his tomb in St. Mark's Church, " Hear, O ye Venetians, 
and I will tell you which is the best thing in the world: to 
contemn it." I will engrave it in my heart, it shall be my 

1 nootes ooenaeque deftm. < Per tiiemselTes." * Lip. miscell. ep. 40. 
mille ftandes doctoeque dolos ^idtur, ^ Sat. 6, lib. 2. * Hor. Sat. 4. 
apud sociam panpertaton ^usque col- ^ Apuleius. sChytrseag, in Eoropie de- 
tores diyertens, in eorum Binn et tntela liciis. Accipite, ciyes Veneti, quod est 
delidatur. ' Lucan. " protecting optimum in rebus humanis, res humanas 
quality of a poor man's life, fSrugal means, contemnere. 
gifts scarce yet understood by the gods 

284 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. s. 

whole study to contemn it. Let them take wealth, Stercora 
stercus amet, so that I may have security: bene qui IcUuttf 
bene vixit ; though I live obscure, ^ yet I live clean and hon- 
est ; and when as the lofty oak is blown down, the silly reed 
may stand. Let them take glory, for that's their misery ; let 
them take honour, so that I may have heart's-ease. Due me, 
Jupiter J et tu fatum^ ^ &c. Lead me, O God, whither thou 
wilt, I am ready to follow ; command, I will obey. I do not 
envy at their wealth, titles, offices ; 

" Stet quicunque volet potens 
AulsB culmine labrico, 
Me dulcis saturet quies," • 

let me live quiet and at ease. * Erimus fortasse (as he com- 
forted himself) quando iUi mm erunt, when they are dead 
and gone, and all their pomp vanished, our memory may 

flourish : 

^ " dant perennes 
Stemmata non peritura Masse.*' 

Let him be my lord, patron, baron, earl, and possess so many 
goodly castles, 'tis well for me ® that I have a poor house, and 
a little wood, and a well by it, &c 

" His me consolor victurum suavius, ac si 
Qusestor avus pater atque mens, patruusque faissent.** 

" With which I feel myself more truly blest 
Than if my sires the qusestor's power possessed. 


I live, I thank Grod, as merrily as he, and triumph as much 
in this my mean estate, as if my father and uncle had been 
lord treasurer, or my lord mayor. He feeds of many dishes, 
I of one : ' qui Christum curat, non muUum curat quam de 
preciosis cibis stercus confidai, what care I of what stuff my 

1 Vah, yivere etiam nunc lubet, as De- ^ Pnteanns, ep. 82. s Msrullus. ** The 

mea said, Adelph. Act. 4. Quam multis immortal Muses confer imperishable pride 

non ^eo, quam multa non desidero, nt of origin." < Hoc erit in rotis, modus 

Socrates in pompa. ille in nundiniB. agri non ita parvus, Hortus ubi et tecto 

s Epictetus, 77 cap. quo sum destiaatua, vicinus jugis aquae fons, et paulum sylvs, 

et sequar alacriter. 9 ^c Let whosoever &o. Hor. Sat. 6, lib. 2, Ser. 7 Hie- 

coveto it occupy the highest pinnacle of ronym. 
fame, sweet tranquillity shall satisfy me." 

Mem. 3.] Remedies against Discontents, 285 

excrements be made ? ^ " He that lives according to nature 
cannot be poor, and he that exceeds can never have enough," 
totiis mm sufficit orbis, the whole world cannot give him con- 
tent " A small thing that the righteous hath, is better than 
the riches of the ungodly," Psal. xxxvii. 16; " and better is 
a poor morsel with quietness, than abundance with strife," 
Prov. xvii, 1. 

Be content then, enjoy thyself, and as ^Chrysostom ad- 
viseth, " be not angry for what thou hast not, but give God 
hearty thanks for what thou hast received. 

8 " Si dat oluscula 
Mensa minuscula 

pace referta, 
Ne pete grandia, 
Lautaque prandia 

lite repleta." 

But what wantest thou, to expostulate the matter ? or what 
hast thou not better than a rich man ? * " health, competent 
wealth, children, security, sleep, friends, liberty, diet, apparel, 
and what not," or at least mayest have (the means being 
so obvious, easy, and well known), for as he inculcated to 


6 " Vitam quae faciunt beatiorem, 
Jucundissime Martialis, haec sunt; 
Kes non parta labore, sed relicta, 
Lis numquam," &c. 

I say again thou hast, or at least mayest have it, if thou wilt 
thyself, and that which I am sure he wants, a merry heart. 
" Passing by a village in the territory of Milan," saith ® St. 
Austin, " I saw a poor beggar that had got belike his bellyful 
of meat, jesting and merry ; I sighed, and said to some of my 

1 Seneca, conRil. ad Albinum, c. 11, not, in strife, to load it layishly.'V 

qui continet se intra naturae limites, ^Quid non habet melius pauper quam 

paupertatem non sentit ; qui excedit, dives? vitam, valetudinem, cibum, som- 

eum in opibus paupertas sequitur. num, libertatem, &c. Card. 6 Martial. 

s Hom. 12. Pro his quae accepisti grati- 1. 10, epig. 47, read it out thyself in the 

as age, noli indignare pro his quse non author. ^ Confess, lib. 6. Transiens 

accepisti. ^ Nat. Chytrseus, deliciis per vicum quendam Mediolanensem, ani- 

Europ. Gustonii in sedibus Hubianis in madverti pauperem quendam mendicum, 

ooenaculo h regione menssB. '' If your jam credo saturum, jocantem atque 

table afford frugal &re with peace, seek ridentem, et ingemui et looutus sum 

286 Oure of Mdcmcholy, [Part. II. sec. 8. 

friends that were then with me, What a deal of trouble, mad- 
ness, pain, and grief do we sustain and exaggerate unto our- 
selves, to get that secure happiness which this poor beggar 
hath prevented us of, and which we peradventure shall never 
have ? For that which he hath now attained with the beg- 
ging of some small pieces of silver, a temporal happiness, and 
present heart's-ease, I cannot compass with all my careful 
windings, and running in and out. ^ And surely the beggar 
was very merry, but I was heavy ; he was secure, but I tim- 
orous. And if any man should ask me now, whether I had 
rather be merry, or still so solicitous and sad, I should say, 
merry. If he should ask me again, whether I had rather be 
as I am, or as this beggar was, I should sure choose to be as 
I am, tortured still with cares and fears ; but out of peevish- 
ness, and not out of truth." That which St. Austin said of 
himself here in this place, I may truly say to thee, thou dis- 
contented wretch, thou covetous niggard, thou churl, thou 
ambitious and swelling toad, 'tis not want but peevishness 
which is the cause of thy woes ; settle thine affection, thou 
hast enough. 

2 " Deniqne sit finis quserendi, quoque habeas plus, 
Pauperiem metuas minus, et finire laborem 
Incipias; parto, quod avebas, ntere." 

Make an end of scraping, purchasing this manor, this field, 
that house, for this and that child ; thou hast enough for thy- 
self and them : 

* " quod petis hie est, 
Est Ulubris, animus si te non deficit sequus," 

'Tis at hand, at home already, which thou so earnestly seekest. 

" si angulus ille 
Proximus accedat, qui nunc denormat agellnm," 

cttm amicis qui mecum erant, &c. mrsug interrogaret an ego talis essem, an 

1 Et certe ille Isetabatur, ego anxius ; qualis nunc sum, me ipsis carls conftc- 

securus ille, ego trepidus. Et si percon- turn eligerem ; sed perrersitate, non yer- 

taretur me quispiam anexultare mallem, itate. * Hor. > Hor. ep. Ub. 1. 
an metuere, responderem, ezultare : et si 

^lem. 8.] Remedies against Discantents. 287 

O that I had hut that one nook of ground, that field there, 

that pasture, si venam argenti fors quis mihi monstret 

O that I could hut find a pot of money now, to purchase, Sec, 
to build me a new house, to many my daughter, place my 
son ! &C. ^ '^ O if I might but live awhile longer to see all 
things settled, some two or three years, I would pay my 
debts," make aU my reckonings even ! but they are come and 
past, and thou hast more business than before. ^ O madness, 
to think to settle that in thine old age when Ihou hast more, 
which in thy youth thou canst not now compose having 
but a little." ' Pyrrhus would first conquer Africa, and then 
Asia, et turn suaviter agere, and then live merrily and take 
his ease ; but when Cyneas the orator told him he might do 
that already, id jam posse fieri, rested satisfied, condemning 
his own folly. Si parva licet componere magnis, thou mayest 
do the like, and therefore be composed in thy fortune. Thou 
hast enough ; he that is wet in a bath, can be no more wet if 
he be flung into Tiber, or into the ocean itself; and if thou 
hadst all the world, or a solid mass of gold as big as the 
world, thou C£^nst not have more than enough ; enjoy thyself 
at length, and that which thou hast ; the mind is all ; be con- 
tent, thou art not poor, but rich, and so much the richer, as 
* Censorinus well writ to Cerellius, quarUo pandora optas, 
non quo plura possides, in wishing less, not having more. I 
say then, Nim adjice opes, sed minue cupiditates ('tis * Epi- 
curus's advice), add no more wealth, but diminish thy desires ; 
and as ® Chrysostom well seconds him. Si vis -ditari, contemne 
divitias ; that's true plenty, not to have, but not to want 
riches, rwn hahere, sed non indigere, vera abundantia ; 'tis 
more glory to contemn, than to possess; et nihil egere, est 
deorum, " and to want nothing is divine." How many deaf, 

^ 8i nunc morerer, inqnit, quanta et flnem quern rebus tuls non inyeneraa in 

qnalia mihi imperfecta manerent : sed si Javenta, in senecta impositnrom ? O 

mensibns decem rel octo superrixero, dementiam, quum ob curas et negotia 

omnia redigam ad libellum, ab omni deb- tuo judiclo sis infelix, quid putas futu- 

ito creditoque me explicabo ; prsetere- rum quum plura supererint ? Cardan, 

unt interim menses decem, et octo, efc lib. 8, cap. 40, de rer. Tar. > Plutarch, 

cum iUis anni. et adhuc restant plura ^ Lib. de natali. cap. 1. * Apud Sto- 

quam prius ; quid igitur speras, insane, bteum, ser. 17. ^ Hom. 12, in 2 Cor. 6. 

288 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 8. 

dumb, halt, lame, blind, miserable persons could I reckon up 
that are poor, and withal distressed, in imprisonment, banish- 
ment, galley-slaves, condemned to the mines, quarries, to 
gyves, in dungeons, perpetual thraldom, than all which thou 
art richer, thou art more happy, to whom thou art able to 
give an alms, a lord, in respect, a petty prince ! ^ be contented 
then I say, repine and mutter no more, "for thou art not 
poor indeed but in opinion." 

Yea, but this is very good counsel, and rightly applied to 
such as have it, and will not use it, that have a competency, 
that are able to work and get their living by the sweat of 
their brows, by their trade, that have something yet ; he that 
hath birds, may catch birds ; but what shall we do that are 
slaves by nature, impotent, and unable to help ourselves, 
mere beggars, that languish and pine away, that have no 
means at all, no hope of means, no trust of delivery, or of 
better success ? as those old Britons complained to their lords 
and masters the Romans, oppressed by the Picts, mare ad 
harharoSy harhaH ad mare, the barbarians drove them to the 
sea, the sea drove them back to the barbarians : our present 
misery compels us to cry out and howl, to make our moan to 
rich men ; they turn us back with a scornful answer to our 
misfortune again, and will take no pity of us ; they commonly 
overlook their poor friends in adversity ; if they chance to 
meet them, they voluntarily forget and will take no notice of 
them ; they will not, they cannot help us. Instead of com- 
fort they threaten us, miscall, scoff at us, to aggravate our 
misery, give us bad language, or if they do give good words, 
what's that to relieve us? According to that of Thales, 
Facile est alios monere ; who cannot give good counsel ? 'tis 
cheap, it costs them nothing. It is an easy matter when one's 
belly is full to declaim against fasting, Qui satur est plena 
laudat jejunia ventre ; " Doth the wild ass bray when he 
hath grass, or loweth the ox when he hath fodder ? " Job. vi. 5, 

^ Noa in paupertate, sed in paupere (Senec.)) non re, sed opinione labores. 


lifezD. 3.] Remedies against Discontents, 289 

^Neqtie enim populo Romano quidquam potest esse hstiw, 
no man living so jocund, so merrj as the people of Borne 
when they had plenty ;  but when they came to want, to be 
hunger-starved, '^ neither shame, nior laws, nor arms, nor 
magistrates, could keep them in obedience." Seneca pleadeth 
hard for poverty, and so did those lazy philosophers ; but in 
the mean time * he was rich, they had wherewithal to main- 
tain themselves; but doth any poor man extol it? There 
" are those (saith * Bernard), that approve of a mean estate, 
but on that condition they never want themselves ; and some 
again are meek so long as they may say or do what they 
list; but if occasion be offered, how far are they from all 
patience ? " I would to God (as he said), * '* No man should 
commend poverty, but he that is poor," or he that so much 
admires it, would relieve, help, or ease others. 

6 " Nunc 81 DOS audis, atque es divinus Apollo, 
Die mihi, qui nummos non habet, ande petat; " 

" Now if thou hear'st us, and art a good man, 
Tell him that wants, to get means, if you can." 

But no man hears us, we are most miserably dejected, the 
scum of the world. * Vix hahet in nobis jam nova plaga 
locum. We can get no relief, no comfort, no succour, '^Et 
nihil inoeni quod mihi ferret opem. We have tried all 
means, yet find no remedy ; no man living can express the 
anguish and bitterness of our souls, but we that endure it ; 
we are distressed, forsaken, in torture of body and mind, in 
another hell ; and what shall we do ? .When ® Crassus the 
Roman consul warred against the Parthians, after an unlucky 
battle fought, he fied away in the night, and left four thousand 
men, sore, sick, and wounded in his tents, to the fury of the 
enemy, which when the poor men perceived, clamorihus et 

I Vopiwus, Aureliano, sed si populug et alii mites, quamdiu dicitur et agitur 

famelicua inediSL laboret, nee anna, leges, ad eorum arbitrium, &c. * Nemo 

pudor, magistiatus, coercere valent. paupertatem commendaret nisi pauper, 

ii One of the richest men in Rome. & PetroDius, Catalec. 6 Ovid. ^^ There 

* Serm. Quidam sunt qui pauperes esse is no space left on our bodies for a fresh 

volunt ita ut nihil iUis desit, sic commen- stripe." i Ovid. ^ Plutarch, vit. 

dant ut nullam patiantur inopiam; sunt Crassi. 

VOL. II. 19 

290 Cure of Melancholy, . [Part. II. sec. 3. 

tdulatihus omnia compleruni, they made lamentable moan, 
and roared downright, as loud as Homer's Mars when he 
was hurt, which the noise of 10,000 men could not drown, 
and all for fear of present death. But our estate is far more 
tragical and miserable, much more to be deplored, and far 
greater cause have we to lament; the devil and the world 
persecutes us all, good fortune hath forsaken us, we are lefl 
to the rage of beggary, cold, hunger, thirst, nastiness, sick- 
ness, irksomeness, to continue all torment, labour and pain, 
to derision, and contempt, bitter enemies all, and far worse 
than any death ; death alone we desire, death we seek, yet 
cannot have it, and what shall we do? Qiiod male Jers, 

asstiesce ; feres bene ^accustom thyself to it, and it will be 

tolerable at last. Yea, but I may not, I cannot. In me con- 
sumpsit vires fortuna nocendo, I am in the extremity of 
human adversity ; and as a shadow leaves the body when the 
sun is gone, I am now left and lost, and quite forsaken of 
the world. Qui jacet in terra, non habet unde cadat ; com- 
fort thyself with this yet, thou art at the worst, and before it 
be long it will either overcome thee or thou it. If it be 
violent, it cannot endure, aut solvetur, avJt solvet ; let the devil 
himself and all the plagues of Egypt come upon thee at once, 
Ne tu cede malis, sed contra audentior ito, be of good courage ; 
misery is virtue's whetstone. 

1 " Serpens, sitis, ardor, arenas, 
Dulcia virtu ti," 

as Cato told his soldiers marching in the deserts of Lybia, 
"Thirst, heat, sands, serpents, were pleasant to a valiant 
man ; " honourable enterprises are accompanied with dangers 
and damages, as experience evinceth; they will make the 
rest of thy life relish the better. But put case they con- 
tinue ; thou art not so poor as thou wast bom, and as some 
hold, much better to be pitied than envied. But be it so thou 
hast lost all, poor thou art, dejected, in pain of body, grief of 
mind, thine enemies insult over thee, thou art as bad as Job ; 

1 Lucan. lib. 9. 

Mem. 8.] Remedies against JDiscontenU. 291 

yet tell me (saith Chrysostom), " was Job or the devil the 
greater conqueror ? surely )oh ; the * devil had his goods, he 
sat on the muckhill and kept his good name ; he lost his chil- 
dren, health, friends, but he kept his innocency ; he lost his 
money, but he kept his confidence in Grod, which was better 
than any treasure." Do thou then as Job did, triumph as Job 
did, * and be not molested as every fool is. Sed qua rationepo- 
tero f How shall this be done ? Chrysostom answers, facile si 
ccdum cogitaveris, with great facility, if thou shalt but medi- 
tate on heaven. * Hannah wept sore, and troubled in mind, 
could not eat ; " but why weepest thou," said Elkanah her hus- 
band, " and why eatest thou not ? why is thine heart troubled ? 
am not I better to thee than ten sons ? " and she was quiet. 
Thou art here * vexed in this world; but say to thyself, 
" Why art thou troubled, O my soul ?" Is not Grod better to 
thee than all temporalities, and momentary pleasures of the 
world ? be then pacified. And thou beest now peradventure 
in extreme want, * it may be *tis for thy further good, to try 
thy patience, as it did Job's, and exercise thee in this life ; 
trust in God, and rely upon him, and thou shalt be * crowned 
in the end. What's this life to eternity ? The world hath 
forsaken thee, thy friends and fortunes all are gone; yet 
know this, that the very hairs of thine head are numbered, 
that God is a spectator of all thy miseries, he sees thy 
wrongs, woes, and wants. ^ " 'Tis his good-will and pleasure 
it should be so, and he knows better what is for thy good 
than thou thyself. His providence is over all, at all times ; 
he hath set a guard of angels over us, and keeps us as the 
apple of his eye," Ps. xvii. 8. Some he doth exalt, prefer, 
bless with worldly riches, honours, offices, and preferments, 
as so many glistening stars he makes to shine above the rest ; 

^An qunm super flmo sedit Job, an temptations." s AfEUctio dat intellec- 

cnm omnia abstalit diabolos, &c., peca- turn; quos Deos diligit, castigat. Deus 

nils privatos fidadam deo habuit, omni optimum quemque aut mala yaletudine 

thesauTO preciosiorem. < Haec Tidentes aut luctn afflcit. Seneca. < Quam 

sponte philosophemini, neo insipientum sordet mihi terra quum coelum intueor. 

Mbctibus agitemur. > 1 Sam. i. 8. 7 genec. de providentla, cap. 2. Diis ita 

^ James i. 2. " My brethren, count it an visum, dii melius ndruntquid sit in com- 

czceeding joy, when you &11 into divers modum meum. 

T-i . r_ ."-'ill I ■«— I I --- --1  »■ 

292 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

some he doth miraculously protect from thieves, incursioas, 
sword, fire, and all violent mischsgices, and as the ^ poet feigns 
of that Lycian Pandarus, Lycaon's son, when he shot at 
Menelaus the Grecian with a strong arm and deadly arrow, 
Pallas, as a good mother keeps flies from her child's face 
asleep, turned hy the shaft, and made it hit on the buckle of 
his girdle : so some he solicitously defends, others he exposeth 
to danger, poverty, sickness, want, misery, he chastiseth and 
corrects, as to him seems best, in his deep, unsearchable and 
secret judgment, and all for our good. " The tyrant took thfe 
city (saith ^ Chrysostom), God did not hinder it; led them 
away captives, so God would have it ; he bound them, God 
yielded to it ; flung them into the furnace, God permitted it ; 
heat the oven hotter, it was granted ; and when the tyrant 
had done his worst, Gk)d showed his power, and the children's 
patience ; he freed them ; " so can he thee, and can * help in 
an instant, when it seems to him good. ^ '^ Rejoice not 
against me, O my enemy ; for though I fall, I shall rise ; 
when I sit in darkness, the Lord shall lighten me." Remem- 
ber all those martyrs what they have endured, the utmost 
that human rage and fury could invent, with what * patience 
they have borne, with what willingness embraced it " Though 
he kill me," saith Job, " I will trust in him." Justus ' inex- 
pugndbilisy as Chrysostom holds, a just man is impregnable, 
and not to be overcome. The gout may hurt his hands, 
lameness his feet, convulsions may torture his joints, but not 
rectam mentem, his soul is free. 

■^ " nempe, pecus, rem, 
Lectos, argentum tollas licet; in manicis, et 
Compedibus ssevo teneas custode." 

" Perhaps you mean 
My cattle, money, movables, or land ; 

1 Horn. niad. 4. ^ Horn. 9. Volnit immersabilis sum sicut anber super ma- 
urbem tyrannus evertere, et Deus non ris septum. Lipsins. < ffic ure, bio 
prohibuit; voluit captivos ducere, non seca. xxt in setemum parcas, Austin, 
impediyit ; voluit ligare, concessit, &c. Diis fruitur iratis, superat et crescit ma- 
3 Psal. cxiii. De terra inoppm, de ster- lis. Mutium ignis, Fabricium pauper- 
core erigit pauperem. * Micah yii. 8. tas, Regulum tormenta, Sociatem rene- 
^ Preme, preme, ego cum Pindaro, num superare non potuit. 7 Hor. 
dlSdnnoTOC slfil, wj 0eyUdf vn' aXfjigi, epist. 16, lib. 1. 

Mem. 3.] Remedies against Discontents. 293 

Then take them aU. But, slave, if I command, 
A cruel jailer shall thy freedom seize." 

* " Take away his money, his treasure is in heaven ; banish 
him his country, he is an inhabitant of that heavenly Jerusa- 
lem ; cast him into bands, his conscience is free ; kill his body, 
it shall rise again ; he fights with a shadow that contends with 
an upright man ; " he will not be moved. 

'^ si fractns illabatur orbis, 
Impavidmn ferient ruinsB. 

Though heaven itself should fall on his head, he will not be 
offended. He is impenetrable, as an anvil hard, as constant 

as Job. 

2 "Ipse dens simul atque volet me solvet, opinor." 

** A god shall set me free whene'er I please." 

Be thou such a one ; let thy misery be what it will, what it 
can, with patience endure it ; thou mayest be restored as he 
was. Terris proscriptuSy ad cesium propera; ah hominihus 
desertits, ad Deumfuge, " The poor shall not always be for- 
gotten, the patient abiding of the meek shall not perish for 
ever," Psal. ix. 18 ; ver. 9, " The Lord will be a refuge of 
the oppressed, and a defence in the time of trouble." 

" Servus Epictetus mutilati corporis, Irus 
Pauper: at hsec inter charus erat superis." 

" Lame was Epictetus, and poor Irus, 
Yet to them both God was propitious." 

Ix)dovicus Vertomannus, that famous traveller, endured much 
misery, yet surely, saith Scaliger, he was vir deo charus, in 
that he did escape so many dangers, " God especially pro- 
tected him, he was dear unto him; " Modo in egestate, trihu- 
latione, convaUe deploratianis, &c "Thou art now in the 
vale of misery, in poverty, in agony, 'in temptation; rest, 

I Horn. 5. Auferetpecunias? athabet flciet; at iterum resurget; cum umbra 

in coelis : patrii dejiciet, at in coelestem pugtiat qui cum justo pugnat. > Leon- 

ciyitatem mittet : vinoula injiciet? at ha- ides. ^ Modo in pressnra, in tenta- 

bet solutam consdentiam : corpus inter- tionibus, erit postea bonum tuum re- 

294 CuTB of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

eternity, happiness, immortality, shall be thy reward,** as 
Chrysostom pleads, " If thou trust in Grod, and keep thine 
iimocency." Noriy si male nunc et oliniy $ic erit semper ; a 
good hour may come upon a sudden ; ^ expect a little. 

Yea, but this expectation is it which tortures me in the 
mean time ; ^fvJtura expectans prtEsentibus angor, whilst the 
grass grows the horse starves ; * despair not, but hope well, 

^" Spera, Batte, tibi melioA lux Crastina ducet: 
Dum spiras spera" 

Cheer up, I say, be not dismayed ; Spes aUt agricoku ; ^ he 
that sows in tears, shall reap in joy," Psal. cxxvi, 5. 

*' Si fortune me tormente, 
Esperance me contente.*' 

Hope refresheth, as much as misery depresseth ; hard be- 
ginnings have many times prosperous events, and that may 
happen at last which never was yet "A desire accom- 
plished delights the soul," Prov. xiii. 19. 

* " Grata superveniet quas non sperabitur hora: "• 

" Which makes m' enjoy my joys long wished at last, 
Welcome that hour shall come when hope is past: ** 

a lowering morning may turn to a fair afternoon, • Ni^ solet 
pulsd candidus ire dies. " The hope that is deferred, is 
the fainting of the heai*t, but when the desire cometh, it is a 
tree of life," Prov. xiii. 12, "^ stuxvisstmum est voii compos 
fieri. Many men are both wretched and miserable at first, 
but aft;erwards most happy ; and oftentimes it so falls out, as 
® Machiavel relates of Cosmo de' Medici, that fortunate and 
renowned citizen of Europe, " that all his youth was full of 
perplexity, danger, and misery, till forty years were past, 

quies, seternitas, immortalitas. i Dabit ^ Thales. ^ tab 7, Flor. hist. Omni- 

Deus his quoque flnem. < Seneca, um felicissimus, et locupletlsslmus, &c., 

8 Nemo desperet meliora lapsus. i The- incarceratus ssepe adoloscentiam pericu- 

ocrltus. " Hope on, Battus, to-morrow lo mortis habalt, solicitndinis et disciim- 

may bring better luck; while there's life inis plenam, &c. 
there's hope." » Ovid. » Ovid. 

Mem. 8.] Remedies against Discontents, 295 

and then upon a sudden the sun of his honour broke out as 
through a cloud." Hunniades was fetched out of prison, and 
Henry the Third of Portugal out of a poor monastery, to be 
crowned kings. 

" Multa cadant inter calicem supremaque labra," 
** Many things happen between the cup and the lip," 

beyond all hope and expectation many things fall out, and 
who knows what may happen? Nondum omnium dierum 
Soles ocdderunt, as Fhilippus said, all the suns are not yet 
set, a day may come to make amends for all. " Though my 
father and mother forsake me, yet the Lord will gather me 
up," Psal. xxvii. 10. "Wait patiently on the Lord, and 
hope in him," PsaL xxxvii. 7. " Be strong, hope and trust 
in the Lord, and he will comfort thee, and give thee thine 
heart's desire," Psal. xxvii. 14. 

*' Sperate et Toemet rebus servate secundis." 
" Hope, and reserve yourself for prosperity.** 

Fret not thyself because thou art poor, contemned, or not so 
well for the present as thou wouldest be, not respected as 
thou oughtest to be, by birth, place, worth; or that which 
is a double corrosive, thou hast been happy, honourable, and 
rich, art now distressed and poor, a scorn of men, a burden 
to the world, irksome to thyself and others, thou hast lost 
all: Miserum est fuisse felicem, and as Boethius calls it, 
Infelicissimum genus infortunii ; this made Timon half mad 
with melancholy, to think of his former fortunes and present 
misfortunes ; this alone makes many miserable wretches dis- 
content. I confess it is a great misery to have been happy, 
the quintessence of infelicity, to have been honourable and 
rich, but yet easily to be endured ; * security succeeds, and 
to a judicious man a far better estate. The loss of thy 
goods and money is no loss ; ^ " thou hast lost them, they 

1 Lsetior successit secnrltas quae simul < Pecunitun perdidisti, fortassis ilia te 
cum diyitiis cohabitare nescit. Camden, perderet manens. Seneca. 

296 dure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 3. 

would otherwise have lost thee." If thj money be gone, 
* " thou art so much the lighter," and as Saint Hierome per- 
suades Rusticus the monk, to forsake all and follow Christ: 
" Gold and silver are too heavy metals for him to carry that 
seeks heaven." 

8 " Vel DOS in mare proximum, 
Gemmas et lapides, anrum et inutile, 

Summi materiam mali 
Mittamus, scelerum si bene poenitet." 

Zeno the philosopher lost all his goods by shipwreck, 'he 
might like of it, fortune had done him a good turn : Opes a 
me, ammufn auferre non potest : she can take away my 
means, but not my mind. He set her at defiance ever after, 
for she could not rob him that had nought to lose ; for he 
was able to contemn more than they could possess or desire. 
Alexander sent a hundred talents of gold to Phocion of 
Athens for a present, because he heard he was a good man ; 
but Phocion returned his talents back again with a permttte 
me in posterum virum honum esse to be a good man still ; let 

me be as I am : Non mi aurum posco, nee mi pretium * 

That Theban Crates flung of his own accord his money 
into the sea, abite^ nummiy ego vos m^rgam ne mergar a vohis, 
I had rather drown you, than you should drown me. Can 
stoics and epicures thus contemn wealth, and shall not we 
that are Christians? It was mascula vox et praclara, a 


generous speech of Cotta in * Sallust, " Many miseries have 
happened unto me at home, and in the wars abroad, of which 
by the help of God some I have endured, some I have re- 
pelled, and by mine own valour overcome ; courage was never 
wanting to my designs, nor industry to my intents ; pros- 
perity nor adversity could never alter my disposition." " A 

1 Expeditior es ob pecnniarum jacta- riches, nor that a price shonM he set 

ram. Fortuna opes auferre, non animam upon me." ^ In frag. Quirkes, mul- 

potest. Seneca. > Hor. " Let us cast ta mihi pericula domi, militiw multa ad- 

our Jewels and gems, and useless versa fueie, quorum alia toleravi, alia 

gold, the cause of all rice, into the sea, deorum auxiUo repuli et rirtute mea; 

since we truly repent of our sins." nunquam animus negotio defait, nee de- 

s Jubet me posthac Ibrtuna expeditius cretis labor ; nullse res nee prospero nee 

Philosophari. ^ " I do not desire adversss ingenium mutabaat. 


Mem. 3.] Remedies against Discontents. 297 

wise man's mind," as Seneca holds, ^ " is like the state of the 
world above the moon, ever serene." Come then what can 
come, befall what may befall, infractum invictumque ^ anirnvm 
opponas: Rebus angustis animosus aiquefortis appare. {Hor, 
OcL 11, lib, 2.) Hope and patience are two sovereign 
remedies for all, the surest reposals, the softest cushions to 
lean on in adversity : 

8 *t Durnm, sed levins fit patientiE, 
Quicquid corrigere est nefas." 

** What can't be cured must be endured." 

If it cannot be helped, or amended, ^ make the best of it ; 
^necessitati qui se accommodate sapii, he is wise that suits 
himself to the time. As at a game at tables, so do by all 
such inevitable accidents. < 

> '* Ita vita est hominnm, quasi cum ludas tesseris, 
Si iilud quod est maxime opus jactu non cadit, 
lUud quod cecidit fort^, id arte ut corrigas; " 

If thou canst not fling what thou wouldst, play thy cast as 
well as thou canst Everything, saith "^ Epictetus, hath two 
handles, the one to be held by, the other not ; 'tis in our 
choice to take and leave whether we will (all which Simpli- 
cius's commentator hath illustrated by many examples), and 
'tis in our power, as they say, to make or mar ourselves. 
Conform thyself then to thy present fortune, and cut thy 
ooat according to thy cloth, ^ Ut quimus (quod aiunt) quando 
quod volumtts non Ucety ^^ Be contented with thy loss, state, 
and calling, whatsoever it is, and rest as well satisfied with 
thy present condition in this life." 

'* Esto quod es ; quod sunt alii, sine quemlibet esse ; 
Quod non es, nolis; quod potes esse, velis." 

1 Qualis mtmdi status snpn lunam, lib* 2, Od. 8. ^ Epict. c. 18. * Ter. 

Mmper sereaus. ^ Bona mens nullum Adelph.act. 4, sc. 7. ^ UnaqusBque res 

trifltioris fortunsB recipit incunum, Val. duas habet ansas, alteram quae teneri, 

Ub. 4, c. 1. Qui nil potest sperare, des- alteram qute non potest ; in manu nostra 

peret nihil. * Hor. * ^uam me- quam yolumus accipere. ^ Ter. And. 

mento rebus in ardois serrare mentem. Act. 4, sc. 6. 

298 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 3. 

" Be as thou art; and as they are, so let 
Others be still; what is and may be covet." 

And as he that is ^ invited to a feast eats what is set before 
him, and looks for no other, enjoy that thou hast, and ask 
no more of Grod than what he thinks fit to bestow upon thee. 
Non cuivis contingit adire Cortnthum, we may not be all 
gentlemen, all Catos, or Lselii, as TuUy telleth us, all hon- 
ourable, illustrious, and serene, all rich ; but because mortal 
men want many things, ^ " therefore," saith Theodoret, " hath 
God diversely distributed his gifts, wealth to one, skill to 
another, that rich men might encourage and set poor men at 
work, poor men might learn several trades to the common 
good.** As a piece of arras is composed of several parcels, 
some wrought of silk, some of gold, silver, crewel of divers 
colours, all to serve for the exoneration of the whole ; music 
is made of divers discords and keys, a total sum of many 
small numbers, so is a commonwealth of several unequal 
trades and callings. 'If all should be Croesi and Darii, all 
idle, all in fortunes equal, who should till the land? As 
^Menenius Agrippa well satisfied the tumultuous rout of 
Rome, in his elegant apologue of the beUy and the rest of 
the members. Who should build houses, make our several 
stuffs for raiments ? We should all be starved for company, 
as Poverty declared at large in Aristophanes's Plutus, and 
sue at last to be as we were at fii*st And therefore Grod 
hath appointed this inequality of states, orders, and degrees, 
a subordination, as in all other things. The earth yields 
nourishment to vegetables, sensible creatures feed on vege- 
tables, both are substitutes to reasonable souls, and men are 
subject amongst themselves, and all to higher powers, so Grod 
would have it. All things then being rightly examined and 
duly considered as they ought, there is no such cauaje of so 

1 Bpictetus. Invitatus ad eonTiyium, materiam snbministTent ; qui yero in- 

quBd apponnntur comedis, non quseris opes, exorcitatas artibuB manus admo- 

ultra; in mundo multa ro^tas qu89 dii yeant. s gi gint omnes equates, neoesse 

n^ant. 3 Cap. 6, de proyldentia. est ut omnes fame pereant; quis aratro 

Mortales cum sint rerum omnium indi- terram sulcaret, quis sementem fecerefc, 

gi, ideo dens aliis diyitias, aliis pauper- quis plantas sereret, quis yinum ezpiim- 

tatem distriboit, ut qui opibus poUent, eret? * Liy. lib. 1. 

Mem. 3.] Remedies against JDiscontents. 299 

general discontent, 'tis not in the matter itself, but in our 
mind, as we moderate our passions and esteem of things. 
Nihil alivd necessarium ut sis miser (saith ^ Cardan), qtmm 
vJt te miserum credos, let thy fortune be what it will, 'tis thy 
mind alone that makes thee poor or rich, miserable dr happy. 
Vidi ego (saith. divine Seneca), in villd hilari et amcend 
jnoestos, et media soUtvdine occupatos ; non locus sed animits 
Jlacit ad iranquiUitatem. I have seen men miserably de- 
jected in a pleasant village, and some again well occupied 
and at good ease in a solitary desert* 'Tis the mind not the 
place that causeth tranquillitj, and that gives true content. 
I will yet add a word or two for a corollary. Many rich 
men, I dare boldly say it, that lie on down beds, with deli- 
cacies pampered every day, in their well-furnished h<Juses, 
live at less heart's-ease, with more anguish, more bodily 
pain, and through their intemperance, more bitter hours, 
than many a prisoner or galley-slave : ^ Mcecenas in plumd 
ceque vigilat ac Regvlas in dolio : those poor starved Hol- 
landers, whom ^ Bartison their captain left in Nova Zembla, 
anno 1596, or those ^ eight miserable Englishmen that were 
lately left behind, to winter in a stove in Greenland, in 77 
deg. of lat. 1630, so pitifully forsaken, and forced to shift for 
themselves in a vast, dark, and desert place, to strive and 
struggle with hunger, cold, desperation, and death itself. 
'Tis a patient and quiet mind (I say it again and again), 
gives true peace and content. So for all othei; things, they 
are, as old ^ Chremes told us, as we use them. 

^* Parentes, patriam, amicos, genns, cognatos, divitias, 
Hsec perinde sunt ac illius animus qui ea possidet ; 
Qui uti scit, ei bona; qui utitur non recte, mala/* 

" Parents, fi-iends, fortunes, country, birth, alliance, &c., ebb 
and flow with our conceit ; please or displease, as we accept 
and construe them, or apply them to ourselves." Faher quis- 
qtie fortunce sua, and in some sort I may truly say, prosper- 

1 Lib. 8, de cons. > Seneca. > Vide book, edit. 1630. & Heantontim. Act 
Isaacum Pontanum, descript. Amster- 1, sc. 2. 
dam. lib 2, c. 22. « Vide £d. Pelham's 

300 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 3. 

ity and adversity are in our own hands. Nemo keditur nisi 
a seipso, and which Seneca confirms out of his judgment and 
experience. ^ " Every man's mind is stronger than fortune, 
and leads him to what side he will ; a cause to himself each 
one is of his good or bad life." But will we, or nill we, 
make the worst of it, and suppose a man in the greatest ex- 
tremity, 'tis a fortune which some indefinitely prefer before 
prosperity ; of two extremes it is the best Luxuriant animi 
rebus plet'umque secundis, men in ^ prosperity forget Grod and 
themselves, they are besotted with their wealth, as birds with 
henbane ; * miserable if fortune forsake them, but more miser- 
able if she tarry and overwhelm them ; for when they come 
to be in great place, rich, they that were most temperate, 
sober, and discreet in their private fortunes, as Nero, Otho, 
Vitellius, Heliogabalus (optimi imperatores nisi imper assent), 
degenerate on a sudden into brute beasts, so prodigious in 
lust, such tyrannical oppressors, &c, they cannot moderate 
themselves, they become monsters, odious, harpies, what not ? 
Oum triumpkos, opes, honores adepti sunt, ad voluptaiem et 
otium deinceps se convertunt : 'twas * Cato's note, " they can- 
not contain." For that cause belike, 

5 " Eutrapelus cuicunque nocere volebat, 

Vestimenta dabat pretiosa; beatus enim jam, 
Cum pulchris tunicis sumet nova consilia et spes, 
Dormiet in lucem scorto, postponet honestnm 

" Eutrapelus when he would hurt a knave, 
Gave him gay clothes and wealth to make him brave : 
Because now rich he would quite change his mind, 
Keep whores, fly out, set honesty behind.** 

On the other side, in adversity many mutter and repine, de- 
spair, &c., both bad, I confess. 

* " ut calceus olim 
Si pede major erit. subvertet: si minor, luret.*' 

1 Eplst. 98. Omni fortuna yalentior * Seneca, de beat. Tit. cap. 14, miseri si 

ipse animus, in utramque partem res deserantar ab ea, miseriores si obman- 

suas ducit, beataeque ae miserse -vitsQ tnr. * Plutarch, vit. ejus. 6 Hor. 

sibi causa est. ^ Fortnna quem nimi- epist. lib. 1, ep. 18. * Hor. 
van. Ibret stultum fiicit. Pub. Mimus. 

Mem. 4.] Remedies against Discontents 301 

** As a shoe too big or too little, one pincheth, the other seta 
the foot awry," sed e malis minimum. If adversity hath 
killed his thousand, prosperity hath killed his ten thousand ; 
therefore adversity is to be preferred; ^hcec frceno indiget, 
iXla sohiio : ilia fdUit, hcec instruit ; the one deceives, the 
other instructs ; the one miserably happy, the other happily 
miserable ; and therefore many philosophers have voluntarily 
sought adversity, and so much commend it in their precepts. 
Demetrius, in Seneca, esteemed it a great infelicity, that in 
his lifetime he had no misfortune, miserum cui nihil unquam 
accidisset adversi. Adversity then is not so heavily to be 
taken, and we* ought not in such cases so much to macerate 
ourselves ; there is no such odds in poverty and riches. To 
conclude in ^ Hierom's words, " I will ask our magnificos that 
build with marble, and bestow a whole manor on a thread, 
what difference between them and Paul the Eremite, that 
bare old man ? They drink in jewels, he in his hand ; he is 
poor and goes to heaven, they are rich and go to hell.*' 


Against Servitude^ Loss of Liberty^ Imprisonment, Banish' 


Servitude, loss of liberty, imprisonment, are no such 
miseries as they are held to be ; we are slaves and servants 
the best of us all ; as we do reverence our masters, so do 
our masters their superiors; gentlemen serve nobles, and 
nobles subordinate to kings, omne sub regno graviore regnum, 
princes themselves are God's servants, reges in ipsos imperium 
est Jovis. They are' subject to their own laws, and as the 
kings of China endure more than slavish imprisonment, to 

1 Boeth. 2. 2 Epist. lib. 3. yit. Panl. modo quid nnquam defait? yos gemmft 

Eremit. Libet eo8 nunc interrogare qui bibitis, ille concavis nianibus naturae 

domus mannoribus yestiunt, qui uno satisfecit; ille pauper paradisum capit, 

filo yiUarum ponunt precia, hu}c seni yos ayaros gehenna suBcipiet. 

302 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 8. 

maintain their state and greatness, they never come abroad. 
Alexander was a slave to fear, Cassar of pride, Vespasian to 
his money (nihil enim refert rerum sis servus an hominum *), 
Heliogabalus to his gut, and so of the rest Lovers are 
slaves to their mistresses, rich men to their gold, courtiers 
generally to lust and ambition, and all slaves to our affections^ 
as Evangelus well disoourseth in ^ Macrobius, and ' Seneca 
the philosopher, assiduam servitutem extremam et ineluctab- 
item he calls it, a continual slavery, to be so captivated by 
vices ; and who is free ? Why then dost thou repine ? Satis 
est potefiSf Hierom saith, qui servire non cogitur. Thou ear- 
nest no burdens, thou art no prisoner, no drdttge, and thou- 
sands want that liberty, those pleasures which thou hast. 
Thou art not sick, and what wouldst thou have ? But nitimur 
in vetitum, we must all eat of the forbidden fruit Were we 
enjoined to go to such and such places, we would not will- 
ingly go ; but being barred of our liberty, this alone torments 
our wandering soul that we may not go. A citizen of ours, 
saith * Cardan, was sixty years of age, and had never been 
forth of the walls of the city of Milan ; the prince hearing 
of it, commanded him not to stir out ; being now forbidden 
that which all his life he had neglected, he earnestly desired, 
and being denied, dolore confectus mortem obiit, he died for 

What I have said of servitude, I again say of imprison- 
ment, we are all prisoners. ^ What is our life but a prison ? 
We are all imprisoned in an island. The world itself to 
some men is a prison, our narrow seas as so many ditches, 
and when they have compassed the globe of the earth, they 
would fain go see what is done in the moon. In * Muscovy, 
and many other northern parts, all over Scandia, they are 
imprisoned half the year in stoves, they dare not peep out for 
cold. At ^ Aden in Arabia, they are penned in all day long 

1 " It matters little whether we are en- 8. * Conaol. 1. 6. ^ generoee, 

slaved bj men or things ." s Satar. 1. quid est Tita nisi career animi ! * Her- 

It. Alius libidini serrit, alius ambitionif berstein. 7 Vertomannus, nayig. I. 2. 

omnes spei, omnes timori. ' Nat. lib. c. 4. Commercia in nundinis noctu hori 

^lem. 4.] Remedies against JDiscontents. 303 

'with that other extreme of heat, and keep their markets in 
the night What is a ship hut a pnson ? And so many cities 
are bat as so many hives of bees, ant-hills ; but that which 
thou abhorrest, many seek : women keep in all winter, and 
most part of summer, to preserve their beauties ; some for 
love of study ; Demosthenes shaved his beard because he 
would cut off all occasions from going abroad; how many 
monks and friars, anchorites, abandon the world ! Monachus 
in urbe, piscis in arido. Art in prison ? Make right use of 
it, and mortify thyself; ^" Where may a man contemplate 
better than in solitariness," or study more than in quietness ? 
Many worthy men have been imprisoned all their lives, and 
it hath been occasion of great honour and glory to them, 
much public good by their excellent meditation. ^ Ptolemeus, 
king of Egypt, cum virihus attentiatis infirma valetudine lab- 
oraret, miro discendi studio affectus^ &c., now being taken 
with a grievous infirmity of body that he could not stir 
abroad, became Strato's scholar, fell hard to his book, and 
gave himself wholly to contemplation, and upon that occasion 
(as mine author adds), pvlcherrimum regice opvlentice monu- 
mentum^ &c., to his great honour built that renowned library 
at Alexandria, wherein were 400,000 volumes. Severinus 
Boethius never writ so elegantly as in prison, Paul so de- 
voutly, for most of his epistles were dictated in his bands ; 
** Joseph," saith 'Austin, "got more credit in prison, than 
when he distributed com, and was lord of Pharoah's house." 
It brings many a lewd riotous fellow home, many wandering 
rogues it settles, that would otherwise have been like raving 
tigers, ruined themselves and others. 

Banishment is no grievance at all, Omne solum forti patrid, 
&C., et pairia est ubicunque bene est, that's a man's country 
where he is well at ease. Many travel for pleasure to that 
city, saith Seneca, to which thou art banished, and what a 

secnndA, ob nimios qni Bseyiunt interdiu Alex. gen. dier. lib. 1, cap. 2. > In Ps. 

aestus, exercent. i Ubi yerior contem- Izxvi. non Ita laudatur Joseph cum fini- 

platio quam in solitudine? ubi stadium menta distribueret, ao quum carcerem 

solidius quam in quiete ? s Alex, ab habitaret. 

304 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

part of the citizens are strangers born in other places ! ^ In- 
colentihtis patria, 'tis their country that are bom in it, and 
they would think themselves banished to go to the place 
which thou leavest, and from which thou art so loath to depart. 
'Tis no disparagement to be a stranger, or so irksome to be 
an exile. * " The rain is a stranger to the earth, rivers to 
the sea, Jupiter in Egypt, the sun to us all. The soul is an 
alien to the body, a nightingale to the air, a swallow in a 
house, and Ganymede in heaven, an elephant at Rome, a 
phoenix in India ; " and such things commonly please us best, 
which are most strange and come the farthest off. Those old 
Hebrews esteemed the whole world Gentiles ; the Greeks 
held all barbarians but themselves ; our modem Italians ac- 
count of us as dull Transalpines by way of reproach, they 
scorn thee and thy country which thou so much admirest 
'Tis a childish humour to hone after home, to be discontent 
at that which others seek ; to prefer, as base islanders and 
Norwegians do, their own ragged island before Italy or 
Greece, the gardens of the world. There is a base nation 
in the north, saith • Pliny, called Chauci, that live amongst 
rocks and sands by the seaside, feed on fish, drink water ; and 
yet these base people account themselves slaves in respect, 
when they come to Rome. Ita est profecto (as he concludes), 
muUisfortuna parcit in pcsnam, so it is, fortune favours some 
to live at home, to their further punishment; 'tis want' of 
judgment All places are distant from heaven alike, the sun 
shines happily as warm in one city as in another, and to a 
wise man there is no difference of climes ; friends are every- 
where to him that behaves himself well, and a prophet is not 
esteemed in his own country. Alexander, Caesar, Trajan, 
Adrian, were as so many land-leapers, now in the east, now 
in the west, little at home, and Polus Venetus, Lod. Verto- 
mannus, Pinzonus, Cadamustus, Columbus, Americus Ves- 

1 Boethius. sPhilo8tratu8,indeliciis. ia in a^re, hlnindo in domo, Gkuiy- 

Peregrini sunt imbres in terra et fluvii medes coelo, &o. » Lib. 16, cap. 1 

in mari, Jupiter apud JEgyptos, sol apud Nullam frugem habent, potus ex imbre : 

omnes ; hoepes anima in corpore, luscin- Et lise gentes si rincantur, &o. 

Mem. 5.J Remedies against Discontents, 305 

pucius, Vascus Gama, Drake, Candish, Oliver Anort, Schou- 
tien, got all their honour by voluntary expeditions. But you 
say such men's travel is voluntary ; we are compelled, and 
as malefactors must depart ; yet know this of ^ Plato to be 
true, uUori Deo surhma cura peregrinus est, God hath an 
especial care of strangers, " and when he wants friends and 
allies, he shall deserve better and find more favour with God 
and men." Besides the pleasure of peregrination, variety of 
objects will make amends ; and so many nobles, Tully, Aris- 
tides, Themistocles, Theseus, Codrus, &c., as have been ban- 
ished, will give sufficient credit unto it. Read Pet. Alcio- 
nius his two books of this subject 


Against Sorrow for Death of Friends or otherwise, vain 

Fear, S^c, 

Death and departure of friends are things generally griev- 
ous, ^Omnium quce in humand vita contingunt, luctus atque 
mors sunt acerbissima, the most austere and bitter accidents 
that can happen to a man in this life, in cetemum valedicere, 
to part forever, to forsake the world and all our friends, *tis 
uUimum terribilium, the last and the greatest terror, most 
ii'ksome and troublesome unto us, ^Homo toties moritur, 
quoties amittit suos. And though we hope for a better life, 
eternal happiness, after these painful and miserable days, yet 
we cannot compose ourselves willingly to die; the remem- 
brance of it is most grievous unto us, especially to such who 
are fortunate and rich ; they start at the name of death, as a 
horse at a rotten post. Say what you can of that other 
world, * Montezuma that Indian prince, Bonum est esse hie, 
they had rather be here. Nay, many generous spirits, and 

1 Lib. 5, de l^bus. Cumque cognatis ^ Cardan, de coosol. lib. 2. ' Seneca, 

careat et amicis, majorem apad deos et ^ Benzo. 
apad homines misericordiam meretiir. 

VOL. II. 20 

306 Cure of Mdancholy. [Part. II. sec. 3. 

grave staid men otherwise, are so tender in this, that at the 
loss of a dear friend they will cry out, roar, and tear their 
hair, lamenting some months after, howling "O Hone," as 
those Irish women and ^ Greeks at their graves, commit manj 
indecent actions, and almost go beside themselves. My dear 
father, my sweet husband, mine only brother's dead, to whom 
shall I make my moan? me miserum! Quia dahit in 
lachrymas forUem, &c What shall I do ? 

3 *^ Sed totum hoc stadium lactu fraterna mihi mors 
Abstulit, hei misero frater adempte mihi ! " 

" My brother's death my study hath undone, 
Woe* 8 me, alas, my brother he is gone ! " 


Mezentius would not live after his son : 

8 ^* Nunc vivo, nee adhuc homines lucemque relinquo, 
Sed linquam " 

And Pompey*s wife cried out at the news of her husband's 


* " Turpe mori post te solo non posse dolore^ 
Violenta luctu et nescia tolerandi/' 

as *^ Tacitus ofAgrippina, not able to moderate her passions. 
So Trhen she heard her son was slain, she abruptly broke off 
her work, changed countenance and colour, tore her hair, and 
fell a roaring downright 

" subitns miserse color ossa reliquit, 
Excussi manibus radii, revolutaque pensa : 
Evolat infelix et foemineo ululatu 
Scissa comam " ^ 

Another would needs run upon the sword's point after Eury- 
alus's departure, 

1 Summo mane tilulatum oriuntur, dare it, she exclaimed, ' Not to be able 

pectora percutientes, &c., miserabile to die through sorrow for thee were 

spectaculum exhibentes. Ortelins, in base.' " 6 3 Annal. « " The colour 

Graecia. 2 Catullus. « Virgil. " I suddenly fled her cheek, the distaff for- 

live now, nor as yet relinquish society and sook her hand, the reel revolved, and 

life, but I shall resign them." ^Lucan. with dishevelled locks she broke away, 

" Overcome by grief, and unable to en- wailing as a woman." 


Hem. 6.] Remedies against Discontents. 307 

1 " Figite me, siqua est pietas, in me omnia tela 

O let me die, some good man or other make an end of me. 
How did Achilles take on for Patrodus's departure I A black 
cloud of sorrows overshadowed him, saith Homer. Jacob 
rent his clothes, put sackcloth about his loins, sorrowed for 
his son a long season, and could not be comforted, but would 
needs go down into the grave unto his son, Gen. xxxvii. 37. 
Many years after, the remembrance of such friends, of such 
accidents, is most grievous unto us, to see or hear of it, though 
it concern not ourselves but others. Scaliger saith of him- 
self, that he never read Socrates's death, in Plato's Phsedon, 
but he wept ; ^ Austin shed tears when he read the destruc- 
tion of Troy. But howsoever this passion of sorrow be 
violent, bitter, and seizeth familiarly on wise, valiant, discreet 
men, yet it may surely be withstood, it may be diverted. For 
what is there in this life, that it should be so dear unto us ? 
or that we should so much deplore the departure of a friend ? 
The greatest pleasures are common society, to enjoy one 
another's presence, feasting, hawking, hunting, brooks, woods, 
hills, music, dancing, &c., all this is but vanity and loss of 
time, as I have sufficiently declared. 

* " dum bibimus, dum serta, ungaenta, pnellas 
Poscimus, obrepit non intellecta senectus." 

** Whilst we drink, prank ourselves, with wenches dally, 
014 age upon's at unawares doth sally." 

As alchemists spend that small modicum they have to get 
gold, and never find it, we lose and neglect eternity for a 
little momentary pleasure which we cannot enjoy, nor shall 
ever attain to in this life. We abhor death, pain, and grief, 
all, yet we will do nothing of that which should vindicate us 
from, but rather voluntarily thrust ourselves upon it. • " The 
lascivious prefers his whore before his life, or good estate ; an 

I Virg. Mn. 10. " Transfix me, Ru- diotam, parasitas gulam, ambitiosus 

tali, if you have any piety; pierce me honores, avarus opes, miles rapinam, far 

with your thoasuid arrows." ^ Con- pnedam; morbos odimus et accersimus. 

fees. 1. 1. * Jarenalis. ^ Amator Card. ' 
scortum vitSB pneponit, iracundas Tin- 

308 Oare of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 3. 

angry man his revenge; a parasite his gut; ambitious, 
honours ; covetous, wealth ; a thief his booty ; a soldier his 
spoil ; we abhor diseases, and yet we pull them upon us." 
We are never better or freer from cares than when we sleep, 
and yet, which we so much avoid and lament, death is but a 
perpetual sleep; and why should it, as ^Epicurus argues, so 
much affright us ? "When we are, death is not; but when 
death is, then we are not ; " our life is tedious and trouble- 
some unto him that lives best ; ^ " 'tis a misery to be bom, a 
pain to live, a trouble to die ; " death makes an end of our 
miseries, and yet we cannot consider of it; a little before 
' Socrates drank his portion of cicuta, he bid the citizens of 
Athens cheerfully farewell, and concluded his speech with 
this short sentence : " My time is now come to be gone. I to 
my death, you to live on ; but which of these is best, God 
alone knows." For there is no pleasure here but sorrow is 
annexed to it, repentance follows it. * " If I feed liberally 
I am likely sick or surfeit ; if I live sparingly, my hunger 
and thirst is not allayed ; I am well neither full nor fasting ; 
if I live honest, I bum in lust ; if I take my pleasure, I tire 
and starve myself, and do injury to my body and soul." '^ " Of 
so small a quantity of mirth, how much sorrow ! after so little 
pleasure, how great misery ! " 'Tis both ways troublesome 
to me, to rise and go to bed, to eat and provide my meat; 
c^res and contentions attend me all day long, fears and sus- 
picions all my life. I am discontented, and why should I 
desire so much to live ? But a happy death will make an 
end of all our woes and miseries ; omnibus una mets certa 
medela malis ; why shouldst not thou then say \eith old 
Simeon, since thou art so well affected, " Lord, now let thy 
servant depart in peace ; " or with Paul, " I desire to be dis- 
solved, and to be with Christ ? " Beata mors quce ad beatam 

1 Seneca ; quum nos sumus, mors noa ad satietatem, gravitas me offendit ; i>ar- 

adest ; cum yero mors adest, tum nos cius edi, non est exple^um desiderium ; 

noD sumus. ^ Bernard, c. 3, med. venereas delicias sequor, hino morbus, 

Nasci miserum, yivere poena, angustia lassitudo, &c. ^ Bern. c. 3, med De 

mori. 3 Plato, Apol. Socratis. Sed tantilla Isetitia, quanta tristitia; post 

jam hora est hinc abire, &c. * Comedi tantam yoluptatam quam gravUi misena ! 

-■ , -..I «fc. 

Mem. 5.] Remedies against Discontents, 309 

vitam aditum aperit, 'tis a blessed hour that leads us to a 
* blessed life, and blessed are they that die in the Lord. But 
life is sweet, and death is not so terrible in itself as the con- 
comitants of it, a loathsome disease, pain, horror, &c., and 
many times the manner of it, to be hanged, to be broken on 
the wheel, to be burned alive. * Servetus the heretic, that 
suffered in Greneva, when he was brought to the stake, and 
saw the executioner come with fire in his hand, homo viso 
igne tarn horrendum exclamavit, tU universum popidum per- 
terrefecerit, roared so loud, that he terrified the people. An 
old stoic would have scorned this. It troubles some to be 

unburied, or so : 

" non te optima mater 
Condet humi, patriove onerabit membra sepulchro; 
' Alitibus lingaere feris, et gurgite mersum 

Unda feret, piscesque impasti vulnera lambent." 

" Thy gentle parents shall not bury thee, 
Amongst thine ancestors entomb'd to be, 
But feral fowl thy carcass shall devour, 
Or drowned corpse hungry fish maws shall scour." 

As Socrates told Crito, it concerns me not what is done with 
me when I am dead ; Facilis jactura sepidchri ; I care not so 
long as I feel it not ; let them set mine head on the pike of 
Teneriffe, and my quarters in the four parts of the world, 
pa^cam licet in cruce corvos, let wolves or bears de- 
vour me; ^Ccelo tegitur qui non habet umam, the canopy 

of heaven covers him that hath no tomb. So likewise for 
our friends, why should their departure so much trouble us ? 
They are better, as we hope, and for what then dost thou 
lament, as those do whom Paul taxed in his time, 1 Thes. iv. 
13, "that have no hope?" 'Tis fit there should be some 

^ " Sed sepelire decet defunctum, pectore forti, 
Constantes, unumque diem fletui indulgentes." 

1 Est enhn mors plorum felix transltus Homer. " It is proper that, haying in- 

de labore ad refrigerium, de expectatione dalged in becoming grief for one whole 

ad pnemlam, de agone ad braviam. day, you should commit the dead to the 

s Vattcanus, yita cgus. >Luc. ^11.9, sepulchre." 

310 Cure of Melancholy* [Part. II. sec. 8. 

Job's friends said not a word to him the first seven days, but 

let sorrow and discontent take their course, themselves sitting 

sad and silent by him. When Jupiter himself wept for Sar- 

pedon, what else did the poet insinuate, but that some sorrow 

is good ? 

1 " Quia matrenif nisi mentis inops, in fnnere nati, 

who can blame a tender mother if she weep for her children ? 

Beside, as ^ Plutarch holds, 'tis not in our power not to lament, 

Indolentia non cuivis contingit, it takes away mercy and pity, 

not to be sad ; 'tis a natural passion to weep for our friends, 

an irresistible passion to lament and grieve. " I know not 

how (saith Seneca), but sometimes 'tis good to be miserable 

in misery ; and for the most part all grief evacuates itself by 


8 " est qusBdam flere volnptas, 
Expletnr lachrymis egeiiturque dolor: " 

" yet after a day's mourning or two, comfort thyself for thy 
heaviness," Ecclus. xxxviii. 17. ^Non decet defunctum ignavo 
qacestu prosequi ; 'twas Germanicus's advice of old, that we 
should not dwell too long upon our passions, to be desperately 
sad, immoderate grievers, to let them tyrannize, there's tnefo- 
lentioi ars, a medium to be kept ; we do not (saith * Austin) 
forbid men to grieve, but to grieve ovennuch. " I forbid not 
a man to be angry, but I ask for what cause he is so ? Not 
to be sad, but why is he sad ? Not to fear, but wherefore is 
he afraid ? " I require a moderation as well as a just reason. 
• The Eomans and most civil commonwealths have set a time 
to such solemnities ; they must not mourn after a set day, 
" or if in a family a child be bom, a daughter or son married, 
some state or honour be conferred, a brother be redeemed 
from his bands, a friend from his enemies," or the like, they 

1 Ovid. * Oonsol. ad Apollon. non sed undo, non ntrum timeat sed quid 

est libertate nostra positum non dolere. timeat. o Festus Terbo minultar. 

misericordiam abolet, &c. * Ovid. 4 Luctui dies indicebatnr cum liberi nas- 

Trist. * Tacitus, lib 4. 6 Lib. 9, cantur, cum frater abit, amicus ab hos- 

cap. 9, de civitate Dei. Non qusero cum pite-captivus domum redeat, puella de- 

irascatur sed cur, non utrum sit tristis sponsetur. 

Mem. 6.] Remedies ctgainst Discontents, 311 

must lament no more. And 'tis fit it should be so ; to what 
end is all their funeral pomp, complaints, and tears ? When 
Socrates was dying, his friends ApoUodorus and Crito, with 
some others, were weeping by him, which he perceiving, 
asked them what they meant ; ^ " for that very cause he put 
all the women out of the room, upon which words of his they 
were abashed, and ceased from their tears/' Lodovicus Cor- 
tesius, a rich lawyer of Padua (as ^ Bemardinus Scardeonius 
relates), commanded by his last will, and a great mulct if oth- 
erwise to his heir, that no funeral should be kept for him, no 
man should lament ; but as at a wedding, music and minstrels 
to be provided ; and instead of black mourners, he took order, 
' " that twelve virgins clad in green should carry him to the 
church." His will and testament was accordingly performed, 
and he buried in St. Sophia's church. * Tally was much 
grieved for his daughter Tulliola's death at first, until such 
time that he had confirmed his mind with some philosophical 
precepts, * " then he began to triumph over fortune and grief, 
and for her reception into heaven to be much more joyed 
than before he was troubled for her loss." If a heathen man 
could so fortify himself from philosophy, what shall a Chris- 
tian from •divinity ? Why dost thou so macerate thyself ? 
"Us an inevitable chance, the first statute in Magna GhartOy 
an everlasting Act of Parliament, all must ^ die. 

■^ " Constat 8Btern& positumque lege est, 
Ut constet genitum nihil." 

It cannot be revoked, we are all mortal, and these all-com^ 

manding gods and princes "die like men:" * involvit 

humile pariter et celsum caput, cequcUque summis infima, 
" weak condition of human estate," Sylvius exclaims : 

1 Ob banc oausam mulieres ablegiram yim, et te consecrate in coelumque recep- 

ne talia fitcerent ; nos h»c au^entes ta, tantft affeetas IsetitiSi sum ac yolup- 

erubuimos et destitimus a lachrymis. tate, quantam animo capers possum, ao 

s Lib. 1, class. 8, de Claris. Jurisconsul- ezultare plane mihi yideor, victorque de 

tis Patavlnis. s 12 Innuptee puellae omni dolore et fortunSL trinmphare. 

amictse yiridibu^ pannis, &c. < Lib. ^ Ut lignum uri natum, arista secari. sio 

de consol. ^ Prieceptis philosophisB homines mori. ^ Boeth. lib. 2, met. 3 

conflrmatus adyersus omnem fortunte ^ Boeth. 

312 Oure of Melancholy, [Part. n. seq. 3. 

^ Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, eighteen years of age, in the 
flower of his youth, so potent, rich, fortunate and happy, in 
the midst of all his friends, amongst so many ^physicians, 
now ready to be • married, in thirty-six hours sickened and 
died. We must so be gone sooner or later all, and as Cal- 
liopeius in the comedy took his leave of his spectators and 
auditors. Vos valete et plaudiie, OaUiopeius recensut, must we 
bid the world farewell {JEadt Calliopeius), and having now 
played our parts, forever be gone. Tombs and monuments 
have the like fate, data sunt ipsis qvjoqvuefata sepvlchrisy king- 
doms, provinces, towns, and cities, have their periods, and are 
consumed. In those flourishing times of Troy, Mycenae was 
the fairest city in Greece, Grcecice cuncUs^ impentalfcU, but it, 
alas, and that * " Assyrian Nineveh are quite overthrown ; " 
the like fate hath that Egyptian and Boeotian Thebes. Delos, 
commune Gracits conciltahUumj the common council-house 
of Greece, ^and Babylon, the greatest city that ever the 
sun shone on, hath now nothing but walls and rubbish left 
• " Quid PandionicR restat nisi nomen Athence f " Thus 
'Pausanias complained in his times. And where is Troy 
itself now, Persepolis, Carthage, Cizicum, Sparta, Argos, and 
all those Grecian cities ? Syracuse and Agrigentum, the fair- 
est towns in Sicily, which had sometimes seven hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants, are now decayed ; the names of Hiero, 
Empedocles, &c., of those mighty numbers of people, only 
left. One Anacharsis is remembered amongst the Scythians ; 
the world itself must have an end ; and every part of it. 
Cceterce igitur urhes sunt mortales, as Peter ^ Gillius con- 
cludes of Constantinople, hijec sane quamdiu erunt homines, 
futura mihi videtur immortalis ; but 'tis not so ; nor site, nor 
strength, nor sea, nor land, can vindicate a city, but it and 
all must vanish at last. And as to a traveller great moun- 
tains seem plains afar off, at last are not discerned at all: 

1 Nic. Hensel. Breslagr. fol. 47. ^ Twen- s Omninm quofc unquam Sol aspexit nr* 

ty then present. < To Blagdalen, the bium maxima. < Ovid. *^ What of 

daughter of t!harle8 the Seventh of ancient Athena but the name remains?" 

Vrance. Obeunt noctesque diesque, &c. f Arcad. lib. 8. ^ Prse&t. Topogr. Con- 

4 Assyriorum regio fuuditus deleta. stantinop. 

Mem. 6.] Remedies against Discontents. 313 

cities, men, monuments decay, nee solidis prodest sua 

mackina terris,* the names are only left, those at length for- 
gotten, and are involved in perpetual night. 

^ " Returning out of Asia, when I sailed from iEgina 
towards Megara, I began (saith Servius Sulpicius, in a con- 
solatory epistle of his to TuUy) to view the country round 
about ^gina was behind me, Megara before, Piraeus on 
the right hand, Corinth on the left, what flourishing towns 
heretofore, now prostrate and overwhelmed before mine eyes, 
I began to think with myself, alas, why are we men so much 
disquieted with the departure of a ft-iend, whose life is much 
shorter, * when so many goodly cities lie buried before us ? 
Remember, O Servius, thou art a man ; and with that I was 
much confirmed, and corrected myself." Correct then like- 
wise, and comfort thyself in this, that we must necessarily 
die, and all die, that we shall rise again ; as TuUy held ; 
Jucundiorque muUd congressus nosier faturus, quam insuavis 
et acerbus digressm, our second meeting shall be much more 
pleasant than our departure was grievous. 

Ay, but he was my most dear and loving friend, my sole 

' " Quia desiderio sit pndor aut modus 
Tam chari capitis? " 

" And who can blame my woe? " 

Thou mayest be ashamed, I say with * Seneca, to confess it, 
" in such a * tempest as this to have but one anchor," go seek 
another ; and for his part thou dost him great injury to desire 
his longer life. • " Wilt thou have him crazed and sickly 
still," like a tired traveller that comes weary to his inn, begin 
his journey afresh, " or to be freed from his miseries ; thou 
hast more need rejoice that he is gone." Another complains 
of a most sweet wife, a young wife, Nondum stisttderat flavum 
Proserpina crinem, such a wife as no mortal man ever had, 

* *^ Nor can its own structure preserye besce tanta tempestate quod ad unam 

the solid globe." i Epist. Tull. lib. 8. anchoram stabas. * Vis SBffmm, et 

> Qunm tot oppidorum cadavera ante morbidum, sitibundum— gaude poilas 

oculos projecta Jacent. > Hor. lib. 1, qUod his nialis Uberatus sit. 
Od. 24. « De remed. fortuit. & Eru- 

314 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 8. 

so good a wife, but she is now dead and gone, letJuBoque jacet 
condita sarcophago, I reply to him in Seneca's words, if such 
a woman at least ever was to be had, ^ " He did either so find 
or make her ; if he found her, he may as happily find an- 
other ; if he made her," as Critobulus in Xenophon did by 
his, he may as good cheap inform another, et bona tam ,eqm. 
tUTj quam bona prima fait ; ^^ he need not despair, so long as 
the same master is to be had." But was she good ? Had 
she been so tried peradventure as that Ephesian widow in 
Petronius, by some swaggering soldier, she might not Have 
held out Many a man would have been willingly rid of his; 
before thou wast bound, now thou art free ; ^ "• and 'tis but a 
folly to love thy fetters though they be of gold." Come into 
a third place, you shall have an aged father sighing for a son, 
a pretty child ; 

* " Impube pectus quale vel impia 
MoUiret Thracum pectora." 

*' He now lies asleep, 
Would make an impious Thracian weep." 

Or some fine daughter that died young. Nondum experta 
novt gavdia prima tori. Or a forlorn son for his deceased 
father. But why ? Prior exiit, prior intravit, he cajne first, 
and he must go first. ^Thi frustra pitts, heu, &c. What, 
wouldst thou have the laws of nature altered, and him to live 
always ? Julius Csesar, Augustus, Alcibiades, Galen, Aris- 
totle, lost their fathers young. And why on the other side 
shouldst thou so heavily take the death of thy little son ? 

' " Num quia nee fato, merits nee morte peribat, 
Sed miser ante diem " 

he died before his time, perhaps, not yet come to the solstice 
of his age, yet was he not mortal ? Hear that divine *£pio- 

1 Uzorem bonam ant invenisti, ant sio oorapedes licet aureas amare. * Hor. 

feciati ; ai inveneria, aliam habere te po8< < Hor. lib. 1. Od. 24. fi Virg. 4 Mn. 

se ex hoc intelligamus : si feceris, heue > Cap. 19. Si id studes ut uxor, amici} 

sperea, aalrus eat artifex. * Stuiti eat liberi perpetao Tivant, stultus es. 


Mem. 5.] Remedies against Discontents. 315 

tetus, "If thou covet thy wife, friends, children, should live 
always, thou art a fool." He was a fine child indeed, digntis 
ApoUineis lachiymis, a sweet, a loving, a fair, a witty child, 
of great hope, another Eteoneus, whom Pindarus the poet 
and Aristides the rhetorician so much lament ; but who can 
tell whether he would have been an honest man ? He might 
have proved a thief, a rogue, a spendthrift, a disobedient son, 
vexed and galled thee more than all the world beside ; he 
might have wrangled with thee and disagreed, or with his 
brothers, as Eteocles and Polynices, and broke thy heart ; he 
is now gone to eternity, as another Ganymede, in the ^ flower 
of his youth, "as if he had risen," saith * Plutarch, "from 
the midst of a feast," before he was drunk, " the longer he 
had lived, the worse he would have been," et quo vita hngior 
(Ambrose thinks), culpa numerosior, more sinful, more to 
answer he would have had. If he was naught, thou mayest 
be glad he is gone ; if good, be glad thou hadst such a son. 
Or art thou sure he was good ? It may be he was an hypo- 
crite, as many are, and howsoever he spake thee fair, perad- 
venture he prayed, amongst the rest that Icaro Menippus 
heard at Jupiter's whispering-place in Lucian, for his father's 
death, because he now kept him short, he was to inherit much 
goods, and many fair manors after his decease. Or put case 
he was very good, suppose the best, may not thy dead son 
expostulate with thee, as he did in the same * Lucian, " why 
dost thou lament my death, or call me miserable that am 
much more happy than thyself? what misfortune is befallen 
me ? Is it because I am not so bald, crooked, old, rotten, as thou 
art ? What have I lost, some of your good cheer, gay clothes, 
music, singing, dancing, kissing, merrymeetings, thalami Itir 

1 Deiu quos diligit jurenes rapit, Me- gisse ? an quia non sum mains senex, ut 

nan. ^ Consol. ad Apol. ApoUoniaB tu ikcie rugosas, incurvxis, &o. de- 

filiug tuns in flore decessit, ante nos ad mens, quid tibi Tidetur in yita boni ? ni- 

setemitatem digressus, tanquam e con- mirum amicitias, coenas, &c. Longe 

vivio abiens, prinsquam in errorem ali- melius non esurire quam edere ; non si- 

quem e temulenti& incideret, quales in tire, &c. Gaude potius quod morbos et 

longa senect^ accidere Solent. 8 Tom. febres effugerim, angorem animi, &c. 

1, Tract, de luctu. Quid me mortuum Iljulatus quid prodest, quid lachry- 

mlserum yocas, qui te sum multo feli- mae, &c. 
cior? aut quid acerbi mihi putas conti- 

yi6 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 3. 

bentias, &c., is that it ? Is it not much better not to hunger 
at all than to eat ; not to thirst than to drink to satisfy thirst ; 
not to be cold than to put on clothes to drive away cold? 
You had more need rejoice that I am freed from diseases, 
agues, cares, anxieties, livor, love, covetousness, hatred, envy, 
malice, that I fear no more thieves, tyrants, enemies, as you 
do." ^Id cinerem et manes credis curare septdtos f " Do they 
concern us at all, think you, when we are once dead ? " Con- 
dole not others then overmuch, " wish not or fear thy death.** 
^Summum nee optes diefn nee metuas ; 'tis to no purpose. 

" Excessi e vitas serumuis facilisqne lubensque 
Me pejora ips& morte dehinc videam." 

" I left this irksome life with all mine heart, 
Lest worse than death should happen to my part." 

• Cardinal Brundusinus caused this epitaph in Rome to be 
inscribed on his tomb, to show his willingness to die, and tax 
those that were so loath to depart. Weep and howl no more 
then, *tis to small purpose ; and as TuUy adviseth us in the 
like case, Nbn qiu>s amisirmis, sed quantum lugere par sit 
cogitemus: think what we do, not whom we have lost. So 
David did, 2 Sam. xxii., " While the child was yet alive, I 
fasted and wept; but being now dead, why should I fast? 
Can I bring him again ? I shall go to him, but he cannot 
return to me." He that doth otherwise is an intemperate, 
a weak, a silly, and indiscreet man. Though Aristotle deny 
any part of intemperance to be conversant about sorrow, I 
am of * Seneca's mind, " he that is wise is temperate, and he 
that is temperate is constant, free from passion, and he that 
is such a one, is without sorrow," as all wise men should be. 
The *Thracians wept still when a child was bom, feasted 
and made mirth when any man was buried ; and so should 
we rather be glad for such as die well, that they are so hap- 
pily freed from the miseries of this life. When Eteoneus, 

1 Virgil. a Hor. « Chytraeus, deliciis Eoropae. * Bpist. 85. » Sardus, 
de mor. gen. 

Mem. 6.] Remedies against Discontents. 317 

that noble young Greek, was so generally lamented by his 
friends, Pindarus the poet feigns some god saying, SHete^ 
homines, nan enim miser est, &c., be quiet good folks, this 
young man is not so miserable as you think ; he is neither 
gone to Styx nor Acheron, sed gloriosus et senii expers keros, 
he lives forever in the Elysian fields. He now enjoys that 
happiness which your great kings so earnestly seek, and 
wears that garland for which ye contend. If our present 
weakness is such, we cannot moderate our passions in this 
behalf, we must divert them by all means, by doing something 
else, thinking of another subject. The Italians most part 
sleep away care and grief, if it unseasonably seize upon them, 
Danes, Dutchmen, Polanders and Bohemians drink it down, 
our countrymen go to plays ; do something or other, let it not 
transpose thee, or by ^ " premeditation make such accidents 
familiar," as Ulysses that wept for his dog, but not for his 
wife, qtwd paratus esset animo obfirmato, (Plut. de anim. 
tranq.) " accustom thyself, and harden beforehand by seeing 
other men's calamities, and applying them to thy present 
estate ; " Prcevisvm est levius quod fait ante malum, I 
will conclude with * Epictetus, " If thou lovest a pot, re- 
member 'tis but a pot thou lovest, and thou wilt not be 
troubled when 'tis broken ; if thou lovest a son or wife, 
remember they were mortal, and thou wilt not be so im- 
patient." And for false fears and all other fortuitous incon- 
veniences, mischances, calamities, to resist and prepare our- 
selves, not to faint is best : ^Stultum est timere quod vitari 
non potest, 'tis a folly to fear that which cannot be avoided, 
or to be discouraged at all. 

* " Nam quisquis trepidus pavet vel optat, 
Abjecit clypeura, locoque motus 
Nectit qua valeat trahi catenam. 

'* For he that so faints or fears, and yields to his passion, 

1 Pnemeditatione &cilem reddere memento te oUam diligere, non perturbab> 

quemque casum. Plutarchua, consola- eris e& confractSL; si filium aut uxorem, 

done ad Apollonium. Assuefacere non memento hominem a te dillgi, &c. 

caslbus debemus. Tull. lib. 3, Tusculan. 8 Seneca. < Boeth. lib. 1, pros. 4. 
qiuast. s Cap. 8. Si ollam diligas, 

318 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. IL sec. 3. 

flings awaj his own weapons, makes a cord to bind himse]^ 
and pulls a beam upon his own head.** 


Against Envy^ Livor, Emulation, Haired, Ambition, Self- 
love, and all other Affections. 

Against those other ^ passions and affections, there is no 
better remedy than as mariners when they go to sea provide 
all things necessary to resist a tempest : to fumisb ourselves 
with philosophical and Divine precepts, other men's examples, 
^Perictdum ex aliis facere, sibi qttod ex usu siet ; To balance 
our hearts with love, charity, meekness, patience, and counter- 
poise those irregular motions of envy, livor, spleen, hatred, 
with their opposite virtues, as we bend a crooked staff another 
way, to oppose ' " sufferance to labour, patience to reproach," 
bounty to covetousness, fortitude to pusillanimity, meekness 
to anger, humility to pride, to examine ourselves for what 
cause we are so much disquieted, on what ground, what occa- 
sion is it just or feigned ? And then either to pacify our- 
selves by reason, to divert by some other object, contrary 
passion, or premeditation. ^Meditari secum oportet quo pacto 
adversam cerumnam ferat, Pertcla, damna, exilia peregre 
rediens semper cogitet, aut fUii peccatum, aut uxoris mortem, 
aut morbum fUice, communia esse hcec : fieri posse, ut ne quid 
animo sit novum. To make them familiar, even all kind of 
calamities, that when they happen they may be less trouble- 
some unto us. In secundis msditare, quo pactoferas adversa; 
or out of mature judgment to avoid the effect, or disannul 
the cause, as they do that are troubled with toothache, pull 
them quite out. 

1 Qni Invidiam ferre non potest, Ibrre jeettis faerit tolerantise, convicium pftti- 
eontemptum cogitur. 9 Ter. Hean- entise, &o., si ita consueveria, TitUfl non 
tont. s Bpictetiu, o. 14. Si labor ob- obtemperabis. « Ter. Phor. 


Mem. 6.] Remedies against Discontents. 319 

2 ** Ut vivat castor, sibi testes ampatat ipse ; 
Tu quoque si qua nocent, abjice, tutus ens." 

" The beaver bites off 's stones to save the rest: 
Do thou the like with that thou art opprest." 

Or as they that play at wasters, exercise themselves by a 
few cudgels how to avoid an enemy's blows : let us arm our- 
selves against all such violent incursions, which may invade 
our minds. A little experience and practice will inure us to 
it ; vetula vtUpes, as the proverb saith, laqueo hand capitur, 
an old fox is not so easily taken in a snare ; an old soldier in 
the world methinks should not be disquieted, but ready to 
receive all fortunes, encounters, and with that resolute cap- 
tain, come what may come, to make answer, 

* " non ulla laborum 
virgo nova ml facies inopinaque surgit, 
Omnia percepi atque animo mecum ante peregi.'* 

** No labour comes at unawares to me, 
For I have long before cast what may be.'* 

" non hoc primum mea pectora vulnus 
Senserunt, graviora tuli * 

The commonwealth of * Venice in their armoury have this 
inscription, "Bkippy is that city which, in time of peace, 
thinks of war," a fit motto for every man^s private house ; 
happy is the man that provides for a future assault But 
many times we complain, repine, and mutter without a cause, 
we give way to passions we may resist, and will not. Soc- 
rates was bad by nature, envious, as he confessed to Zopirus 
the physiognomer, accusing him of it, froward and lascivious ; 
but as he was Socrates, he did correct and amend himself. 
Thou art malicious, envious, covetous, impatient, no doubt, 
and lascivious, yet as thou art a Christian, correct and moder 
ate thyself 'Tis something, I confess, and able to move 
any man, to see himself contemned, obscure, neglected, dis- 
graced, undervalued, *"left behind;" some cannot endure 

I Alciat. Embl. s yiig. ^bSq. greater." 4 Nat. ChytrsBUS, deliciis Eu- 

s <( My breast was not conscious of this ropsB, Felix civltas quae tempore pacis de 
first wound, for I have endured still bello cogitat. & Occupet extremum 

320 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 3. 

it, no, not constant Lipsius, a man discreet otherwise, yet too 
weak and passionate in this, as his words express, * coUegas 
oUm, quo8 ego sine fremitu non intueor, nuper terrce JiUos, 
nunc Mcecenates ei Agrippas habeo, — summo jam monte 
potitos. But he was much to blame for it ; to a wise staid 
man this is nothing, we cannot all be honoured and rich, all 
Caesars ; if we will be content, our present state is good ; and 
in some men's opinion to be preferred. Let them go on, get 
wealth, offices, titles, honours, preferments, and what they 
will themselves, by chance, fraud, imposture, simony, and 
indirect means, as too many do, by bribery, flattery, and 
parasitical insinuation, by impudence and timeserving, let 
them climb up to advancement in despite of virtue, let them 
" go before, cross me on every side," * me non offendunt modo 
non in ocvlos incurrant, as he said, correcting his former 
error, they do not offend me so long as they run not into 
mine eyes. I am inglorious and poor, compositd paupertate, 
but I live secure and quiet ; they are dignified, have great 
means, pomp, and state, they are glorious; but what have 
they with it ? ** " Envy, trouble, anxiety, as much labour to 
maintain their place with credit, as to get -it at first" I am 
contented with my fortunes, spectator e hnginquo, and love 
Neptunum procvl a terra spectare furentem ; he is ambitious, 
and not satisfied with his; "but what *gets he by it? to 
have all his life laid open, his reproaches seen ; not one of a 
thousand but he hath done more worthy of dispraise and 
animadversion than commendation ; no better means to help 
this than to be private." Let them run, ride, strive as so 
many fishes for a crumb, scrape, climb, catch, snatch, cozen, 
collogue, temporize and fleer, take all amongst them, wealth, 
honour, ^ and get what they can, it offends me not : 

8 " me mea tellus 
Lare secreto tutoque tegat," 

scabies; mlhi turpe relinqui est. Hor. ut probra ejus pateant? nemo Tivens qui 

1 Lipsius, epist. qusest. 1. 1, ep. 7. non habet in viti plura yituperatioDO 

3 Lipsius, epist. lib. 1, epist. 7. ^ Glo- qnam laude digna ; his mails non melias 

ria comitem habet invicUam, pari onere occurritur, quam si bene latueris. ^ Et 

premitur retinendo ac acquirendo. omnes fama per urbes garrula laudet 

* Quid aliud ambitiosus sibi parat quam ^ Sen. Her. Fur. 

Mem. 6.] Remedies against Discontents. 321 

" I am well pleased with my fortunes," * Vivo et regno simul 
ista relinquens. 

I have learned " in what state soever I am, therewith to 
be contented," Philip, iv. 11. Come what can come, I am 
prepared. Naveferar magna an parvd, ferar unus et idem. 
1 am the same. I was once so mad to bustle abroad, and 
seek about for preferment, tire myself, and trouble all my 
friends, sed nihil lahor tantus profecit ; nam dum cUios ami- 
corum mors avocat, aliis ignoius sum, his invisus, alii large 
promittuntf intercedtint illi mecum soliciti, hi vand spe lac- 
tant ; dum alios ambio, hos capto, iUis innotesco, aetas perit, 
anni dejluunt, amid fatigantur, ego deferor, et jam^ mundi 
tresus, humaruBque satur injldelitatis, acquiesco. ^ And so I 
say still; although I may not deny, but that I have had 
some ^ bountiful patrons and noble benefactors, ne sim interim 
ingratuSy and I do thankfully acknowledge it, I have received 
some kindness, quod Deus iUis henefidum rependat, si nan 
pro votis, fortasse pro meritis, more peradventure than I 
deserve, though not to my desire, more of them than I did 
expect, yet not of others to my desert ; neither am I am- 
bitious or covetous, for this while, or a Suffenus to myself; 
what I have said, without prejudice or alteration shall stand. 
And now as a mired horse that struggles at first with all his 
might and main to get out, but when he sees no remedy, that 
his beating will not serve, lies still, I have laboured in vain, 
rest satisfied, and if I may usurp that of * Prudentius, 

" Inveni portura ; spes et fortuna valete, 
Nil mihi yobiscum, ludite nunc alios.'* 

" Mine haven's found, fortune and hope adieu, 
Mock others now, for I have done with you." 

1 Hot. '.' I live like a king without es, years glide away, I am put off, and 
any of these acquisitions." * " But now tired of the world, and surfeited 
all my labour was unprofitable; for with human worthlossnesa, I rest con- 
while death took off some of my tent." ^ The right honourable Lady 
fHends, to others I remain unknown, or Frances, Countess Dowager of Exeter, 
little liked, and these deceive me with The Lord Berkeley. * Blstichon ejus in 
iklse promises. Whilst I am canvassing militem Christianum e Orseco. Engraven 
one party, captivating another, making on the tomb of Fr. Puccius the Floren- 
myself known to a third, my age incresA- tine in Rome. Chytraeus, in deliciis. 

TOL. n. 21 



822 dure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. s. 


Against Repvhe^ Abases, Injuries, Contempts, Disgraces, 
Contumelies, Slanders, Scoffs, S^c. 

RepulseJ] I mat not yet conclude, think to appease pas- 
sions, or quiet the mind, till such time as I have likewise 
removed some other of their more eminent and ordinary 
causes, which produce so grievous tortures and discontents; 
to divert all, I cannot hope ; to point alone at some few of 
the chiefest, is that which I aim at. 

Repulse and disgrace are two main causes of discontent, 
but to an understanding man not so hardly to be taken. 
Caesar himself hath been denied, ^ and when two stand equal 
in fortune, birth, and all other qualities alike, one of necessity 
must lose. Why shouldst thou take it so grievously? It 
hath been a familiar thing for thee thyself to deny others. If 
every man might have what he would, we should all be 
deified, emperors, kings, princes; if whatsoever vain hope 
suggests, insatiable appetite affects, our preposterous judg- 
ment thinks fit were granted, we should have another chaos 
in an instant, a mere confusion. It is some satisfaction to 
him that is repelled, that dignities, honours, offices, are not 
always given by desert or worth, but for love, affinity, friend- 
ship, affection, ^ great men's letters, or as commonly they are 
bought and sold. * " Honours in court are bestowed not ac- 
cording to men's virtues and good conditions (as an old court- 
ier observes), but as eveiy man hath means, or more potent 
friends, so he is preferred." With us in France (* for so their 
own countryman relates) " most part the matter is carried by 
, favour and grace ; he that can get a great man to be his me- 

1 Paederataa in 300 Lacedaemomorum que potentior, ed magis honoratur. 

numenim non electus risit, gratulari ae ^ Sesellius, lib. 2, de repub. GaUorum. 

dicerus civitatem habere 300 civea se meli- Fayore apud nos et gratia plerumque res 

ores. 8 Kissing goes by £a,Toar. agitur ; et qui oommodum aliquem nacti 

I 8 iBneas Syl. de miser, curial. Dantur sunt iatercessorem, aditum fere habent 

hodores ia curiis non secundum honores ad omnes praefecturas. 
et Tirtutes, sed ut quisque ditior est at- 

Mem. 7.] Remedies against Discontents. 823 

diator, runs away with all the prefermeAt." Indignissimus 
plerumque prceferturj Vaiinius Oatoni, iUatidatus laudatis- 


^ Servi domtnantar; aselli 
Ornantur phaleris, dephalerantar eqni.** i 

An illiterate fool sits in a man's seat, and the common people 
hold him learaed, grave and wise. " One professeth (* Car- 
dan well notes) for a thousand crowns, but he deserves not 
ten, when as he that deserves a thousand cannot get ten." 
Solarium non dot mvUis salem. As good horses draw in 
carts as coaches. And oftentimes, which Machiavel seconds, 
^Principes non sunt qui oh insignem virtutem principatu 
digni sunt, he that is most worthy wants employment; he 
that hath skill to be a pilot wants a ship, and he that could 
govern a commonwealth, a world itself, a king in conceit, 
wants means to exercise his worth, hath not a poor office to 
manage, and yet all this while he is a better man that is fit 
to reign, etsi careat regno, though he want a kingdom, * " than 
he that hath one, and knows not how to rule it;" a lion 
serves not always his keeper, but oftentimes the keeper the 
lion, and as * Polydore Virgil hath it, mtUti reges ut pupilli oh 
inscitiam non regunt sed reguntur, Hiero of Syracuse was 
a brave king, but wanted a kingdom ; Perseus of Macedon 
had nothing of a king, but the bare name and title, for he 
could not govern it ; so great places are often ill bestowed, 
worthy persons unrespected. Many times too, the servants 
have more means than the masters whom they serve, which 
•Epictetus counts an eyesore and inconvenient. But who 
can help it ? It is an ordinary thing in these days to see a 
base impudent ass, illiterate, unworthy, insufficient, to be pre- 
ferred before his betters, because he can put himself forward, 
because he looks big, can bustle in the world, hath a fair out- 

1 " Slares govem; asses are decked nu8,yix decern consequi potest. "Epist. 

with trappings ; horses are deprived of dedic. disput. Zeubbeo Bondemontio, et 

them." 8 Imperitas periti munus oc- Cosmo Racelaio. ^ Quum is qui reg- 

cnpat, et sic apud vulgus habetur. lUe nat, et regnandi sit imperitas. 6 Lib. 

profltetur mille coronatis, cum nee de- 22, hist. ^ Ministri locupletiores sunt 

oem mereatur; alius e diTerso mille dig- lis quibus ministratur. 

'324 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 3. 

8ide, can temporize, collogue, insinuate, or hath good store of 
friends or money ; whereas a more discreet, modest, and bet- 
ter deserving man shall lie hid or have a repulse. 'Twas so 
of old, and ever will be, and which Tiresias adviseth Ulysses 

in the ^ poet, " Accipe qua ratione queas ditescere^ &c, 

is still in use ; lie, flatter and dissemble ; if not, as he con- 
cludes, ^' Ergo pauper eris^* then go like a beggar as thou 

art. Erasmus, Melancthon, Lipsius, Budaeus, Cardan, lived 
and died poor. Gesner was a silly old man, bactUo tnnixus, 
amongst all those huffing cardinals, swelling bishops that 
flourished in his time, and rode on footcloths. It is not 
honesty, learning, worth, wisdom, that prefers men, "The 
race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong," but as 
the wi^e man said, ^Chance, and sometimes a ridiculous 
chance. ^Gasus plerumque ridiculus muUos elevavit 'Tis 
fortune's doings as they say, which made Brutus now dying 
exclaim, misera vtrtus, ergo nihil quam ^erha eras, atqui 
ego te tanquam rem exerceham, sed tu sermehas fortunce,^ Be- 
lieve it hereafter, O my friends ! virtue serves fortune. Yet 
be not discouraged (O my well deserving spirits) with this 
which I have said, it may be otherwise, though seldom 1 con- 
fess, yet sometimes it is. But to your farther content, Til 
tell you a * tale. In Moronia pia, or Moronia felix, I know 
not whether, nor how long since, nor in what cathedral 
church, a fat prebend fell void. The carcass scarce cold, 
many suitors were up in an instant. The first had rich 
friends, a good purse, and he was resolved to outbid any man 
before he would lose it, every man supposed he should carry 
it. The second was my lord Bishop's chaplain (in whose 
gift it was), and he thought it his due to have it. The third 
was nobly bom, and he meant to get it by his great parents, 
patrons, and allies. The fourth stood upon his worth, he had 
newly found out strange mysteries in chemistry, and other 

1 Hor. lib. 2, Sat. 5. " Learn how to you as a reality, while yon are yonnelf 

grow rich." > Solomon, Eccles. ix. 11. the slaye of fortune." 6 iMe quid est 

8 Sat. Menip. ^ '' wretched -virtue ! apud Valent. Andream, Apolog. manip. 6, 

you are therefore nothing but words, and apol. 89. 
I hare all this time been looking upon 


Mem. 7.] Remedies against Discontents. 325 

rare inventions, which he would detect to the public good. 
The fifth was a painful preacher, and he was commended by 
the whole parish where he dwelt, he had all their hands to 
his certificate. The sixth was the prebendary's son lately 
deceased, his father died in debt (for it, as they say), left a 
wife and many poor children. The seventh stood upon fair 
promises, which to him and his noble friends had been for- 
merly made for the next place in his lordship's gift. The 
eighth pretended great losses, and what he had suffered for the 
church, what pains he had taken at home and abroad, and 
besides he brought noblemen's letters. The ninth had mar- 
ried a kinswoman, and he sent his wife to sue for him. The 
tenth was a foreign doctor, a late convert, and wanted means. 
The eleventh would exchange for another, he did not like the 
former's site, could not agree with his neighbours and fellows 
upon any terms, he would be gone. The twelfth and last 
was (a suitor in conceit) a right honest, civil, sober man, an 
excellent scholar, and such a one as lived private in the uni- 
versity, but he had neither means nor money to compass it ; 
besides he hated all such courses, he could not speak for him- 
self, neither had he any friends to solicit his cause, and there- 
fore made no suit, could not expect, neither did he hope for, 
or look after it. The good bishop, amongst a jury of com- 
petitors thus perplexed, and not yet resolved what to do, or 
on whom to bestow it, at the last, of his own accord, mere 
motion and bountiful nature, gave it freely to the university 
student, altogether unknown to him but by fame ; and to be 
brief, the academical scholar had the prebend sent him for a 
present The news was no sooner published abroad, but all 
good students rejoiced, and were much cheered up with it, 
though some would not believe it; others, as men amazed, 
said it was a miracle ; but one amongst the rest thanked Grod 
for it, and said Nuncjuvat tandem studiosum esse, et Deo in^ 
tegro corde servire. You have heard my tale j but alas it is 
but a tale, a mere fiction, 'twas never so, never like to be, 
and so let it rest Well, be it so then, they have wealth and 

826 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 3. 

honour, fortune and preferment, every man (there's no rem- 
edy) must scramble as he may, and shift as he can ; yet Car- 
dan comforted himself with this, ^ ^ the star Fomahant would 
make him immortal," and that ^ after his decease his books 
should be found in ladies' studies : ^Dignum lavde vtrum Aftisa 
vetat mon. But why shouldest thou take thy neglect, thy can- 
vass so to heart ? It may be thou art not fit ; but as a ^ child 
that puts on his father's shoes, hat, headpiece, breastplate, 
breeches, or holds his spear, but is neither able to wield the 
one, or wear the other : so wouldest thou do by such an office, 
place, or magistracy ; thou art unfit ; " And what is dignity 
to an unworthy man, but" (as ^Salvianus holds), "a gold 
ring in a swine's snout ? " Thou art a brute. Like a bad 
actor (so * Plutarch compares such men in a tragedy), rfto- 
demafert, at vox nan auditur: Thou wouldest play a king's 
part, but actest a clown, speakest like an ass. ^ Magna petis. 
Phaeton, et qiuB non virihus istis, &c, as James and John the 
sons of Zebedee did ask they knew not what : nescis, teme- 
raHcy nescis ; thou dost, as another Suffenus, overween thy- 
self ; thou art wise in thine own conceit, but in other more 
mature judgment altogether unfit to manage such a business. 
Or be it thou art more deserving than any of thy rank, God 
in his providence hath reserved thee for some other fortunes, 
sic superis msum. Thou >art humble as thou art, it may be ; 
hadst thou been preferred, thou wouldest have forgotten Grod 
and thyself, insulted over others, contemned thy friends, 
® been a block, a tyrant, or a demi-god, seqmturque superhia 
formam: *" Therefore," saith Chrysostom, "good men do 
not always find grace and favour, lest they should be puffed 
up with turgent titles, grow insolent and proud." 

Injuries, abuses, are very offensive, and so much the more 
in that they think veterem ferendo invitant novam, "by taking 

1 Stella Fomahant immortalitatem da- in naribus suis ? « In Ljaandro. 

bit. 2Lib delib.propriia. SHor. "The ^Ovid. Met. s Magistratus yirum in- 

muse forbids the praiseworthy man to dicat. * Ideo boni viri aliqnando grati- 

die.'" ^ Qui induit thoracem ant gale- am nbn accipiunt, ne in superbiam ele- 

am, &c. fi Lib. 4 de guber. Dei. Quid Tentur ventositate jactantiie, ne altitudo 

est dignitas indigao nisi circulns aureus muneris n^ligentiores efflciat. 

Mem. 7.] Remedies against Discontents, 327 

one they provoke another ; " but it is an erroneous opinion, 
for if that were true, there would be no end of abusing each 
other; lis litem generai ; 'tis much better with patience to 
bear, or quietly to put it up. If an ass kick me, saith Soc- 
i-ates, shall I strike him again ? And when * his wife Xan- 
tippe struck and misused him, to some friends that would 
have had him strike her again, he replied, that he would not 
make them sport, or that they should stand by and say, Eia 
Socrates, eia Xantippe, as we do when dogs fight, animate 
them the more by clapping of hands. Many men spend 
themselves, their goods, friends, fortunes, upon small quarrels, 
and sometimes at other men's procurements, with much vex- 
ation of spirit and anguish of mind, all which with good 
advice, or mediation of friends, might have been happily 
composed, or if patience had taken place. Patience in such 
cases is a most sovereign remedy, to put up, conceal, or dis- 
semble it, to * forget and forgive, ' " not seven, but seventy- 
seven times, as often as he repents forgive him ; " Luke xvii. 
3, as our Saviour enjoins us, stricken, "to turn the other 
side;" as our * Apostle persuades us, "to recompense no man 
evil for evil, but as much as is possible to have peace with all 
men ; not to avenge ourselves, and we shall heap burning 
coals upon our adversary's head." " For * if you put up 
wrong (as Chrysostom comments), you get the victory ; he 
that loseth his money, loseth not the conquest in this our phi- 
losophy." If he contend with thee, submit thyself unto him 
first, yield to him. Durum et durum non fadunt murum, as 
the diverb is, two refractory spirits will never agree, the only 
means to overcome is to relent, ohsequio vinces. Euclid in 
Plutarch, when his brother had angered him, swore he would 
be revenged ; but he gently replied, ® " Let me not live if I 
do not make thee to love me again," upon which meek answer 
he was pacified, 

1 iElian. > Injuriarum remediam priyatus est, non est privatus victorift in 

est oblivlo. 8 Mat. xviii. 22, liat. v. hac philosophiSL. o Dispeream nisi te 

39. * Rom. xii. 17. & Si toleras in- ultus faero : dispeream nisi ut me dein- 

juriam, victor evadis ; qui enim pecaniis ceps ames effeoeio. 

328 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 8. 

1 " Flectitur obseqnio curvatus ab arbore ramus, 
Frangis si vires experiare tuas." 

" A branch if easily bended yields to thee, 
Pull hard it brealss; the difference you see.*' 

The noble family of the Colonni in Rome, when they were 
expelled the city by that furious Alexander the Sixth, gave 
the bending branch therefore as an impress, with this naotto, 
FkcH potest, frangi non potest, to signify that he might break 
them by force, but so never make them stoop, for they fled in 
the midst of their hard usage to the kingdom of Naples, and 
were honourably entertained by Frederick the king, accord- 
ing to their callings. Gentleness in this case might have 
done much more, and let thine adversary be never so per- 
verse, it may be by that means thou mayest win him; 
'^favore et henevolentid etiam immanis animus mansuescit^ soft 
words pacify wrath, and the fiercest spirits are so soonest 
overcome ; ' a generous lion will not hurt a beast that lies 
prostrate, nor an elephant an innocuous creature, but is infes- 
tus infestts, a terror and scourge alone to such as are stubborn, 
and make resistance. It was the symbol of Emanuel Phili- 
bert, Duke of Savoy, and he was not mistaken in it, for 

4^' Quo quisque est major, magis est placabilis irsB, 
£t faciles motus mens generosa capit." 

^* A greater man is soonest pacified, 
A noble spirit quickly satisfied.'* 

It is reported by * Gualter Mapes, an old historiographer of 
ours (who lived four hundred years since), that King Edward, 
senior, and Llewellyn, prince of Wales, being at an interview 
near Aust, upon Severn, in Gloucestershire, and the prince 
sent for, refused to come to the king ; he would needs go 
over to him ; which Llewelljm perceiving, * " went up to the 

1 Joach. Gameraritis, Embl. 21, cent. 1. sapientissime rex, alt, tua hamilitaa me- 

s Heliodonis. > Reipsa reperi nihil am vicit superbiam, et sapientia trium- 

esse homlni melius iacilitate et clementift. phavit ineptiam ; collum ascende qaod 

Ter. Adelph. * Ovid. 6 Camden in contra te &tuus erexi, Intrabis terram 

Glouc. > Usque ad pectus ingiessus quam hodie fecJt taam benignitas, &e. 
est aquam, &c., cymbam amplectens, 

^em. 7.] Remedies against Discontents, 829 

arms in water, and embracing his boat, would have carried 
him out upon his shoulders, adding that his humility and wis- 
dom had triumphed over his pride and folly ; and thereupon 
was reconciled unto him and did his homage.'* If thou canst 
not so win him, put it up, if thou beest a true Christian, a 
good divine, an imitator of Christ, Q " for he was reviled and 
put it up, whipped and sought no revenge,") thou wilt pray for 
thine enemies, * " and bless them that persecute thee ; " be 
patient, meek, humble, &c. An honest man will not offer 
thee injury, prohus nan vuU ; if he were a brangling knave, 
'tis his fashion so to do ; where is least heart is most tongue ; 
quo quisque stuUior, ed magis insolescit, the more sottish he is, 
still the more insolent ; • " Do not answer a fool according to 
his folly." If he be thy superior, *bear it by all means, 
grieve not at it, let him take his course ; Annitus and Melitus 
* '* may kill me, they cannot hurt me ; " as that generous 
Socrates made answer in like case. Mens immota manet, 
though the body be torn in pieces with wild horses, broken 
on the wheel, pinched with fiery tongs, the soul cannot be dis- 
tracted. 'Tis an ordinary thing for great men to vilify and 
insult, oppress, injure, tyrannize, to take what liberty they 
list, and who dare speak against ? Miserum est ah eo kediy 
a quo non possis queriy a miserable thing 'tis to be injured of 
him, from whom is no appeal ; ^ and not safe to write against 
him that can proscribe and punish a man at his pleasure, 
which Asinius PoUio was aware of, when Octavianus pro- 
voked him. 'Tis hard I confess to be so injured; one of 
Chilo's three difficult things : ^ " To keep counsel ; spend his 
time well ; put up injuries ; " but be thou patient, and * leave 
revenge unto the Lord. • " Vengeance is mine and I will 
repay, saith the Lord." — ^** I know the Lord," saith ^® David, 
" will avenge the afflicted and judge the poor." — " No n^axk 

1 Chrysofltom. oontumeliis affectus est tutam in earn scribere qai potest pro- 

et eas pertulit ; opprobriis, nee ultus scribere. ' Arcana tacere, otiam recte 

est ; yerberibus csesus, neo vicem reddi- cdllocare, ii^uriam posse ferre, difflcilli- 

dit. « Rom. xli. 14. « Prov. mum. » Psal. xlv. » Rom. adi. 

* Contend not with a greater man, Proy. lo Psal. ziii. 12. 
6 Occidere possunt. > Non tkcUe aut 

330 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 8. 

(as * Plato farther adds) can so severely punish his adver- 
sary, as Grod will such as oppress miserable men." 

« " Iteram ille rem judicatam judicat, 
M^joreque malct& mulctat." 

If there be any religion, any Grod, and that God be just, it 
shall be so ; if thou believest the one, believe the other ; 
jEWV, erit, it shall be so. Niemesis comes after, sero sed serto, 
stay but a little and thou shalt see Grod's just judgment 
overtake him. 

8 ** Raro antecedentem scelestnm 
Deseruit pede poena claado." 

" Yet with sare steps, thongh lame and slow, 
Vengeance o'ertakes.the trembling villain's speed." 

Thou shalt perceive that verified of Samuel to Agag, 1 Sam. 
XV. 33. " Thy sword hath made many women childless, so 
shall thy mother be childless amongst other women." It shall 
be done to them as they have done to others. Conradinus, that 
brave Suevian prince, came with a well prepared army into 
the kingdom of Naples, was taken prisoner by King Charles, 
and put to death in the flower of his youth ; a little after 
(uUionem Conradini mortis, Pandulphus CoUinutius, HisL 
Neap, lib, 5, calls it), King Charles's own son, with two 
hundred nobles, was so taken prisoner, and beheaded in like 
sort. Not in this only, but in all other ofl^ences, quo guisgue 
peccat in eo punietur, *they shall be punished in the same 
kind, in the same part, like nature, eye with or in the eye, 
head with or in the head, persecution with persecution, lust 
with efl^ects of lust ; let them march on with ensigns displayed, 
let drums beat on, trumpets sound taratantarra, let them sack 
cities, take the spoil of countries, murder infants, deflower 
virgins, destroy, bum, persecute, and tyrannize, they shall be 
fully rewarded at last in the same measure, they and theirs, 
and that to their desert. 

1 Nnllus tarn seyeri inimietun snnm *' He a4}ndicates Judgment again, and 
iQciBci potest, quamDeussoletmiseroram punishes with a still greater penalty." 
oppressores. * ArcturuB in Plant, s Hor. 8, od. 2. * Wisd. zi. 6. 

Mem. 7.] Remedies against Discontents, 331 

1 " Ad generam Cereris sine csede et sanguine pauci 
Descendunt reges et sicca morte tyranni." 

" Few tyrants in their beds do die, 
But stabb'd or maim'd to hell they hie." 

Oftentimes too a base contemptible fellow is the instrument 
of God's justice to punish, to torture, and vex them, as^ an 
ichneumon doth a crocodile. They shall be recompensed 
according to the works of their hands, as Haman was hanged 
on the gallows he provided for Mordecai ; ** They shall have 
sorrow of heart, and be destroyed from under the heaven," 
Thren. iii. 64, 65, 66. Only be thou patient: ^vincit qui 
patitur ; and in the end thou shalt be crowned. Yea, but 'tis 
a hard matter to do this, flesh and blood may not abide it ; 
'tis grave, grave ! no (Chrysostom replies), now est grave, 6 
homo ! 'tis not so grievous, * " neither had God commanded 
it, if it had been so difficult." But how shall it be done ? 
" Easily," as he follows it, " if thou shalt look to heaven, be- 
hold the beauty of it, and what God hath promised to such 
as put up injuries." But if thou resist and go about vim vi 
repeUere, as the custom of the world is, to right thyself, or 
hast given just cause of offence, 'tis no injury then, but a 
condign punishment; thou hast deserved as much: A te 
principium, in te recidit crimen quod a te fuit ; peccdsti, 
quiesce, as Ambrose expostulates with Cain, lib. 3, de Abel et 
Coin. * Dionysius of Syracuse, in his exile, was made to 
stand without door, patienter ferendum, fortasse nos tale quid 
fecimus, quum in honore essemus, he wisely put it up, and 
laid the fault where it was, on his own pride and scorn, which 
in his prosperity he had formerly showed others. 'Tis *Tul- 
ly's axiom, ferre ea molestissime homines non debent, quce 
ipsorum culpa contracta sunt, self do, self have, as the say- 
ing is, they may thank themselves. For he that doth wrong 
must look to be wronged again ; habet et musca splenem, et 

1 Juvenal. ^ Apad Christianos non potero? fiicil^ si coelum suspezeria ; et 

qui patitur, sed qui focit injuriam miser e;)U8 pulohritndinem, et quod pollicetnr 

est. Leo, ser. > Neque prsecepisset Deus, &c. ^ Valer. lib. 4, cap. 1. 

DeuB si cpntye fuisset ; sed qua ratione & Ep. Q. frat. 

832 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. S. 

formica sua hilis inest. The least fly hath a spleen, and a 
little bee a sting. * An ass overwhelmed a thistle warp's nest, 
the little bird pecked his galled back in revenge; and the 
bumblebee in the fable flung down the eagle's eggs out of 
Jupiter's lap. Bracides, in Plutarch, put his hand into a 
mouse's nest and hurt her young ones, she bit him by the 
finger; *I see now (saith he) there is no creature so con- 
temptible, that will not be revenged. 'Tis lex talionisy and the 
nature of all things so to do ; if thou wilt live quietly thyself, 
■do no wrong to others ; if any be done thee, put it up, with 
patience endure it, for * " this is thankworthy," saith our 
apostle, "if any man for conscience towards Grod endure 
grief, and suffer wrong undeserved ; for what praise is it if 
when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye take it patiently? 
But if when you do well, ye suffer wrong and take it paticmtly, 
there is thanks with God ; for hereunto verily we are called." 
Qui mala nonferty ipse sihi testis est per impatientiam qiLod 
bonus non est, "he that cannot bear injuries, witnesseth 
against himself that he is no good man," as Gregory holds. 
* " 'Tis the nature of wicked men to do injuries, as it is the 
property of all honest men patiently to bear them." Im- 
probitas nuUo flectitur obsequio. The wolf in the ' emblem 
sucked the goat (so the shepherd would have it), but he kept 
nevertheless a wolf's nature ; ^a knave will be a knave. In- 
jury is on the other side a good man's footboy, his Jidus 
AchctteSy and as a lackey follows him wheresover he goes. 
Besides, misera est fortuna quce caret inimico, he is in a 
miserable estate that wants enemies ; ^ it is a thing not to be 
avoided, and therefore with more patience to be endured. 
Cato Censorius, that upright Cato of whom Paterculus gives 
that honourable eulogium, bene fecit quod aliter facere non 
potuit, was • fifty times indicted and accused by his fellow- 

1 CameraiiaB, Bmb. 75« cent. 2. > Pa- f Naturam expellas farca licet, usque Te> 

pse, inqait : nullum animal tarn pusil- curret. ^ By many indi^ities we come 

lum quod non cupiat ulcLsci. s Quod to dignities. Tibi subjicito quae flunt 

tibi fieri non yis, alteri ne feceris. aliis, fnrtum, eonyitia, &c. Et in lis in 

* 1 Pet. ii. & Siquidem malorum pro- te admissis non excandesces. Epictetus. 

prium est inferre damna, et bonorum ^ Plutarch, quinquagies Catoni dies dieta 

pedissequa est icguria. * Alciat. emb. ab inimicis. 




Mem. 7.] Hemedies against Discdntents, 333 

citizens, and as ^Ammianns well hath it, Quis erit innocens 
St clam vel palam acctisdsse sufficiat ? if it be sufficient to 
accuse a man openly or in private, who shall be free ? If 
there were no other respect than that of Christianity, religion 
and the like, to induce men to be long-sufifering and patient, 
yet methinks the nature of injury itself is sufficient to keep 
them quiet, the tumults, uproars, miseries, discontents, anguish, 
loss, dangers that attend upon it might restrain the calamities 
of contention ; for as it is with ordinary gamesters, the games 
go to the box, so falls it out to such as contend ; the lawyers 
get all ; and therefore if they would consider of it, aliena 
pericvla cauios, other men's misfortunes in this kind, and 
common experience might detain them. *The more they 
contend, the more they are involved in a labyrinth of woes, 
and the catastrophe is to consume one another, like the ele- 
phant and dragon's conflict in Pliny ; ^ the dragon got under 
the elephant's belly, and sucked his blood so long, till he fell 
down dead upon the dragon, and killed him with the fall, so 
both were ruined. 'Tis a hydra's head, contention ; the more 
they strive, the more they may ; and as Praxiteles did by 
his glass, when he saw a scurvy face in it, brake it in pieces ; 
but for that one he saw many more as bad in a moment : 
for one injury done they provoke another cum fomore^ and 
twenty enemies for one. Noli irritare crabrones, oppose not 
thyself to a multitude ; but if thou hast received a wrong, 
wisely consider of it, and if thou canst possibly, compose thy- 
self with patience to bear it. This is the safest course, and 
thou shalt find greatest ease to be quiet. 

 I say the same of scofis, slanders, contumelies, obloquies, 
defamations, detractions, pasquilling libels, and the like, which 
may tend any way to our disgrace ; 'tis but opinion ; if we 
could neglect, contemn, or with patience digest them, they 
would reflect on them that offered them at first A wise 

1 lAb. 18.  Hoc 8cio pro certo quod quispiam, eive vera is dixerit, sive felsa, 
si cum stereore certo, vinco seu yincor,, maximam tibi coronam texueris si man- 
semper ego maculor. ^ Lib. 8, cap. 2. suet^ convitium tuleris. Ohrys. la 6 
3 Obloquutus est, probmmque tibi inttilit cap. ad Rom. ser. 10. 

334 OuTt of Melancholy. [Part. TL sec. 8. 

citizen, I know not whence, had a scold to his wife ; i^hen 
she brawled, he played on his drum, and by that means mad- 
ded her more, because she saw that he would not be moved. 
Diogenes in a crowd when one called him back, and told him 
how the boys laughed him to scorn, Ego, inquit, non rideor^ 
took no notice of it. Socrates was brought upon the stage 
by Aristophanes, and misused to his face, but he laughed as 
if it concerned him not ; and as ^lian relates of him, what- 
soever good or bad accident or fortune befell him, going in or 
coming out, Socrates still kept the same countenance ; even 
so should a Christian do, as Hierom describes him, per in- 
famiam et bonam famam grassari ad immortalitatem, march 
on through good and bad reports to immortality, * not to be 
moved ; for honesty is a sufficient reward, probitas sihi pre- 
mium ; and in our times the sole recompense to do well, is, 
to do well ; but naughtiness will punish itself at last, ^iJn- 
prolns ipsa nequitia suppUcium. As the diverb is, 

" Qui benft fecemnt, illi sua facta sequentur; 
Qui mal8 fecerunt, facta sequentur eos: " 

" They that do well, shall have reward at last; 
But they that ill, shall suffer for that's past/* 

Yea, but I am ashamed, disgraced, dishonoured, degraded, 
exploded; my notorious crimes and villanies are come to 
light {deprendi miserum est), my filthy lust, abominable op- 
pression and avarice lies open, my good name's lost, my 
fortune's gone. I have been stigmatized, whipt at post, 
arraigned and condemned, I am a common obloquy, I have 
lost my ears, odious, execrable, abhorred of Grod and men. 
Be content, 'tis but a nine days' wonder, and as one sorrow 
drives out another, one passion another, one cloud another, 
one rumour is expelled by another ; every day almost come 
new news unto our ears, as how the sun was eclipsed, 
meteors seen in the air, monsters born, prodigies, how the 

1 Tullius, epist. Dolabella, ta fort! sis eoram in&met injuriam. < BoethiuB, 
animo ; et tua moderatio, constantia, consol. lib. 4, pros. 8. 

Mem. 7.] Remedies against Discontents. 335 

Turks were overthrown in Persia, an earthquake in Hel- 
Tetia, Calabria, Japan, or China, an inundation in Holland, 
a great plague in Constantinople, a fire at Prague, a dearth 
in Germany, such a man is made a lord, a bishop, another 
hanged, deposed, pressed to death, for some murder, treason, 
rape, theft, oppression, all which we do hear at first with a 
kind of admiration, detestation, consternation, but bj and 
bj they are buried in silence ; thy father's dead, thy brother 
robbed, wife runs mad, neighbour hath killed himself; 'tis 
heavy, ghastly, fearful news at first, in every man's mouth, 
table-talk; but after a while who speaks or thinks of it? 
It will be so with thee and thine offence, it will be forgotten 
in an instant, be it theft, rape, sodomy, murder, incest, 
treason, &c, thou art not the first offender, nor shalt not be 
the last, 'tis no wonder, every hour such malefactors are 
called in question, nothing so common, Quocunqtie in poptdo, 
qtwcunque svh axe} Comfort thyself, thou art not the sole 
man. If he that were guiltless himself should fling the 
first stone at thee, and he alone should accuse thee that were 
faultless, how many executioners, how many accusers wouldst 
thou have ? If every man's sins were written in his fore- 
head, and secret faults known, how many thousands would 
parallel, if not exceed thine offence ? It may be the judge 
that gave sentence, the jury that condemned thee, the spec- 
tatoi*s that gazed on thee, deserved much more, and were 
far more guilty than thou thyself. But it is thine infelicity to 
be taken, to be made a public example of justice, to be a 
terror to the rest ; yet should every man have his desert, 
thou wouldest peradventure be a saint in comparison ; vexat 
censura columhas, poor souls are punished ; the great ones do 
twenty thousand times worse, and are not so much as spoken of. 

* " Non rete accipitri tenditur neque milvio, 

Qui male faciant nobis; illis qui nil faciunt tenditnr.*' 

" The net*8 not laid for kites or birds of prey, 
Bat for the harmless still our gins we lay/* 

1 *' Amongst people in eyery climate." ^ Ter. Phor. 

336 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 3. 

Be not dismayed then, humanum est errare, we are all 
sinners, dailj and hourly subject to temptations, the best of 
us is a hypocrite, a grievous offender in Grod's si;^t, Noah, 
Lot, David, Peter, Ac, how many mortal sins do we coni- 
mit ? Shall I say, be penitent, ask forgiveness, aad make 
amends by the sequel of thy life, for that foul offence thou 
hast committed ? recover thy credit by some noble exploit, as 
Themistocles did, for he was a most debauched and vicious 
youth, sed juventts maculas praclarts factis delevit, but made 
the world amends by brave exploits; at last become a new 
man, and seek to be reformed. He that runs away in a 
battle, as Demosthenes said, may fight again ; and he that 
hath a fall may stand as upright as ever he did before. 
Nemo desperet meliora lapsus, a wicked liver may be re- 
claimed, and prove an honest man; he that is odious in 
present, hissed out, an exile, may be received again with all 
men's favours, and singular applause; so TuUy was in 
Borne, Alcibiades in Athens. Let thy disgrace then be 
what it will, qvodjU, infectum non potest esse, that which is 
past cannot be recalled ; trouble not thyself, vex and grieve 
thyself no more, be it obloquy, disgrace, &c. No better way, 
than to neglect, contemn, or seem not to regard it, to make no 
reckoning of it, Deesse rohar arguU dicacitas; if thou be 
guiltless it concerns thee not: — 

1 *^ Irrita vaniloquse quid cnras spicula lingass, 
Latrantem curatne alta Diana caaem? " 

Doth the moon care for the barking of a dog ? They de- 
tract, scoff and rail, saith one,^ and bark at me on every 
side; but I, like that Albanian dog sometimes given to 
Alexander for a present, vindico me ah iUis soh contemptUy 
I lie still and sleep, vindicate myself by contempt alone. 
' Expers terroris AchiUes armaius / as a tortoise in his shell, 

1 Camerar. Emb. 61, cent. 8. " Why Diana care for the barking of a dog? " 
Khould you regard the harmless shafts of > Lipaius, elect, lib. 8, ult. Latrant me, 
a Tain-speaking tongue^oes the exalted jaoeo, ao taceo, &c. * Gatolliu. 

Mem. 7.] Remedies against Discontents. 337 

^ virtute med me involvo, or an urchin round, nil moror ictus j 
^ a lizard in camomile, I decline their furj and am safe. 

" Integritas virtusque suo munimine tuta, 
Non patet adversse morsibusinvidise : " 

" Virtue and integrity are their own fence, 
Care not for envy or what comes from thence.*' 

Let them rail then, scoff, and slander, sapiens contumelid 
non ajffficitury a wise man, Seneca thinks, is not moved be- 
cause he knows, contra Sycophantce morswm non est reme- 
dium, there is no remedy for it; kings and princes, wise, 
grave, prudent, holy, good men, divine, all are so served 
alike. * Jane a tergo qtiem nvUa ciconia pinsit, Ante- 
vorta and Postvorta, Jupiter's guardians, may not help in 
this case, they cannot protect; Moses had a Dathan, a 
Corath, David a Shimei, God himself is blasphemed ; naiidum 
fdix es si te nondum turha deridet. It is an ordinary thing 
so to be misused. * Regium est cum bene feceris male avdire, 
the chiefest men and most understanding are so vilified ; let 
him take his * course. And as that lusty courser in -ZEsop, 
that contemned the poor ass, came by and by after with his 
bowels burst, a pack on his back, and was derided of the 
same ass : contemnentur ah iis qvos ipsi priijis contempsere, et 
irridehuntur ah iis quos ipsi prius irrisere, they shall be con- 
temned and laughed to scorn of those whom they have for- 
merly derided. Let them contemn, defame, or undervalue, 
insult, oppress, scoff, slander, abuse, wrong, curse and swear, 
feign and lie, do thou comfort thyself with a good conscience, 
in sinu gaudeas, when they have all done,. ® " a good con- 
science is a continual feast," innocency will vindicate itself ; 
and which the poet gave out of Hercules, diisfruitur iratis, 
enjoy thyself, though all the world be set against thee, con- 

1 The Bymbol of I. Keyenheder, a Ca- iDsipientis sermone i>eudere? Tallius, 2, 

rinthian baron, saith Sambucus. 3 The de finibus. o Tua te conscientia sal- 

ftyinbol of QoDzaga, duke of Mantua, vare, in cubiculum ingredere, ubi secure 

> Fern. Sat. 1. * Magni animi est inju- requiescaa. Minuit se quodammodo pro- 

rias despicere, Seneca de Ira, cap. 31. ba bonitas conscientiee secretum, Boethi- 

6 Quid tnrpiua quam sapientis vitam ex us, 1. 1, pros. 4. 

VOL. II. 22 • 


338 Care of Mdancholy. [Part. II. sec. 8. 

temn and saj with him, Elogium mihi prm forihat^ my posj 
is, << not to be moved, that ^ my palladium, my breastplate, 
my buckler, with which I ward all injuries, offences, lies, 
slanders ; I lean upon that stake of modesty, so receive and 
break asunder all that foolish force of liver and spleen." 
And whosoever he is that shall observe these short instruc- 
tions, without all question he shall much ease and benefit 

In fine, if princes would do justice, judges be upright, cler- 
gymen truly devout, and so live as they teach, if great men 
would not be so insolent, if soldiers would quietly defend us, 
the poor would be patient, rich men would be liberal and 
humble, citizens honest, magistrates meek, superiors woufd 
give good example, subjects peaceable, young men would 
stand in awe ; if parents would be kind to their children, and 
they again obedient to their parents, brethren agree amongst 
themselves, enemies be reconciled, servants trusty to their 
masters, virgins chaste, wives modest, husbands would be lov- 
ing and less jealous ; if we could imitate Christ and his apos- 
tles, live after God's laws, these mischiefs would not so 
frequently happen amongst us ; but being most part so irrec- 
oncilable as we are, perverse, proud, insolent, factious, and 
malicious, prone to contention, anger and revenge, of such 
fiery spirits, so captious, impious, irreligious, so opposite to 
virtue, void of grace, how should it otherwise be? Many 
men are very testy by nature, apt to mistake, apt to quarrel, 
apt to provoke and misinterpret to the worst, everything that 
is said or done, and thereupon heap unto themselves a great 
deal of trouble, and disquietness to others, smatterers in other 
men's matters, talebearers, whisperers, liars, they cannot 
speak in season, or hold their tongues when they should, ^Ei 
suam partem itidem tacere, cum aliena est oratio ; they will 
speak more than comes to their shares, in all companies, and 
by those bad courses accumulate much evil to their own souls 

1 Ringantur licet et maledicant ; Palla- excipio et £rango stultifisimam Impetum 
diam illud pectori oppono. uon moveri : livoris. Putean. lib. 2, epist. 58. >Mil. 
consisto modestiae Teluti sadi innlteiu, glor. Act. 8, Plaatus. 

Mem. 7.J Remedies against DisamtenU. 339 

((jui contendit, dhi convidum facit), their life is a perpetual 
brawl, thej snarl like so many dogs, with their wives, chil- 
dren, servants, neighbours, and all the rest of th^ir friends, 
they can agree with nobody. But to such as are judicious, 
meek, submissive, and quiet, these matters are easily reme- 
died ; they will forbear upon all such occasions, neglect, con- 
temn, or take no notice of them, dissemble, or wisely turn it 
off. If it be a natural impediment, as a red nose, squint eyes, 
crooked legs, or any such imperfection, infirmity, disgrace, 
reproach, the best way is to speak of it first thyself, * and so 
thou shalt surely 'take away all occasions from others to jest 
at, or contemn, that they may perceive thee to be careless 
of it. Vatinius was wont to scoff at his own deformed feet, 
to prevent his enemies' obloquies and sarcasms in that kind ; 
or else by prevention, as Cotys, king of Thrace, that brake a 
company of fine glasses presented to him, with his own hands, 
lest he should be overmuch moved when they were broken 
by chance. And sometimes again, so that it be discreetly 
and moderately done, it shall not be amiss to make resistance, 
to take down such a saucy companion, no better means to 
vindicate himself to purchase final peace ; for he that suffers 
himself to be ridden, or through pusillanimity or sottishness 
will let every man baffle him, shall be a common laughing- 
stock to flout at. As a cur that goes through a village, if he 
clap his tail between his legs, and run away, every cur will 
insult over him ; but if he bristle up himself, and stand to it, 
give but a countersnarl, there's not a dog dares meddle with 
him : much is in a man's courage and discreet carriage of 

Many other grievances there are, which happen to mortals 
in this life, from friends, wives, children, servants, masters, 
companions, neighbours, our own defaults, ignorance, errors, 
intemperance, indiscretion, infirmities, &c., and many good 
remedies to mitigate and oppose them, many divine precepts 

' Bion said his f ither was a rogue, his to show that nought belonged to him but 
mother a whore, to prerent obloquy, and goods of the mind. 

340 Chire of Melancholy. [Part. H. sec. 3. 

to counterpoise our hearts, special antidotes both in Scripture 
and human authors, which, whoso will observe, shall purchase 
much ease and quietness unto himself; I will point out a few. 
Those prophetical, apostolical admonitions are well known to 
all ; what Solomon, Siracides, our Saviour Christ himself 
hath said tending to this purpose, as " Fear God ; obey the 
prince ; be sober and watch ; pray continually ; be angry but 
sin not ; remember thy last ; fashion not yourselves to this 
world, &c. ; apply yourselves to the times ; strive not with a 
mighty man ; recompense good for evil ; let nothing be done 
through contention or vainglory, but with meekness* of mind, 
every man esteeming of others better than himself ; love one 
another ; " or that epitome of the law and the prophets, which 
our Saviour inculcates, " love God above all, thy neighbour 
as thyself;" and "whatsoever you would that men should do 
unto you, so do unto them ; " which Alexander Severus writ 
in letters of gold, and used as a motto, ^ Hierom commends 
to Celantia as an excellent way, amongst so many enticements 
and worldly provocations, to rectify her life. Out of human 
authors take these few cautions, * " Know thyself. ' Be con- 
tented with thy lot. * Trust not wealth, beauty, nor parasites, 
they will bring thee to destruction. * Have peace with all 
men, war with vice. • Be not idle. ' Look before you leap. 
* Beware of. Had I wist. • Honour thy parents, speak well 
of friends. Be temperate in four things, lingua^ loctUis, octdts, 
et poculis* Watch thine eye. *° Moderate thine expenses. 
Hear much, speak little, ^^ sustine et ahstine. If thou seest 
aught amiss in another, mend it in thyself. Keep thine own 
counsel, reveal not thy secrets, be silent in thine intentions. 
** Give not ear to taletellers, babblers, be not scurrilous in 
conversation : ^' jest without bitterness ; give no man cause 

1 Lib. 2, ep. 25. ' ^osce teipsum. rentem. si lequum ; aliter, feras ; pneetes 

s Contentus abi. ^ Ne Adas opibiu, parentioiu pietatem, unicis dilectionem. 

neque parasitis, trahunt in praecipitiam. lo Comprime linguam. Quid de quoque 

6 Pacem cum nomiDibus habe, bellum viro et cui dicas saepe cayeto. Libentins 

cum yitiis. Othon. 2, imperat. symb, audias qudim loquaris; "vire ut TiTSS. 

« Daemon te nunquam otiosum inveniati " Eptctetus : optime feceris si ea fUgeiis 

Hieron. 7 piu deliberandum quod quae in alio reprehendis. Nemini dixeria 

Btatuendum est semel. « Insipientis quae nolis efferri. i« Fuge snsurrones. 

est dicere non putSLram. ^ Ame8 pa- Percontatoiem fkigito, &c. u Siat 

Mdm. 7.] Remedies against iHscontents. 341 

of offence ; set thine house in order ; * take heed of surety- 
ship. ^Fide et diffide^ as a fox on the ice, take heed whom 
you trust. ' Live not beyond thy means. * Give cheerfully. 
Pay thy dues willingly. Be not a slave to thy money ; *omit 
not occasion, embrace opportunity, lose no time. Be humble 
to thy superiors, respective to thine equals, affable to all, *but 
not familiar. Flatter no man. ^ Lie not, dissemble not. 
Keep thy word and promise, be constant in a good resolu-. 
tion. Speak truth. Be not opiniative, maintain no factions. 
Lay no ^vagers, make no comparisons. ^ Find no faults, 
meddle not with other men's matters. Admire not thyself. 
• Be not proud or popular. Insult not. Fortunam reverenter 
hahe, *® Fear not that which cannot be avoided. " Grieve 
not for that which cannot be recalled. " Undervalue not thy- 
self. ^Accuse no man, commend no man rashly. Go not to 
law without great cause. Strive not with a greater man. 
Cast not off an old friend, take heed of a reconciled enemy. 
" If thou come as a guest stay not too long. Be not un- 
thankful. Be meek, merciful, and patient. Do good to all. 
Be not fond of fair words. " Be not a neuter in a faction ; 
moderate thy passions. ^^ Think no place without a witness. 
" Admonish thy friend in secret, commend him in public 
Keep good company. ** Love others to be beloved thyself. 
Ama tanquam osurus. Amicus tardo fias. Provide for a 
tempest Noli irritare crahrones. Do not prostitute thy soul 
for gain. Make not a fool of thyself to make others merry. 
Marry not an old crony or a fool for money. Be not over- 
solicitous or curious. Seek that which may be found. Seem 
not greater than thou art Take thy pleasure soberly. 

sales sine rilitate. Sen. i Sponde, quod vitari non potest. ii De re amis- 

pnesto noxa. s Camerar. emb. 66. cent, sa irreparabili ne doleas. 13 Tanti eris 

2, cave cui credas, yel nemini Adas. Epi- aliis quanti tibi faeris. "^ Neminem 

channiis. * Tecom habita. < Bis dat cito laudes yel accuses. ^^ Nollius hos- 

qni cito dat. & Post est oocasio calra. pitis grata est mora longa. ^^ Solonis 

6 Nimia JSuniliaritas parit contemptum. lex apud Arlstotelem ; Gellius, lib. 2, 

7 Mendacium seryile vitium. ^ Area- cap. 12. i* Nullum locum putes sine 
nnm nequeinscrutaberis uUius unquam, teBte, semper adesse Deum cogita. 
eommissumque teges, Hor. lib. 1, ep. 19. it Secretd amioos admon^^ lauda palam. 
Nee tua laudabis studia autalienarepren- ^^ Ut ameris, amabilis esto. Eros et An- 
des. Hor. ep. lib. 18. <> Ne te qusesiv- teros gemelli Veneris, amatio^et redama- 
eris extra. lo Stultum est timere, tio. Plat. 

542 Our€ of Mdanchjoly. [Part. n. sec. 3. 

Ocymum ne tento, ^Live merrilj as thou canst. 'Take 
heed by other men's examples. Go as thou wouldest be 
met, sit as thou wouldest be found, ' yield to the time, follo^v 
the stream. Wilt thou live free from fears and cares ? ^ Live 
innocently, keep thyself upright, thou needest no other keep- 
er," &c. Look for more in Isocrates, Seneca, Plutarch, 
Epictetus, &c, and for defect, consult with cheese trenchers 
and painted cloths. 

MEMB. Vni. 

Against Melancholy itself. 

"Every man," saith * Seneca, "thinks his own burden 
the heaviest," and a melancholy man above all others com- 
plains most; weariness of life, abhorring all company and 
light, fear, sorrow, suspicion, anguish of mind, bashfulness, 
and those other dread symptoms of body and mind, must 
needs aggravate this misery ; yet compared to other maladies, 
they are not so heinous as they be taken. For first this dis- 
ease is either in habit or disposition, curable or incurable. 
If new and in disposition, 'tis commonly pleasant, and it may 
be helped. If inveterate, or a habit, yet they have Ujicida 
intervaUa, sometimes well, and sometimes ill ; or if more con- 
tinuate, as the ^Vegentes were to the Romans, 'tis hosiis 
magis assiduus quam gravis, a more durable enemy than 
dangerous ; and amongst many inconveniences, some com- 
forts are annexed to it First it is not catching, and as 
Erasmus comforted himself, when he was grievously sick of 
the stone, though it was most troublesome, and an intolerable 
pain to him, yet it was no whit offensive to others, not loath- 
some to the spectators, ghastly, fulsome, terrible, as plagues, 

1 Dnm fitta sinunt yivite laeti, Seneca, nee contra flamina flato. * Nulla oer- 

2 Id apprime in vHa utile, ex allis obser- tior custodia innocentil : inezpugnabile 

Tare sibi quod ex U8U Hiet. Ter. ^Dum munimentnm munimento non egere. 

fViror in cnrsu current! cede Airori. Cret- ft Unicuique snum onus iutolerabile ▼!- 

bandum cum Crete. Temporibus serri, detur. o LiTios. 

Mem. 8.] Remedies against Discontents, 343 

apoplexies, leprosies, wounds, sores, tetters, pox, pestilent 
agues are, which either admit of no company, terrify or 
ofiend those that are present. In this malady, that which is, 
is wholly to themselves ; and those symptoms not so dreadful, 
if they be compared to the opposite extremes. They are 
most part bashful, suspicious, solitary, &c., therefore no such 
ambitious, impudent intruders as some are, no sharkers, no 
cony-catchers, no prowlers, no smellfeasts, praters, panders, 
parasites, bawds, drunkards, whoremasters ; necessity and 
defect compel them to be honest ; as Mitio told Demea in the 
^ comedy, 

'* Hffic si neque ego neque tu fecimus, 
Non sinit egestas facere nos." 

" K we be honest 'twas poverty made us so ; " if we melan- 
choly men be not as bad as he that is worst, 'tis our dame 
melancholy kept us so : Non deerat voluntas sed facvltas,^ 

Besides they are freed in this from many other infirmities, 
solitariness makes them more apt to contemplate, suspicion 
wary, which is a necessary: humour in these times, ^Nam pol 
qui maxime cavet, is scspe cautor captus est, ^^ he that takes 
most heed, is often circumvented and overtaken." Fear and 
sorrow keep them temperate and sober, and free them from 
any dissolute acts, which jollity and boldness thrust men 
upon ; they are therefore no sivarii, roaring boys, thieves or 
assassins. As they are soon dejected, so they are as soon, by 
soft words and. good persuasions, reared. Wearisomeness of 
life makes them they are not so besotted on the transitory 
vain pleasures of the world. If they dote in one thing, they 
are wise and well understanding in most other. If it be in- 
veterate, they are insensati, most part doting, or quite mad, 
insensible of any wrongs, ridiculous to others, but most happy 
and secure to themselves. Dotage is a state which many 
much magnify and commend ; so is simplicity and folly, as 
he said, ^ hie furor, 6 superi, sit mihi perpetuus. Some think 

1 Ter. Seen. 2, Adelphns. < " 'Twas not the will but the way was wantii^.*' 
8 Plautus. f Petronius Catul. 


344: Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

fools and dizzards live the merriest lives, as Ajax in Sopho- 
cles, Nihil scire vita jncundisdma, " 'tis the pleasantest life 
to know nothing ; iners mahrum remedium ignorantia, " igno- 
rance is a downright remedy of evils." These curious arts 
and laborious sciences, Galen's, TuUy's, Aristotle's, Justinian's, 
do but trouble the world some think ; we might live better 
with that illiterate Virginian simplicity, and gross ignorance ; 
entire idiots do best, they are not macerated with cares, tor- 
mented with fears and anxiety, as other wise men are ; for 
as *he said, if folly were a pain, you should hear them howl, 
roar, and cry out in every house, as you go by in the street, 
but they are most free, jocund, and merry, and in some 
^countries, as amongst the Turks, honoured for saints, and 
abundantly maintained out of the common stock.' They are 
no dissemblers, liars, hypocrites, for fools and madmen tell 
commonly truth. In a word, as they are distressed, so are 
they pitied, which some hold better than to be envied, better 
to be sad than merry, better to be foolish and quiet, qudm 
sapere et ringi^ to be wise and still vexed ; better to be mis- 
erable than happy ; of two extremes it is the best. 


SuBSECT. I. — Of Physic which cureth with Medicines. 

After a long and tedious discourse of these six non-nat- 
ural things and their several rectifications, all which are com- 
prehended in diet, I am come now at last to Pharmaceutice, 
or that kind of physic which cureth by medicines, which 
apothecaries most part make, mingle, or sell in their shops. 
Many cavil at this kind of physic, and hold it unnecessary, 
unprofitable to this or any other disease, because those coun- 
tries which use it least, live longest, and are best in health, 

1 Panneno CseleatinsB, Act. 8. Si stul- lib. 1, fol. 89. ^ Qujg hodie beatior, 
titia dolor esaet, in nulla non domo eju- quam cni licet stultum esse, et eorundem 
latus audires. > Busbequius. t^ands, immanitatibus tvm. Sat. Menip. 

Mem. 1, sabs. 1.] Medicinal Physic, 345 

as ^ Hector Boethius relates of the isles of Orcades, the peo- 
ple are still sound of hody and mind, without any use of 
physic, they live commonly 120 years, and Ortelius in his 
itinerary of the inhabitants of the Forest of Arden, ^ " they 
are very painful, longlived, sound," &c. ' Martianus Capella, 
speaking of the Indians of his time, saith, they were (much 
like our western Indians now) " bigger than ordinary men, 
bred coarsely, very longlived, insomuch, that he that died at 
a hundred years of age, went before his time," &c. Dami- 
anus A-Goes, Saxo-Grammaticus, Aubanus Bohemus, say 
the like of them that live in Norway, Lapland, Finmark, Bi- 
armia, Corelia, all over Scandia, and those northern countries, 
they are most healthful, and Very longlived, in which places 
there is no use at all of physic, the name of it is not once 
heard. Dithmarus Bleskenius in his accurate description of 
Iceland, 1607, makes mention, amongst other matters, of the 
inhabitants, and their manner of living, * " which is dried fish 
instead of bread, butter, cheese, and salt meats, most part 
they drink water and whey, and yet without physic or physi- 
cian, they live many of them 250 years." I find the same 
relation by Lerius, and some other writers, of Indians in 
America. Paulus Jovius in his description of Britain, and 
Levinus Lemnius, observe as much of this our island, that 
there was of old no use of *^ physic amongst us, and but little 
at this day, except it be for a few nice idle citizens, surfeiting 
courtiers, and stall-fed gentlemen lubbers. The country peo- 
ple use kitchen physic, and common experience tells us, that 
they live freest from all manner of infirmities, that make 
least use of apothecaries* physic. Many are overthrown by 
preposterous use of it, and thereby get their bane, that might 
otherwise have escaped ; * some think physicians kill as many 
as they save, and who can tell, ^ " Qvot Themison €Bgro8 au- 

1 Lib. Higt. « Parvo TiTcnteB. labo- loco panis habent ; ita multos annos sappe 

riofli, longsevi, buo content!, ad centum 250 absque medico et medicini Tivunt. 

annoii Tivunt. » lib. 6 de Nup. Philol. » Lib. de 4 complex. « Per morteB 

Ultra humanam fragilitatem prolixi, ut agunt ezperimenta et animas nostras ne- 

immatur^ pereat qui centenarlus moria- gotiantur ; et quod aliis exitiale homi- 

tur, &c. * Victus eorum caseo et lacte nem occidere. iis impunltas summa. 

coDfliatit, potua aqua et serum ; places Plinius. ' Juven. 

346 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. IL see. 4. 

tumno Occident uno f"^ How many murders they make in a 
year," quibus impune licet hominem occidere, ^ that may freely 
kill folks/' and have a reward for it, and according to the 
Dutch proverb, a new physician must have a new churchyard ; 
and who daily observes it not ? Many that did ill under physi- 
cians' hands, have happily escaped, when they have been 
given over by them, left to God and nature and themselves ; 
'twas Pliny's dilemma of old, ^ " every disease is either cur- 
able or incurable, a man recovers of it or is kiUed by it ; both 
ways physic is to be rejected. If it be deadly it cannot be 
cured ; if it may be helped, it requires no physician, nature 
will expel it of itself." Plato made it a great sign of an in- 
temperate and corrupt conmioliwealth, where lawyers and 
physicians did abound; and the Romans distasted them so 
much that they were often banished out of their city, as 
Pliny and Celsus relate, for 600 years not admitted. It is 
no art at all, as some hold, no not worthy the name of a hb- 
eral science (nor law neither), as ^ Pet And. Canonherius, a 
patrician of Rome and a great doctor himself, " one of their 
own tribe," proves by sixteen arguments, because it is merce- 
nary as now used, base, and as fiddlers play for a reward. 
Juridicis, medicis, fisco fas vivere rapto^ 'tis a corrupt trade, 
no science, art, no profession ; the beginning, practice, and 
progress of it, all is nought, full of imposture, uncertainty, 
and doth generally more harm than good. The devil him- 
self was thQ first inventor of it : Tnventum est medicina meumy 
said Apollo, and what was Apollo, but the devil? The 
Greeks first made an art of it, and they were all deluded by 
Apollo's sons, priests, oracles. If we may believe Varro, 
Pliny, Columella, most of their best medicines were derived 
from his oracles, ^sculapius his son had his temples erected 
to his deity, and did many famous cures ; but, as Lactantius 
holds, he was a magician, a mere imposter, and as his succes- 

1 Ornnis morbus lethalis ant cniabiliB, non requixit mecUciun : natura expellet. 

ia Titam desiiut ant in mortem. Utro- * In interpretationes politico-moxales in 7 

que igitur modo medicina inutilis ; si Aphorism. Hippoc. librofl. 
tetlialis, cuiaii non potest; si cuiabilis, 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Medicinal Physic, 347 

sors, Fhaon, Fodalirius, Melampius, Menecrates (another 
god), by charms, speUs, and ministry of bad spirits, performed 
most of their cares. The first that ever wrote in physic to 
any purpose, was Hippocrates, and his disciple and commen- 
tator Galen, whom Scaliger calls Fimbriam Hippocratis ; but 
as ^ Cardan censures them, both immethodical and obscure, 
as all those old ones are, their precepts confused, their medi- 
cines obsolete, and now most part rejected. Those cures 
which they did, Paracelsus holds, were rather done out of 
their patients' confidence, ^and good opinion they had of 
them, than out of any skiU of theirs, which was very small, 
he saith, they themselves idiots and infants, as are all their 
academical followers. The Arabians received it from the 
Greeks, and so the Latins, adding new' precepts and medi- 
cines of their own, but so imperfect still, that through igno- 
rance of professors, impostors, mountebanks, empirics, dis- 
agreeing of sectaries (which are as many almost as there 
be diseases), envy, covetousness, and the like, they do much 
harm amongst us. They are so different in their consulta- 
tions, prescriptions, mistaking many times the parties' con- 
stitution, * disease, and causes of it, they give quite contrary 
physic j * " one saith this, another that," out of singularity or 
opposition, as he said of Adrian, muUitudo medicorum prin- 
cipem interfecity " a multitude of physicians hath killed the 
emperor;" plus a medico quarn a morho periculi, "more 
danger there is from the physician, than from the disease." 
Besides, there is much imposture and malice amongst them. 
" All arts (saith * Cardan) admit of cozening, physic, amongst 
the rest, doth appropriate it to herself;" and tells a story of 
one Curtius, a physician in Venice ; because he was a stran- 
ger, and practised amongst them, the rest of the physicians 
did still cross him in all his precepts. If he prescribed hot 
medicines they would prescribe cold, miscentes pro ccdidis 

1 Pne&t. de contrad. med. * Opinio remedium pro alio. * Contrarias prof- 
fecit medicos : a fiur gown, a velvet cap, erunt sententias- Card. ^ Lib. 8 de 
the name of a doctor is all in all. sap. Omnes artes ftandem admittimt, 
> Morbus alius pro alio curatur ; aliud sola medicina sponte earn accersit. 

348 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 4. 

frigida^ pro frigidis kumida, pro purgantibus astringenJdOj 
binders for purgatives, omnia perturhahant. If the party 
miscarried, Curtium damnabant, Curtius killed him, that dis- 
agreed from them ; if he recovered, then * they cured him 
themselves. Much emulation, imposture, malice, there is 
amongst them : if they be honest and mean well, yet a knave 
apothecary that administers the physic, and makes the medi- 
cine, may do infinite harm, by his old obsolete doses, adulter- 
ine dinigs, bad mixtures, quid pro quo, &c. See Fuchsius, 
lib. 1, sect 1, cap, 8, Cordus's Dispensatory, and Brass! vola's 
Examen simpl, &c. But it is their ignorance that doth more 
harm than rashness, their art is wholly conjectural, if it be 
an art, uncertain, imperfect, and got by killing of men, they 
are a kind of butchers, leeches, men-slayers; chirurgeons 
and apothecaries especially, that are indeed the physicians* 
hangmen, camijices, and common executioners; though to 
say truth, physicians themselves come not far behind; for 
according to that facete epigram of Maximilianus Urentius, 
what's the difference ? 

'* Ghinirgus medico quo dlffert ? scilicet isto, 
Enecat hie succis, enecat ille mana : 
Carnifice hoc ambo tantum differre videntur, 
Tarditis hi faciunt, quod facit ille cit6.'* ^ 

But I return to their skill ; many diseases they cannot 
cure at all, as apoplexy, epilepsy, stone, strangury, gout, 
ToUere nodosam nesdt medicina Podagram /• quartan agues, 
a common ague sometimes stumbles them all, they cannot so 
much as ease, they know not how to judge of it If by 
pulses, that doctrine, some hold, is wholly superstitious, and 
I dare boldly say with * Andrew Dudeth, " that variety of 
pulses, described by Galen, is neither observed nor under- 
stood of any." And for urine, that is meretrix medicorum, 

1 Omuls SBgrotus proprift culpft perit, does in an instant.** 8 " Medicine 

sed nemo nisi medict beneflcio restituitur. cannot cure the knotty gout." * Lib. 

Agrippa. i <' How does the surgeon 8. Grat. ep. Winceslao Raphseno. Ansim 

differ (h>m the doctor? In this respect : dicere, tot pulsuum diffeientias, qua 

one kills by drugs, the other by the describuntur a Galeno, neo a quoquam 

hand ; both only differ firom the hang- intelligi, nee obserrari posse, 
man in this way, they do slowly what he 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Medicinal Physic, 349 

the most deceitful thing of all, as Forestus and some other 
physicians have proved at large; I say nothing of critic 
days, errors in indications, &c The most rational of them, 
and skilful, are so often deceived, that as ^ Tholosanus infers 
•* I had rather believe and commit myself to a mere empiric, 
than to a mere doctor, and I cannot sufficiently commend 
that custom of the Babylonians, that have no professed phy- 
sicians, but bring all their patients to the market to be 
cured ; " which Herodotus relates of the Egyptians ; Strabo, 
Sardus, and Aubanus Bohemus of many other nations. 
And those that prescribed physic, amongst them, did not so 
arrogantly take upon them to cure all diseases, as our pro- 
fessors do, but some one, some another, as their skill and 
experience did serve ; * " one cured the eyes, a second the 
teeth, a third the head, another the lower parts," &c., not 
for gain, but in charity to do good, they made neither art, 
profession, nor trade of it, which in other places was ac- 
customed ; and therefore Cambyses in • Xenophon told Cyrus, 
that to his thinking physicians "were like tailors and 
cobblers, the one mended our sick bodies, as the other did 
our clothes." But I will urge these cavilling and contumeli- 
ous arguments no farther, lest some physician should mistake 
me, and deny me physic when I am sick ; for my part, I am 
well persuaded of physic ; I can distinguish the abuse from 
the use, in this and many other arts and sciences ; ^ JMud 
vtnum, aliud ebrietas, wine and drunkenness are two distinct 
things. I acknowledge it a most noble and divine science, 
insomuch that Apollo, JSsculapius, and the first founders 
of it, merttd pro diis hahiti, were worthily counted gods by 
succeeding ages, for the excellency of their invention. And 
whereas Apollo at Delos, Venus at Cyprus, Diana at Ephe- 
sus, and those other gods were confined and adored alone 
in some peculiar places: ^sculapius had his temple and 

1 Lib. 28, cap. 7, syntax, art. mirab. singulorum morborum sunt singuli med- 

Mallem ego expertis credere solum, quam ici ; alius curat oculos, alius deutes, alius 

mer£ ratiocinantibus : Deque satis laudare caput, partes occultas alius. s Cyrop. 

possum ioBtitutum Babylonicum, &c. lib. 1. Velut vestium ftactarum resarci- 

* Herod. Euterpe, de iEgyptiis. Apudeos natoreSj &;c. 4 Olirys. horn. 

350 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 4. 

altars everywhere, in Corinth, Laoedaemon, Athens, Thebes, 
Epidaurus, &c. Pausanias records, for the latitude of his 
art, dietj, worth, and necessity. With all virtuous and wise 
men, therejR)re, I honour the name and calling, as I am en- 
joined " to honour the physician for necessity's sake. The 
knowledge of the physician lifleth up his head, and' in the 
sight of great men he shall he admired. The Lord hath 
created medicines of the earth, and he that is wise will not 
ahhor them," Ecclus. Iviii. 1. But of this noble subject how 
many panegyrics are worthily written ? For my part, as 
Sallust said of Carthage, prcestat silere quam pauca dicere ; 
I have said, yet one thing I will add, that this kind of 
physic is very moderately and advisedly to be used, upon 
good occasion, when the former of diet will not take place. 
And 'tis no other which I say, than that which Arnoldus 
prescribes in his 8 Aphorism. ^"A discreet and goodly 
physician doth first endeavour to expel a disease by medici- 
nal diet, then by pure medicine ; " and in his ninth, ^ " he 
that may be cured by diet, must not meddle with physic" 
So in 11 Aphorism. '"A modest and wise physician will 
never hasten to use medicines, but upon urgent necessity, and 
that sparingly too;" because (as he adds in his 13 Apho- 
rism), *" Whosoever takes much physic in his youth, shall 
soon bewail it in his old age ; " purgative physic especially, 
which doth much debilitate nature. For which causes some 
physicians refrain from the use of purgatives, or else spar- 
ingly use them. * Henricus Ayrerus in a consultation for a 
melancholy person, would have him take as few purges as 
he could, "because there be no such medicines, which do not 
steal away some of our strength, and rob the parts of our 
body, weaken nature, and cause that cacochymia,'* which 
• Celsus and others observe, or ill digestion, and bad juice 

1 Prndens et plus medicus, morbum nisi eogente necessitate. * Quicanque 

ante expellere satagit, cibis medicinali- pharmacatur in juventute, deflebit in 

bus, quam puris medicinis. s Cufcun- senectute. ^ Hildesh. spic. 2, de mel. 

que potest per alimenta restitui sanitas, fol. 276. Nulla est ferm^ medicina pur- 

fugiendus est penitus usus medicamen- gans, qusB non aliquam de viribus et 

torum. s Modestus et sapiens medicus, partibus corporis depreedatur. o Lib. 1, 

nunquam properabit ad pbarmaciamj et Bart lib. 8, cap. 12. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Medicinal Physic, 351 

through all* the parts of it Galen himself oonfesseth) ^ << that 
purgative physic is contrary to nature, takes away some of 
our hest spirits, and consumes the very substance of our 
bodies ; " But this, without question, is to be understood of 
such purges as are unseasonably or immoderately taken; 
they have their excellent use in this, as well as most other 
infirmities. Of alteratives and cordials no man doubts, be 
they simples, or compounds. I will, amongst that infinite 
variety of medicines which I find in every pharmacopoeia, 
every physician, herbalist, &c., single out some of the chiefest. 

SuBSECT. IL — Simples proper to Melancholy, against Exotic 


Medicines properly applied to melancholy, are either 
simple or compound. Simples are alterative or purgative. 
Alteratives are such as correct, strengthen nature, alter, any 
way hinder or resist the disease ; and they be herbs, stones, 
minerals, &c, all proper to this humour. For as there be 
divers distinct infirmities continually vexing us, 

2 " Nova(M <5* av&pCmoiat k<^* Vf^PV k^* ^"^^ wktI 
AifTO/MTOi (jtoiTCxyi koku ^vrfToiai (pepwaai 
Hty^, iirel i^tnnjv k^eCkeTO fujTcira Z«)f.** 

^ Diseases steal both day and night on men, 
For Jupiter hath taken voice from them: '* 

So there be several remedies, as ' he saith, " each disease a 
medicine, for every humour ; " and as some hold, every clime, 
every country, and more than that, every private place hath 
his proper remedies growing in it, peculiar almost to the 
domineering and most frequent maladies of it. As *one 
discourseth, " wormwood groweth sparingly in Italy, because 
most part there they be misaffected with hot diseases ; but 
henbane, poppy, and such cold herbs ; with us, in Germany 

1 De yict. acut. Omne purgans medi- tus, denar. med. Qnaecnnque regio pro- 

camentum, corpori purgato contrarium, docit simplicia, pro morbls regionis : 

&;c., snccoB et spiritus abducit, substan- crescit raro absynthium in Italia^ quod 

tiam corporis aufert. > Hesiod. op. ibi plerumqne morbi calidi, sed cicnta, 

< Heumius, prsef. pra. med. Quot mor- papaver, et herbee fHgidffi ; apud nos 

borum sunt ideae, tot remediorum gen- Germanos et Polonos ubique provenit 

era variis potentiis decorata. * Penot- absynthium. 

352 Cure of Melancholy, [Part n. sec. 4. 

and Poland, great store of it in every waste." 'Baraceflus, 
Horto genially and Baptista Porta, Physiogrwmicce^ lib. 6, cap. 
23, give many instances and examples of it, and bring many 
other proofs. For that cause belike that learned Fuchsius 
of Nuremburg, ^ " when he came into a village, considered 
always what herbs did grow most frequently about it, and 
those he distilled in a silver alembic, making use of others 
amongst them as occasion served." I know tjiat many are 
of opinion, our northern simples are weak, imperfect, not so 
well concocted, of such force, as those in the southern parts, 
not so fit to be used in physic, and will, therefore fetch their 
drugs afar off: senna, cassia out of ^gypt, rhubarb from 
Barbary, aloes from Socotra; turbith, agaric, myrobalans, 
hermodactyls, from the East Indies, tobacco from the West, 
and some as far as China, hellebore from the Antycirae, or 
that of Austria which bears the purple flower, which Mat- 
thiolus so much approves, and so of the rest In the king- 
dom of Valencia in Spain, * Maginus commends two moun- 
tains, Mariola and Renagolosa, famous for simples ; ' Lean- 
der Albertus, * Baldus a mountain near the Lake Venacus in 
the territory of Verona, to which all the herbalists in the 
country continually flock ; Ortelius one in Apulia, Munster, 
Mons major in Istria ; others Montpelier in France ; Prosper 
Altinus prefers Egyptian simples, Garcias ab Horto Indian 
before the rest, another those of Italy, Crete, &c. Many 
times they are over-curious in this kind, whom Fuchsius 
taxeth, InstiL I. 1, sec, 1, cap, 1, *" that think they do noth- 
ing, except they rake all over India, Arabia, -Ethiopia, for 
remedies, and fetch their physic from the three quarters of 
the world, and from beyond the Garamantes. Many an old 
wife or country woman doth often more good with a few 

1 Quum fli yillam yenit, consideravit Itiner. Gallia. * Baldus mons prope 

quae ibi crescebant medicameata simplicia Benacum herbilegis mazime notos. 

Arequentiora, et Us plerumque usus dis- 6 Qui se nihil effecisse arbitrantur, nisi 

tillatis, et alitor, alimbacum ideo argen- Indiam, iBthiopiam, Arabiam, et ultra 

teum circumferens. 2 Herbae medicis Garamantas a tribus mundi partibus 

utiles omnium in Apulia feracissimee. exquisita remedia corradunt. Tutius 

8 Qeog. ad quos magnus herbariorum saepe medetur rustica anus una, &c. 
niunerus undique confluit. Sincerus 

■^-Vr»^ — .1 J mm --^ — -^ — r— yr^r— jr--»T"— r^ — : <«•  — ^----»-— y..,-. - - < j m, —  — "-^^ 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Medicinal Physic, 353 

known and common garden herbs, than our bombast physi- 
cians with all their prodigious, sumptuous, far-fetched, rare, 
conjectural medicines ; " without all question if we have not 
these rare exotic simples, we hold that at home which is in 
virtue equivalent unto them, ours will serve as well as theirs, 
if they be taken in proportionable quantity, fitted and quali- 
fied aright, if not much better, and more proper to our con- 
stitutions. But so 'tis for the most part, as Pliny writes to 
Gallus, *"We are careless of that which is near us, and 
follow that which is afar off, to know which we will travel 
and sail beyond the seas, wholly neglecting that which is 
under our eyes." Opium in Turkey doth sdarce offend, with 
us iQ a small quantity it stupefies ; cicuta or hemlock is a 
strong poison in Greece, but with us it hath no such violent 
effects: I conclude with I. Voschius, who as he mucb in- 
veighs against those exotic medicines, so he promiseth by our 
European, a full cure and absolute of all diseases ; a capite 
ad ccdcem, nostrce regionis herhcB nostris corporilms magis 
conducuTvt, our own simples agree best with us. It was a 
thing that Femelius much laboured in his French practice, 
to reduce all his cure to our proper and domestic physic; 
so did ^ Janus Cornarius, and Martin Rulandus in Germany, 
T. B. with us, as appeareth by a treatise of his divulged in 
our tongue 1615, to prove the sufficiency of English medi- 
cines, to the cure of all manner of diseases. If our simples 
be not altogether of such force, or so apposite, it may be, 
if like iudustry were used, those far-fetched drugs would 
prosper as well with us, as in those countries whence now 
we have them, as well as cherries, artichokes, tobacco, and 
many such. There have been divers worthy physicians, 
which have tried excellent conclusions in this kind, and 
many diligent, painful apothecaries, as Gesner, Besler, Ge- 
rard, &c., but amongst the rest those famous public gardens 

1 Ep. lib. 8. Proximorum incuriosi mus. « Exotica r^ecit, domeaticis 80- 

longinqua sectamur, et ad ea cognoscen- lum nos contentos esse yolult. MelcU. 

da iter ingredi et mare transmittere sole- Adamus, yit. ejus. 
muB; at qua sub oculis posita negligi- 

VOL. II. 28 

354 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

of Padua in Italy, Nuremburg in Germany, Leyden in 
Holland, Montpelier in France (and ours in Oxford now in 
fieri, at the cost and charges of the Right Honourable the 
Lord Dan vers. Earl of Danby), are much to be commended, 
wherein all exotic plants almost are to be seen, and liberal 
allowance yearly made for their better maintenance, that 
young students may be the sooner informed in the knowl- 
edge of them ; which as * Fuchsius holds, " is most necessary 
for that exquisite manner of curing," and as great a shame 
for a physician not to observe them, as for a workman not to 
know his axe, saw, square, or any other tool which he must 
of necessity use. 

SuBSECT. ni. — Alteratives, Herbs, other VegetaMes, S^c. 

AjkiONGST these 800 simples, which Galeottus reckons up, 
lib, 3, de promise, doctor, cap. 3, and many exquisite herbal- 
ists have written of, these few following alone I find ap- 
propriated to this humour; of which some be alteratives; 
^ " which by a secret force," saith Eenodaeus, " and special 
quality expel future diseases, perfectly cure those which are, 
and many such incurable effects." This is as well observed 
in other plants, stones, minerals, and creatures, as in herbs, 
in other maladies as in this. How many things are related 
of a man's skull ? What several virtues of corns in a horse- 
leg, • of a wolf's liver, &c. ? Of * divers excrements of beasts, 
all good against several diseases ? What extraordinary vir- 
tues are ascribed unto plants? ^Satyrium et eruca penem 
erigunt, vitex et nymphea semen extinguurU, *some herbs 
provoke lust, some again, as agnus castus, water-lily, quite 
extinguisheth seed ; poppy causeth sleep, cabbage resisteth 
drunkenness, &c., and that which is more to be admired, that 
such and such plants should have a peculiar virtue to such 
particular parts, "^ as to the head, anise-seeds, foalfoot, betony, 

1 Instit. 1. 1, cap. 8, sec. l,.ad exqnisi- » Galen, lib. epar. lupi hepaticos cunt, 

tam curandi rationem, quorum cognitio * Stercus pecori« ad Epilepsiam, &c. 

imprimis necessaria est. 2 Quae caecSi 6 Priestpintle, rocket. « Sabina fsetum 

vi ac speciflca qualitate morbos futu- educit. 7 Wecker. Vide Oswaldum 

roa arcent, lib. 1, cap. 10, Instit. Phar. Crollium, lib. de intemis rerum signatu- 

^., " J* 'J> P^^',^srjSi.^r^' ;:,- ^- ,^*— w— i^.^. -.^w^— -'»'^— •: < ^ .^.^p m i'mi  ^ni *" — •;:*i»« .^^lai^i'i - a^ i n tf w; ^^>w^^p^M>M^^|g^«>fp<qi>— iFiff^fmwgrTi^^w 

Mem. 1, snbs. 8.] Medicinal Physic. 355 

calamint, eyebright, lavender, bays, roses, rue, sage, marjoram, 
peony, &c. For the lungs, calamint, licorice, enula campana, 
hyssop, horehound, water germander, &c. For the heart, bor- 
age, bugloss, saffron, balm, basil, rosemary, violet, roses, &c 
For the stomach, wormwood, mints, betony, balm, centaury, 
sorrel, purslain. For the liver, darthspine or camaepitis, ger- 
mander, agrimony, fennel, endive, succory, liverwort, barber- 
ries. For the spleen, maidenhair, finger-fern, dodder of thyme, 
hop, the rind of ash, betony. For the kidneys, grurael, parsley, 
saxifrage, plantain, mallow. For the womb, mugwort, penny- 
royal, feverfew, savin, &c For the joints, chamomile, St. 
John's-wort, origan, rue, cowslips, centaury the less, &c. And 
so to peculiar diseases. To this of melancholy you shall find 
a catalogue of herbs proper, and that in every part. See 
more in Wecker^ Renodaeus, Heumius, lib, 2, cap. 19, &c. 
I will briefly speak of them, as first of alteratives, which 
Galen in his third book of diseased parts, prefers before dimin- 
utives, and Trallianus brags, that he hath done more cures on 
melancholy men ^ by moistening, than by purging of them. 

Borage.^ In this catalogue, borage and bugloss may chal- 
lenge the chiefest place, whether in substance, juice, roots, 
seeds, flowers, leaves, decoctions, distilled waters, extracts, 
oils, &C., for such kind of herbs be diversely varied. Bugloss 
is hot and moist, and therefore worthily reckoned up amongst 
those herbs which expel melancholy, and * exhilarate the 
heart, Gralen, lib. 6, cap, 80, de simpl, med, Dioscorides, lib, 
4, cap. 123. Pliny much magnifies this plant. It may be 
diversely used ; as in broth, in • wine, in conserves, syrups, 
<&c. It is an excellent cordial, and against this malady most 
frequently prescribed; a herb indeed of such sovereignty, 
that as Diodorus, lib. 7, bibi,, Plinius, lib. 25, cap, 2, et lib, 21, 
cap, 22, Plutarch, sympos. lib, 1, cap, 1, Dioscorides, lib. 5, 
cap, 40, Caelius, lib, 19, c. 3, suppose it was that famous Ne- 
penthes of * Homer, which Polydamna, Thonis's wife (then 

ris, de herbis particularibus parti cuique a^. ^Yino inftisam hilaritatem &cit. 
convenientibus. i Idem Laurentius, ^ Odyss. A. 
cap. 9 8 IMcor borago, gaudia semper 

856 Owre of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 4. 

king of Thebes in Egypt), sent Helena for a token of such 
rare virtue, " that if taken steeped in wine, if wife and chil- 
dren, father and mother, brother and sister, and all thy dearest 
friends should die before thy face, thou couldst not grieve or 
shed a tear for them." 

" Qai semel id patera mistum Nepenthes laccho 
Hauserit, hie lachrymam, non si suavissima proles, 
Si germanus ei chanis, materque paterqne 
Oppetat, ante oculos ferro confossus atroci." 

Helena's commended bowl to exhilarate the heart, had no 
other ingredient as most of our critics conjecture, than this 
of borage. 

Balm!\ Melissa, balm, hath an admirable virtue, to alter 
melancholy, be it steeped in our ordinary drink, extracted, or 
otherwise taken. Cardan, UK 8, much admires this herb. 
It heats and dries, saith ^Heurnius, in the second degree, 
with a wonderful virtue comforts the heart, and purgeth all 
melancholy vapours from the spirits, Matthiol. in lib. 3, cap. 
10, in Dioscoridem, Besides they ascribe other virtues to 
it, ^ " as to help concoction, to. cleanse the brain, expel all 
careful thoughts, and anxious imaginations ; " the same words 
in effect are in Avicenna, Pliny, Simon Sethi, Fuchsius, 
Leobel, Delacampius, and every herbalist. Nothing better 
for him that is melancholy than to steep this and borage in 
his ordinary drink. 

Matthiolus, in his fifth book of Medicinal Epistles, reckons 
up scorzonera, " " not against poison only, falling-sickness, and 
such as are vertiginous, but to this malady ; the root of it taken 
by itself expels sorrow, causeth mirth and lightness of heart" 

Antonius Musa, that renowned physician to Caesar Augus- 
tus, in his book which he writ of the virtues of betony, cap, 
6, wonderfully commends that herb, animas hominum et cor- 

1 Lib. 2, cap. 2, praz. med. miril vi gare, solidtas ima^nationes toUere. 

laetitiam prsebet et cor confirmat, va- * ScorzoDerae non solum ad yiperarom 

pores melancholicos purgat a spiritibufc. moreus, comitiales, Tertiginosos, sed per 

> Proprium est ejus animem hilarem se accommodata radix tristitiam discutit, 

reddere, concoctionem juvare, cerebri hilarltatemque conciliat. 
obstructiones resecare, solicitudlDfis fu- 

Mem. 1, subs. 8.] Medicinal Physic* 357 

pora cusiodit, securcu de metu reddit, it preserves both body 
and mind, from fears, cares, griefs ; cures falling-sickness, 
this and many other diseases, to whom Gralen subscribes, lib. 
7, simpL med. Dioscorides, lib. 4, cap. 1, &c. 

Marigold is much approved against melancholy, and often 
used therefore in our ordinary broth, as good against this and 
many other diseases. 

ffop."] Lupulus, hop, is a sovereign remedy; Fuchsius, 
cap. 58, Plant, hist, much extols it ; * " it purges all choler, 
and purifies the blood." Matthiol. cap. 140, in 4 Dioscor. 
wonders the physicians of his time made no more use of it, 
because it rarefies and cleanseth ; we use it to this purpose in 
our ordinary beer, which before was thick and fulsome. 

Wormwood, centaury, pennyroyal, are likewise magnified 
and much prescribed (as I shall after show), especially in 
hypochondriac melancholy, daily to be used, sod in whey ; 
and as Bufius Ephesias, ^ Areteus relate, by breaking wind, 
helping concoction, many melancholy men have been cured 
with the frequent use of them alone. 

And because the spleen and blood are often misaffected in 
melancholy, I may not omit endive, succory, dandelion, fumi- 
tory, &c, which cleanse the blood. Scolopendria, cicuta, 
ceterach, mugwort, liverwort, ash, tamarisk, genist, maiden- 
hair, &c, which must help and ease the spleen. 

To these I may add roses, violets, capers, feverfew, scor- 
dium, stcechas, rosemary, ros solis, saffron, ocyme, sweet ap- 
ples, wine, tobacco, saunders, &c. That Peruvian chamico, 
monstrosd factUtate, &c., Linshcosteus datura ; and to such 
as are cold, the 'decoction of guaiacum, China, sarsaparilla, 
sassafi'as, the fiowers of carduus benedictus, which I find 
much used by Montanus in his Consultations, Julius Alexan- 
drinus, Laelius Eugubinus, and others. * Bemardus Penottus 
prefers his herba solis, or Dutch sindaw, before all the rest in 

1 Bilem ntramque detrahit. sangainem * Prasf. denar. med. Omnes capitis do- 

pnrgat. s Lib. 7, cap. 6. Laet. ocoid. lores et phantasmata tollit ; scias nullam 

Indi«B desoript. lib. 10, cap. 2. > Hear- bwbam in terris huic comparandam Tiri- 

nioB, 1. 2, consil. 186, Sooltiii consil. 77. boa et bonitate luuaci. 

358 dure of Melanchofy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

this disease, ^ and will admit of no herb npon the earth to be 
comparable to it." It excels Homer's molj, cores this, fall- 
ing-sickness, and almost all other infirmities. The same 
Penottus speaks of an excellent balm out of Aponensis, 
which, taken to the quantity of three drops in a cup of wine, 
^ " will cause a sudden alteration, drive away dumps, and 
cheer up the heart" Ant. Guianerius, in his Antidotary, 
hath many such. ' Jacobus de Dondis, the aggregator, re- 
peats ambergris, nutmegs, and allspice amongst the rest 
But that cannot be general .^Jiiber and spice will make a 
hot brain mad, good for cold and moist Garcias ab Horto 
hath many Indian plants, whose virtues he much magnifies 
in this disease. Lemnius, instit cap. 58, admires rue, and 
commends it to have excellent virtue, • " to expel vain imag- 
inations, devils, and to ease afiiicted souls." Other things are 
much magnified ^ by writers, as an old cock, a ram's head, a 
wolf's heart borne or eaten, which Mercurialis approves; 
Prosper Altinus, the water of Nilus; Gk)me8ius, all sea- 
water, and at seasonable times to be sea-sick ; goat's milk, 
whey, &c 

SuBSECT. TV.— Precious Stones^ MetalSy Mtneraky Altera- 

Precious stones are diversely censured ; many explode 
the use of them or any mineral in physic, of whom Thomas 
Erastus is the chief, in his tract against Paracelsus, and in an 
epistle of his to Peter Monavius, * " That stones can work any 
wonders, let them believe that list, no man shall persuade me ; 
for my part, I have found by experience there is no virtue in 
them." But Matthiolus, in his comment upon ^ Dioscorides, 
is as profuse on the other side, in their commendation ; so is 
Cardan, Benodseus, Alardus, Rueus, Encelius, Marbodeus, &c 

1 Optimum mendicamentum in oeleri mi imafj&i&tiones et daemones ezpellit. 

cordis confortatione, et ad omnes qui * Sckenkius, Mizaldus, Rliasis. & Cra- 

tiistantur, &c. 2 Roiidoletius. Ele- tonifl ep. vol. 1. Gred&t qui vult g«m- 

num quod vim habet miram ad hilar- mas mirabilia efflcere ; mihl qui et ra- 

itatem et multi pro aecreto habent. tione et experientift didici alitor rem 

Sckenkius, observ. med cen. 5, obserr. habere, nullus fkcile persuadebit ftlsum 

86. s Affile tas mentes relevat, ani- esse verum. ' L de gemmis. 

Mem. 1, snbs. 4.J Medicinal Phasic. 359 

^ Matthiolus specifies in coral ; and Oswaldus Crollius, BasiL 
Ckym. prefers the salt of coral. * Christoph. Encelius, lih, 3, 
cofp, 131, will have them to be as so many several medicines 
against melancholy, sorrow, fear, dulness, and the like ; 
 Renodseus admires them, " besides they adorn kings' 
crowns, grace the fingers, enrich our household stuff, defend 
us from enchantments, preserve health, cure diseases, they 
drive away grief, cares, and exhilarate the mind." The par- 
ticulars be these. 

Granatus, a precious stone so called, because it is like the 
kernels of a pomegranate, an imperfect kind of ruby, it 
comes from Calecut ; * " if hung about the neck, or taken in 
drink, it much resisteth sorrow, and recreates the heart." 
The same properties I find ascribed to the hyacinth and 
topaz. ^They allay anger, grief, diminish madness, much 
delight and exhilarate the mind. * " K it be either carried 
about, or taken in a potion, it will increase wisdom," saith 
Cardan, " expel fear ; he brags that he hath cured many 
madmen with it, which, when they laid by the stone, were 
as mad again as ever they were at first." Petrus Bayerus, 
lih, 2, cap, 13, veni mecum, Fran. Rueus, cap, 19, cfe gemmis, 
say as much of the chrysolite, "^ a friend of wisdom, an enemy 
to folly. Pliny, lih, 37, Solinus, cap, 52, Albertus de Lapid., 
Cardan., Encelius, lih. 3, cap, 66, highly magnifies the virtue 
of the beryl, ® " it much avails to a good understanding, re- 
presseth vain conceits, evil thoughts, causeth mirth," cfec. In 
the belly of a swallow there is a stone found called cheli- 
donius, * " which if it be lapped in a fair cloth, and tied to the 

1 Margaritie et corallam ad melancho- tristitiam pellit. ^ Lapis hio gestatus 

Uam praecipue yalent. ^ Margaritse et aut ebibitus prudentiam auget, noctur- 

gemmaB Bpiritas confortant et cor, melan- nos timores pellit ; insanos hac sanayi, et 

choliam fagant. « Prae&t. ad lap. quum lapidem abjecerint, erupit iterum 

prec. lib. 2, sect. 2, de mat. med. Re- stultitia. 7 Inducit sapientiam, fagat 

gtun coronas ornant, digitos illustrant, stultitiam. Idem Cardanus, lunaticos 

supellectilem ditant, e fascino tuentur, jurat. 8 Gonfert ad bonnm intellec- 

morbis medentur, sanitatem conservant, turn, comprimit malas cogitationes, &c. 

mentem exhilarant, tristitiam pellunt. Alacres reddit. » Albertus, Encelius, 

4 Encelius,!. 8, c. 4. Suspensus vel ebib- cap. 44, lib. 3. Plin. lib. 37, cap. 10. 

itus tristitise inultum resistit, et cor re- Jacobus de Dondis : dextro brachio al- 

creat. s Idem, cap. 6 et cap. 6, de Hya- ligatus sanat lunaticos, insanos, fkcit 

cintho et Topazio Iram sedat et animi amabiles, jucundos. 

360 Cure of Mdancholy. [Part. IL eec. i. 

right arm, will cure lunatics, madmen, make them amiable 
and merry." 

There is a kind of onyx called a chalcedony, which hath 
the same qualities, ^ *' avails much against fantastic illusions 
which proceed from melancholy," preserves the vigour and 
good estate of the whole body. 

The Eban stone, which goldsmiths use to sleeken their 
gold with, borne about or given to drink, 'hath the same 
properties, or not much unlike. 

Levinus Lemnius, InstittU. ad vit cap. 58, amongst other 
jewels, makes mention of two more notable, carbuncle and 
coral, '"which drive away childish fears, devils, overcome 
sorrow, and hung about the neck repress troublesome dreams,** 
which properties almost Cardan gives to that green coloured 
^ emmetris if it be carried about, or worn in a ring ; Rueus 
to the diamond. 

Nicholas Cabeus, a Jesuit of Ferrara, in the first book of 
his Magnetical Philosophy, cap. 3, speaking of the virtues 
of a loadstone, recites many several opinions ; some say that 
if it be taken in parcels inward, si quia per frusta voret^ ju- 
ventutem resiiiuet, it will, like viper's wine, restore one to his 
youth ; and yet, if carried about them, others will have it to 
cause melancholy ; let experience determine. 

Mercurialis admires the emerald for its virtues in pacifying 
all affections of the mind ; others the sapphire, which is " the 
* fairest of all precious stones, of sky-colour, and a great 
enemy to black choler, frees the mind, mends manners," &c 
Jacobus de Dondis, in his catalogue of simples, hath amber- 
gris, 08 in corde cervi, * the bone in a stag's heart, a monoc- 
erot's horn, bezoar's stone (^ of which elsewhere), it is found 
in the belly of a little beast in the East Indies, brought into 
Europe by Hollanders, and our countrymen merchants. 

1 Valet contra phantasticas illosiones argenteo annulo gestatns. 6 Atne bill 

ex melancholia. * Amentes sanat, adyersatur, omnium gemmarum pulcher- 

tristitiam pellit, iram, &c. * Valet ad rima, ooeli colorem refert, animum ab 

fngandoa ttmores et daemones, turbulen- errore liberat. mores in melius mutat. 

ta somoia abigit, et nocturnes puerorum ^ Longis moeroribus felicit-er medetur, de- 

timores compescit. < Somnia laetafiuit liquiis, &c. 7 gee. 6, Memb. 1, Subs. 6- 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Medicinal Physic. 361 

KenodaBus, cap, 22, Uh. 3, de ment. med, saith he saw two of 
these beasts alive, in the castle of the Lord of Vitry at 

Lapis lazuli and armenus, because they purge, shall be 
mentioned in their place. 

Of the rest in brief thus much I will add out of Cardan, 
Renodseus, cap, 23, lib. 3, Rondoletius, UK 1, de Testat. c. 15, 
&c. ^ " That almost all jewels and precious stones have ex- 
cellent virtues " to pacify the affections of the mind, for which 
cause rich men so much covet to have them; ^and those 
smaller unions which are found in shells amongst the Per- 
sians and Indians, by the consent of all writers, are very 
cordial, and most part avail to the exhilaration of the heart. 

Mifiercds.^ Most men say as much of gold and some 
other minerals, as these have done of precious stones. 
Erastus still maintains the opposite part Disput. in Para- 
celsum, cap. 4, foL 196, he confesseth of gold, • " that it 
makes the heart merry, but in no other sense but as it is in a 
miser's chest : " at mihi plaudo simtd oc nummos contemphr 
in arcdf as he said in the poet, it so revives the spirits, and 
is an excellent recipe against melancholy, 

^ For gold in phytic is a cor(2kz2, 
Therefore he loved gold in spedaL 

AuTum potabile, ^he discommends and inveighs against it, by 
reason of the corrosive waters which are used in it ; which 
argument our Dr. Guin urgeth against D. Antonius. ^ Eras- 
tus concludes their philosophical stones and potable gold, &c., 
'^ to be no better than poison," a mere imposture, a non ens ; 
dug out of that broody hill belike this golden stone is, tdd 
nascetur ridicubis mus, Paracelsus and his chemistical fol- 
lowers, as so many Promethei, will fetch fire from heaven, 

1 Gestamen lapidum et gemmarum in arcft Tiromm. * Chaucer. s Au« 

maximam fert auxilium et juvamen; rum non aumm. Noxium ob aquas 

unde qui dites sunt gemmas secum ferre rodentes. o Ep. ad Monayium. Me- 

Btudent. s Maigaritce et uniones quae liallica omnia in universum quoyiBmodo 

a conchis et piacibus apud Persas et In- parata, nee tut6 neo commodi intra cor- 

doe, valde cordiales sunt, &c. * Au- pus sumi. 
rum laetitiam generat, non in corde, sed 

862 Cure of Mdanchoh/. [Part. n. sec. 4. 

will cure aU manner of diseases with minerals, accounting 
them the only physic on the other side. ^ Paracelsus calls 
Galen, Hippocrates, and all their adherents, infants, idiots, 
sophisters, &c Apagesis istos qui Vulcanias istas metamor- 
phoses sugiUanty inscitice soboles, supince pertinacice alum- 
nosy &c., not worthy the name of physicians, for want of 
these remedies ; and hrags that by them he can make a man 
live one hundred and sixty years, or to the world's end, with 
their ^ Alexipharmacums, Panaceas, Mummtas, unguentum 
Armarium, and such magnetical cures, Lampas vttce et 
mortis, Balneum IHancs, Bahamum, JSlectrum Magico- 
physicum, Amvleta Martialia, &c. What will not he and 
his followers effect ? He brags, moreover, that he was ' pri- 
mus medicorum, and did more famous cures than all the 
physicians in Europe besides, ' " a drop of his preparations 
should go farther than a drachm, or ounce of theirs,'* those 
loathsome and fulsome filthy potions, heteroclitical pills (so 
he calls them), horse medicines, ad quorum a^spectum Ogclops 
Polyphemus exhorresceret. And though some condemn their 
skill and magnetical cures as tending to magical superstition, 
witchery, charms, &c., yet they admire, stiffly vindicate 
nevertheless, and infinitely prefer them. But these are both 
in extremes, the middle sort approve of minerals, though not 
in so high a degree. Lemnius, lib, 8, cap, 6, de occult, not, 
mir. commends gold inwardly and outwardly used, as in 
rings, excellent good in medicines ; and such mixtures as are 
made for melancholy men, saith Wecker, antid. spec. lib. 1, 
to whom Renodaeus subscribes, lib. 2, cap. 2, Ficinus, lib. 2, 
cap. 19, Fernel. meth. med. lib. 5, cap. 21, de Cardiacis, 
Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1, part. 2, cap. 9, Audemacus,. Li- 
bavius, Quercetanus, Oswaldus Crollius, Euvonymus, Rubeus, 
and Matthiolus in the fourth book of his Epistles, Andreas a 
JBlawen, epist. ad Matthiolum, as commended and formerly 

ilnparag. Stultissimus pilas oocipitis omnes Aoademiae. > Vide Ernestum 

mel pliu 8cit quam omnes vestri doctores, Burgratium, edit. Fran&ker. Sro. 1611. 

et caloeorum meomm annuli doctiores CroUias and others. ^ Plus proflciet 

sunt quam Tester G^enus et Avioenna, gutta mea, quam tot eorum draehmaB et 

barba mea plus experta est quam vestrte uncise. 


Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Medicinal Physic. 863 

used by Avicenna, Amoldus, and many others ; * Matthiolus 
in the same plaxie approves of potable gold, mercury, with 
many such chemical confections, and goes so far in approba- 
tion of them, that he holds ' ^ no man can be an excellent 
physician that hath not some skill in chemistical distillations, 
and that chronic diseases can hardly be cured without 
mineral medicines ; " look for antimony among purgers. 

SuBSECT. V. — Compound Alteratives; Censure of Com- 

pounds, and mixed Physic, 

Plint, lib, 24, c. 1, bitterly taxeth all compound medicines, 
• " Men's knavery, imposture, and captious wits, have in- 
vented these shops, in which every man's life is set to sale ; 
and by and by came in those compositions and inexplicable 
mixtures, far-fetched out of India and Arabia; a medicine 
for a botch must be had as far as the Red Sea." And 'tis 
not without cause which he saith ; for out of question they 
are much to ^ blame in their compositions, whilst they make 
infinite variety of mixtures, as ^Fuchsius notes. "They 
think they get themselves great credit, excel others, and to 
be more learned than the rest, because they make many 
variations, but he accounts them fools, and whilst they brag 
of their skill, and think to get themselves a name, they be- 
come ridiculous, betray their ignorance and error." A few 
simples well prepared and understood, are better than such a 
heap of nonsense, confused compounds, which are in apothe- 
caries' shops ordinarily sold. " In which many vain, super- 
fluous, corrupt, exolete, things out of date are to be had 
(saith Comarius) ; a company of barbarous names given to 

1 Nonnulli huic supra modimi indul- iilceri parro medicina a Rubro Mari im- 

gent, naum etsi noQ adeo magnum, noa portatur. ^ Arnoldus, Aphor. 15. Fal- 

tamen abjiciendum censeo. ^ Ausim lax medicus qui potens mederi simplici- 

diceie neminem medicum ezcellentem, bus, compositadolos^autfrustraquaeTit. 

qui non in hac distillatione chymic& sit 6 Lib. 1, sect. 1, cap. 8. Dimi infinita med- 

versatus. Morbi chronici devinci citra ioamenta miscent, laudem sibi comparare 

metaHicft yix possint, aut ubi sanguis student, et in hoc studio alter alterum 

corrumpitur. 8 Fraudes hominum et superare conatur, dum quisque, quo plu- 

ingeniorum capturae, oflScinas ioyenSre ra miscuerit, eo se doctiorem putet, inde 

istas, in quibus sua cuique yenalis pro- fit ut suam prodant inseitiam, dum 00- 

mittitnr vita; statim oompositiones et tentant peritlam, et se ridicules ezhibe- 

]nixttir8BinexplieabilesexArabUletIndi&, ant, &c. 

364 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 4 

syrups, juleps, an unnecessary company of mixed medi- 
cines ; " rudis indigestaque moles. Many times (as Agrippa 
taxeth), there is by this means ^ " more danger from the medi- 
cine than from the disease," when they put together they know 
not what, or leave it to an illiterate apothecary to be made, 
they cause death and horror for health. Those old physi- 
cians had no such mixtures ; a simple potion of hellebore in 
Hippocrates's time was the ordinary purge ; and at this day, 
saith 'Mat. Riccius, in that flourishing commonwealth of 
China, " their physicians give precepts quite opposite to ours, 
not unhappy in their physic; they use altogether roots, 
herbs, and simples in their medicines, and all their physic in 
a manner is comprehended in a herbal; no science, no 
school, no art, no degree, but like a trade, every man in 
private is instructed of his master." ' Cardan cracks that he 
can cure all diseases with water alone, as Hippocrates of 
old did most infirmities with one medicine. Let the best of 
our rational physicians demonstrate and give a sufficient 
reason for those intricate mixtures, why just so many simples 
in mithridate or treacle, why such and such quantity ; may they 
not be reduced to half or a quarter ? Frustra fit per plura 
(as the saying is) quod fieri potest per pauciora ; three hun- 
dred simples in a julep, potion, or a little pill, to what end or 
purpose ? I know not what ^ Alkindus, Capivaccius, Mon- 
tagna, and Simon Eitover, the best of them all and most 
rational have said in this kind ; but neither he, they, nor 
any one of them, gives his reader, to my judgment, that 
satisfaction which he ought; why such, so many simples? 
Rog. Bacon hath taxed many errors in his tract de gradua- 
tionibuSy explained some things, but not cleared. Mer- 
curialis, in his book de composit, medicin, gives instance in 
Hamech, and Philonium Romanum, which Hamech an 
Arabian, and Philonius a Roman, long since composed, but 

1 Mnlto plus periculi a medicamento herbis, radidbtiB, &e.f tota eornm med* 

quam a morbo, &c. > Expedit. in icina nostrae herbariae prseceptiB contioe- 

Sinas, lib. 1, cap. 5. Pnecepta medici tur; nuUus Indus hujus artis, quisque 

dant nostris diyeraa, In medendo non in- privatus a quolibet magistro eruditnr. 

felioeB, pharmacis utantur simplicibus, * Lib. de Aquft. ^ Opuac. de IkMu 


Mem. 1, subs. 5.] Compound Alteratives, 365 

crmse as the rest. If they be so exact, as by him it seems 
they were, and those mixtures so perfect, why doth Feme- 
lius alter the one, and why is the other obsolete ? * Cardan 
taxeth Galen for presuming out of his ambition to correct 
Theriacum Andromachi, and we as justly may carp at all 
the rest. Galen's medicines are now exploded and rejected ; 
what Nicholas Meripsa, Mesue, Celsus, Scribanius, Actu- 
arius, &c, writ of old, are most part contemned. Mellichius, 
Cordus, Wecker, Quercetan, Renodseus, the Venetian, Flor- 
entine states have their several receipts and magistrals ; they 
of Nuremburg have theirs, and Augustana Pharmacopoeia, 
peculiar medicines to the meridian of the city ; London hers, 
every city, town, almost every private man hath his own 
mixtures, compositions, receipts, magistrals, precepts, as if 
he scorned antiquity, and all others in respect of himself. 
But each man must correct and alter to show his skill, every 
opinionative fellow must maintain his own paradox, be it 
what it will ; DelirarU reges, plectuntur Achivi : they dote, 
and in the mean time the poor patients pay for their new 
experiments, the commonalty rue it 

Thus others object, thus I may conceive out of the weak- 
ness of my apprehension ; but to say truth, there is no such 
fault, no such ambition, no novelty, or ostentation, as some 
suppose ; but as ^ one answers, this of compound medicines, 
"is a most noble and profitable invention found out, and 
brought into physic with great judgment, wisdom, counsel 
and discretion." Mixed diseases must have mixed remedies, 
and such simples are commonly mixed as have reference to 
the part affected, some to qualify, the rest to comfort, some 
one part, some another. Cardan and Brassivola both hold 
that NvRum simplex msdicamentum sine noxd, no simple 
medicine is without hurt or offence; and although Hippo- 
crates, Erasistratus, Diodes of old, in the infancy of this art, 
were content with ordinary simples, yet now, saith * " jEtius, 

1 Snbtil. cap. de scientiis. 2 Quer- sammSl cum necessitate adinyentum et 
oetan. pharmacop. restitut. cap. 2. Nob- introductum. & Cap. 25, Tetrabib. 4, 
ilissimmn et utilissimum inventum ser. 2. Neoessitas nunc cogit aliquando 

366 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 4. 

necessity compelleth to seek for new remedies, and to make 
compounds of simples, as well to correct their harms if cold, 
dry, hot, thick, thin, insipid, noisome to smell, to make them 
savoury to the palate, pleasant to taste and take, and to pie- 
serve them for continuance, by admixtion of sugar, honey, to 
make them last months and years for several uses." In such 
cases, compound medicines may be approved, and Amoldus, 
in his 18 aphorism, doth allow of it. ^ " If simples cannot, 
necessity compels us to use compounds ; " so for receipts and 
magistrals, dies diem docet, one day teacheth another, and 
they are as so many words or phrases, Qtus nunc sunt in 
honore vocahvla si volet tisus, ebb and flow with the season, 
and as wits vary, so they may be infinitely varied. " Quis- 
que suum placitum, quo capiatur, haheV^ " Every man as he 
likes, so many men so many minds," and yet all tending to 
good purpose, though not the same way. As arts and sciences, 
so physic is still perfected amongst the rest ; Horce musarum 
nutrices, and experience teacheth us every day ^ many things 
which our predecessors knew not of. Nature is not effete, as 
he saith, or so lavish, to bestow all her gifts upon an age, but 
hath reserved some for posterity, to show her power, that she 
is still the same, and not old or consumed. Birds and beasts 
can cure themselves by nature, * natures usu ea plerumque 
cognoscuntf quce homines vix hngo hhore et doctrind asse- 
quuntur, but ** men must use much labour and industry to find 
it out." But I digress. 

Compound medicines are inwardly taken or outwardly ap- 
plied. Inwardly taken, be either liquid or solid ; liquid, are 
fluid or consisting. Fluid, as wines, and syrups. The wines 
ordinarily used to this disease are wormwood wine, tamarisk, 
and buglossatum, wine made of borage and bugloss, the com- 
position of which is specified in Amoldus Villanovanus, lib. 
de vinis, of borage, balm, bugloss, cinnamon, &c., and highly 

noxia quserere lemedia, et ex simplicibus tionem, &c. i Cum simplicia non po»- 

compositas fisu^re, turn ad saporem, odo- sunt, necessitas cogit ad compodta. 

rem, palatigratiam,adcorrectionemsim- ^ Lips. Epist. s Theod. Prodromiu 

plicium, turn ad futuros usus, conserra- Amor. lib. 9. 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Compound Alteratives, 367 

commended for its virtues : ^ " it drives away leprosy, scabs, 
clears the blood, recreates the spirits, exhilarates the mind, 
purgeth the brain of those anxious black melancholy &mes, 
and deanseth the whole body of that black humour by urine. 
To which I add,'' saith Yillanovanus, " that it will bring mad- 
men, and such raging bedlamites as are tied in chains, to the 
' use of their reason again. My conscience bears me witness, 
that I do not lie, I saw a grave matron helped by this means ; 
she was so choleric, and so furious sometimes, that she was 
almost mad, and beside herself; she said and did she knew 
not what, scolded, beat her maids, and was now ready to be 
bound, till she drank of this borage wine, and by this ex- 
cellent remedy was cured, which a poor foreigner, a silly 
beggar, taught her by chance, that came to crave an alms 
from door to door.** The juice of borage, if it be clarified, 
and drunk in wine, will do as much, the roots sliced and 
steeped, &c., saith Ant Mizaldus, art. med., who cites this 
story verhcUim out of Yillanovanus, and so doth Magninus, a 
physician of Milan, in his regimen of health. Such another 
excellent compound water I find in Rubeus, de distil, sec. 3, 
which he highly magnifies out of Savanarola, ^ " for such as 
are solitary, dull, heavy, or sad without a cause, or be 
troubled with trembling of heart.'* Other excellent com- 
pound waters for melancholy, he cites in the same place, 
* " if their melancholy be not inflamed, or their temperature 
over-hot." Evonimus hath a precious aqua vitce to this pur- 
pose, for such as are cold. But he and most commend aurum 
potahile^ and every writer prescribes clarified whey, with 
borage, bugloss, endive, succory, &c,, of goat's milk especially, 

1 Sanguinem comiptmn emaculat, mens, et impos animi dicenda tacenda 

scabiem abolet, lepram curat, spiritus loquebatur, adeo furens ut l]^ri cogere- 

recreat. et animum exhilarat. Melan- tur. Fuit ei prsestantissimoremedioTini 

cholicos humores per urinam educlt, et istius iisus, indicatus a peregrino homine 

cerebrum a crassis eerumnosis melan- mendico, eleemosynam prse foribus dictse 

cholise fomis purgat, quibus addo de- matronae implorante. ^ lis qui tris- 

mentes et ftirioeos rinculis retinendos tantur sine causOl, et yitant amicorum 

plurimum juvat, et ad rationis usum societatem et tremunt corde. ^Modo 

ducit. Testis est mihi conscientia, quod non injQammetur melancholia, aut calidi- 

▼iderim matronam quandapi bine libera- ore temperamento sint. 
tarn, qu8B frequentiiiB ex iracund^ de- 

868 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

some indefinitely at all times, some thirty days together in 
the spring, every morning fasting, a good draught. Syrups 
are very good, and often used to digest this humour in the 
heart, spleen, liver, &c. As syrup of borage (there is a 
famous syrup of borage highly commended by Laurentius to 
this purpose in his tract of melancholy), cfe pomis of King 
Sabor, now obsolete, of thyme and epithyme, hops, scolopen- 
dria, fumitory, maidenhair, bizantine, &c. These are • most 
used for preparatives to other physic, mixed with distilled 
waters of like nature, or in juleps otherwise. 

Consisting, are conserves or confections; conserves of 
borage, bugloss, balm, fumitory, succory, maidenhair, vio- 
lets, roses, wormwood, &c. Confections, treacle, mithridate, 
eclegms, or linctures, &c. Solid, as aromatical confections ; 
hot, diamhra, diamargaritum ccdidum, dianthus, diamoschum 
dulce, electttarium de gemmis^ hetificans Credent et Mkasis, 
diagalinga^ diacimymumy dianisum, diatrion piperion, dia- 
zingiber^ diacapers^ diacinnamomam ; Cold, as diamargari- 
tum frigidum, diacoraUi, diarrhodon abhatis, diacodion, &c, 
- as every pharmacopoeia will show you, with their tables or 
lozenges that are made out of them ; with condites and the 

Outwardly used as occasion serves, as amulets, oils hot and 
cold, as of camomile, staechados, violets, roses, almonds, poppy, 
nymphsea, mandrake, &c., to be used after bathing, or to pro- 
cure sleep. 

Ointments composed of the said species, oils and wax, &c., 
as AhMastritum Popvleum, some hot, some cold, to moisten, 
procure sleep, and correct other accidents. 

Liniments are made of the same matter to the like pur- 
* pose ; emplasters of herbs, flowers, roots, &c., with oils, and 
other liquors mixed and boiled together. 

Cataplasms, salves, or poultices made of green herbs, 
pounded or sod in water till they be soft;, which are applied 
to the hypochondres, and other parts when the body is 


Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Purging Simples, 369 

Cerates are applied to several parts and frontals, to take 
away pain, grief, heat, procure sleep. Fomentations or 
sponges, wet in some decoctions, &c., epithemata, or those 
moist medicines, laid on linen, to bathe and cool several parts 

Sacculi, or little bags of herbs, flowers, seeds, roots, and 
the like, applied to the head, heart, stomach, &c., odoraments, 
balls, perfumes, posies to smell to, all which have their several 
uses in melancholy, as shall be shown, when I treat of the 
cure of the distinct species by themselves. 

MEMB. n. 

SuBSECT. I. — Purging Simples upward, 

Melanagoga, or melancholy purging medicines, are 
either simple or compound, and that gently, or violently, 
purging upward or downward. These following purge up- 
ward. ^Asarum or Asarabacca, which, as Mesne saith, is 
hot in the second degree, and dry in the third, " it is com- 
monly taken in wine, whey," or as with us, the juice of two 
or three leaves, or more sometimes, pounded in posset drink 
qualified with a little licorice, or anise-seed, to avoid the ful- 
someness of the taste, or as Diaserum Femelii. Brassivola, 
in Catart,^ reckons it up amongst those simples that only 
purge melancholy, and Ruellius confirms as much out of his 
experience, that it purgeth ^ black choler, like hellebore itself. 
Galen, lib. 6, simplic, and • Matthiolus ascribe other virtues 
to it, and will have it purge other humours as well as this. 

Laurel, by Heumius's method, ad prax, UK 2, cap. 24, is 
put amongst the strong purgers of melancholy ; it is hot and 
dry in the fourth degree. Dioscorides, lib, 11, cap, 114, adds 
other effects to it.* Pliny sets down fifteen berries in drink 

^Heurnius: datar in sero lactis, aut > CrassosetbiliososhumoTesperTomitum 
vino. 2 Veratri modo expurgat cere- educit. * Vomifcum et menses cit ; Ta- 
bnim, roborat memoriam. Fuchsius. let ad hydrop. he. 

VOL. II. 24 

370 dure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 4. 

for a sufficient potion ; it is commonly corrected with his op- 
posites, cold and moist, as juice of endive, purslane, and is 
taken in a potion to seven grains and a half. But this and 
asarahacca, every gentlewoman in the countiy knows how 
to give ; they are two common vomits. 

Scilla, or sea-onion, is hot and dry in the third degree. 
Brassivola, in Catart. out of Mesne, others, and his own ex- 
perience, will have this simple to purge ^ melancholy alone. 
It is an ordinary vomit, vinum sctlliitcum, mixed with rubel 
in a little white wine. 

White hellebore, which some call sneezing powder, a strong 
purger upward, which many reject, as being too violent; 
Mesne and Averroes will not admit of it, ^ " by reason of 
danger of suflTocation," ^ " great pain and trouble it puts the 
poor patient to," saith Dodonaeus. Yet Galen, lib. 6, simpl 
med, and Dioscorides, cap. 145, allow of it It was indeed 
* " terrible in former times," as Pliny notes, but now familiar, 
insomuch that many took it in those days, ® " that were stu- 
dents, to quicken their wits," which Persius, Sat. 1, objects to 
Accius the poet, lUas Acci ehria veratro. • " It helps melan- 
choly, the falling-sickness, madness, gout, cfec, but not to be 
taken of old men, youths, such as are weaklings, nice, or 
eflTeminate, troubled with headache, high-coloured, or fear 
strangling," saith Dioscorides. ^ Oribasius, an old physician, 
hath written very copiously, and approves of it, "in such 
affections which can otherwise hardly be cured." Heumius, 
lib, 2, prax. med. de vomitoriisy will not have it used ^ " but 
with great caution by reason of its strength, and then when 
antimony will do no good," which caused Hermophilus to 
compare it to a stout captain (as Codronchus observes, cap. 
7, comment, de IfeUeb.) that will see all his soldiers go before 

1 Materias atnus educit. * Ab arte libus et efifasminatis. ^ Collect, lib. 8, 

ideo rejiciendum, ob periculum suffoca- cap. 3, in affectionibus iis quae difficulter 

tionis. 3 Cap. 16, magn& yi educit, et curantur, Helleborum damus. ^ Noa 

molestiSl cum summSL. ^ Quondam nine 8umm& cautione hoc remedio ute- 

terribile. ^ Multi studiorum gratia ad mur; est enim yalidissimum, et quuin 

providenda acrius quae commentabantur. vires A.ntimonii contemnit morbus, in 

*^ Medetur comitialibus, melancholicis, auxilium eyocatur, modo yalide yiies 

podagricis ; yetatur senibus, pueris, mol- efflorescaut. 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Purging Simples, 371 

him and come post principia, like the hragging soldier, last 
himself; *when other helps foil in inveterate melancholy, in 
a desperate case, this vomit is to he taken. And yet for all 
this, if it be well prepared, it may be * securely given at first. 
*Matthiolus brags, that he hath often, to the good of many, 
made use of it, and Heurnius, ^ ^^ that he hath happily used 
it, prepared after his own prescript," and with good success. 
Christophorus k Vega, lib, 3, c, 41, is of the same opinion, 
that it may be lawfully given ; and our country gentlewomen 
find it by their common practice, that there is no such great 
danger in it. Dr. Turner, speaking of this plant in his 
Herbal, telleth us, that in his time it was an ordinary receipt 
among good wives, to give hellebore in powder to ii* weight, 
and he is not much against it But they do commonly ex- 
ceed, for who so. bold as blind Bayard, and prescribe it by 
pennyworths, and such irrational ways, as I have heard my- 
self market folks ask for it in an apothecary's shop ; but with 
what success Grod knows ; they smart often for their rash 
boldness and folly, break a vein, make their eyes ready to 
start out of their heads, or kill themselves. So that the fault 
is not in the physic, but in the rude and indiscreet handling 
of it. He that will know, therefore, when to use, how to pre- 
pare it aright, and in what dose, let him read Heurnius, lib. 2, 
prax. med. Brassivola, de Oatart, Godefridus Stegius, the 
emperor Rudolphus's physician, cap. 16, Matthiolus in Dios- 
cor. and that excellent commentary of Baptista Codronchus, 
which is instar omnium de jffelleb. alb. where we shall find 
great diversity of examples and receipts. 

Antimony or stibium, which our chemists so much magnify, 
is either taken in substance or infusion, &c., and frequently 
prescribed in this disease. "It helps all infirmities," saith 
* Matthiolus, " which proceed from black choler, falling-sick- 

1 iEtius, tetrab. cap. 1, ser. 2. lis so- Helleboro albo. ^ In lib. 6, Diosoor. 

lum dari yult HeUeborum album, qui cap. 8. Omnibus opitulatur morbis, 

secus spem non habent, non iis qui syn- quos atra bilis excitavit, comitialibus, iis- 

copen timent, &c. ^ Cum salute mul- que pnesertim qui Hypochondriacas ob- 

torum. s Cap. 12, de morbis cap. tinent passiones. 
* Nos fiwillime utimur nostro preparato 

372 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

ness, and hypochondriacal passions ; " and for farther proof 
of his assertion, he gives several instances of such as have 
been freed with it : ^ one of Andrew Gallus, a physician of 
Trent, that after many other essays, " imputes the recovery 
of his health, next after Grod, to this remedy alone." An- 
other of George Handshius, that in like sort, when other 
medicines failed, * " was by this restored to his former health, 
and which of his knowledge others have likewise tried, and 
by the help of this admirable medicine been recovered/* A 
third of a parish priest at Prague in Bohemia, ' " that was so 
far gone with melancholy that he doted, and spake he knew 
not what ; but after he had taken twelve grains of stibium, 
(as I myself saw, and can witness, for I was called to see this 
miraculous accident,) he was purged of a deal of black choler, 
like little gobbets of flesh, and all his excrements were as 
black blood (a medicine fitter for a horse than a man), yet it 
did him so much good, that the next day he was perfectly 
cured." This very story of the Bohemian priest, Sckenkius 
relates verbatim^ Exoter. experiment, ad var, morb. cent. 6, 
observ, 6, with great approbation of it. Hercules de Saxonisi 
calls it a profitable medicine, if it be taken after meat to six 
or eight grains, of such as are apt to vomit. Rodericus k 
Fonseca, the Spaniard, and late professor of Padua in Italy, 
extols it to this disease, Tom. 2, consul. 85, so doth Lod. 
Mercatus, de inter, morb. cur, lib. 1, cap, 17, with many 
others. Jacobus GervinuS, a French physician, on the other 
side, Kb. 2, de venenis confui, explodes all this, and saith he 
took three grains only upon Matthiolus and some others' com- 
mendation, but it almost killed him, whereupon he concludes, 
* ** antimony is rather poison than a medicine." Th. Erastus 
concurs with him in his opinion, and so doth Julian Mon- 

1 Andreas Qallus, Tridentinus medicus, atram bilem ex alvo eduxit (ut ^o Tidi, 

salutem huic medicamento post Deum qui vocatus tanquam ad miraculum ad- 

debet. > Intone sanitati, brevi restitu- fai testari poasum), et ramenta tanqnam 

tus. Id quod aliis accidisse scio, qui hoc carnis dissecta in partes, totiun excre- 

mirabili medicamento usi sunt. ^ Qui mentum tanquam sanguinem nigerri- 

melancholicus &ctu3 plan^ desipiebat, mum repraesentabat. ^ Antimonium 

multaque stult^ loquebatur, huic exhibi- renenum, non medicamentum. 
turn 12 gr. stibium, quod paulo post 

Mem. 2, 8ubs. 2.] Compound Piirgers. 373 

taltus, cap. 30, de melan. But what do I talk ? 'tis the sub- 
ject of whole books ; I might cite a century of authors pro 
and con, I will conclude with ^ Zuinger, antimony is like 
Scanderbeg's sword, which is either good or bad, strong or 
weak, as the party is that prescribes, or useth it ; "a worthy 
medicine if it be rightly applied to a strong man, otherwise 
poison." For the preparing of it, look in Evonimi thesaurus^ 
Quercetan, Oswaldus CroUius, Basil. Chim, Ba^il. Valen- 

tilLS^ &c. 

Tobacco, divine, rare, superexcellent tobacco, which goes 
far beyond all the panaceas, potable gold, and philosopher's 
stones, a sovereign remedy to all diseases. A good vomit, I 
confess, a virtuous herb, if it be well qualified, opportunely 
taken, and medicinally used ; but as it is commonly abused 
by most men, which take it as tinkers do ale, 'tis a plague, a 
mischief, a violent purger of goods, lands, health; hellish, 
devilish and damned tobacco, the ruin and overthrow of body 
and soul. 

SuBSECT. 11. — Simples purging Melancholy downward. 

Polypody and epithyme are, without all exceptions, 
gentle purgers of melancholy. Dioscorides will have them 
void phlegm ; but Brassivola out of his experience averreth, 
that they purge this humour ; they are used in decoction, 
infusion, &c, simple, mixed, &c. 

Myrobalans, all five kinds, are happily ^ prescribed against 
melancholy and quartan agues ; Brassivola speaks out * " of 
a thousand " experiences, he gave them in pills, decoctions, &c., 
look for peculiar receipts in him. 

StoBchas, fumitory, dodder, herb mercury, roots of capers, 
genista or broom, pennyroyal and half boiled cabbage, I find 
in this catalogue of purgers of black choler, origan, fever- 
few, ammoniac * salt, saltpetre. But these are very gentle ; 

1 Oratonis ep. sect, vel ad Monayium rah dantur melancholicis et quatemariis. 

ep. In utramque partem dignissimum ' MilUes horum vires expertus sum. 

medicamentum, d recte utentur, flecus < Sal nitrum, sal ammoalacum, dracontii 

Tenenum. * Moerores Aigant ; utilLssi- radix, dictamaum. 

374 dure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

alyppus, dragon root, centaury, dittany, colutea, which Fuch- 
sias, cap, 168, and others take for senna, hut most distin- 
guish. Senna is in the middle of violent and gentle purgers 
downward, hot in the second degree, dry in the first. Bras- 
sivola calls it ^"a wonderful herb against melancholy, it 
scours the blood, lightens the spirits, shakes off sorrow, a 
most profitable medicine,'* as * Dodonaeus terms it, invented 
by the Arabians, and not heard of before. It is taken divers 
ways, in powder, infusion, but most commonly in the infusion, 
with ginger, or some cordial flowers added to correct it 
Actuarius commends it sodden in broth, with an old cock, or 
in whey, which is the common conveyer of all such things as 
purge black choler; or steeped in wine, which Heumius 
accounts suflficient without any farther correction. 

Aloes by most is said to purge choler, but Aurelianus, 
lib, 2, c, 6, de morh, chron, Arculanus, cap, 6, in 9 Hhtzsis, 
Julius Alexandrinus, consil, 185, ScoUz,, Crato, constL 189, 
ScoUz, prescribe it to this disease ; as good for the stomach 
and to open the haemorrhoids, out of Mesne, Rhasis, Serapio, 
Avicenna; Menardus, ep, lib, 1, epist, 1, opposeth it, aloes 
' " doth not open the veins," or move the haemorrhoids, which 
Leonhartus Fuchsius, paradox, lib, 1, hkewise afiirms ; but 
Brassivola and Dodonaeus defend Mesne out of their experi- 
ence ; let * Valesius end the controversy. 

Lapis Armenius and lazuli are much magnified by * Alex- 
ander, lib, 1, cap, 16, Avicenna, ^tius, and Actuarius, if 
they be well washed, that the water be no more coloured, 
fifty times, some say. * " That good Alexander (saith Guia- 
nerius), puts such confidence in this one medicine, that he 
thought all melancholy passions might be cured by it ; and 
I for my part have oftentimes happily used it, and was never 
deceived in the operation of it." The like may be said of 

1 (klet ordine secnndo, siccat primo, res absterg^t a vitalibus partibiu. 

adversus omnia vitia atrse bills valet, o Tract. 15, c. 6. Bonus Alexander, tan- 

sanguinem mundat, spiritus illustrat, tarn lapide Armeno confidentiam habult, 

moerorem discutit, herba mirifica, ^ Cap. ut omnes melancholicas passiones ab eo 

4, lib. 2. 3 Recentiores negant ora curari posse crederet, et ego inde ssepissi- 

▼enarum resecare. ^ An aloe aperiat me usus sum. et in ^us exhibitione nun- 

ora venarum, lib. 9, cont. 3. ^ Vapo- quam fraudatus fui. 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Compoiind Purgers, 375 

lapis lazuli, though it be somewhat weaker than the other. 
Garcias ab Horto, hist, lib, 1, cap. 65, relates, that the ^ phy- 
sicians of the Moors familiarly prescribe it to all melancholy 
passions, and Matthiolus, 6^9. lib. 3, ^ brags of that happy 
success which he stiU had in the administration of it. Nicholas 
Meripsa puts it amongst the best remedies, sect. 1, cap. 12, 
in Antidotis ; ' " and if this will not serve (saith Rhasis), 
then there remains nothing but lapis Armenius and hellebore 
itself." Valescus and Jason Pratensis much commend pulvis 
hali, which is made of it. James Damascen. 2, cap. 12, 
Hercules de Saxoni^ &c., speaks well of it. Crato will not 
approve this ; it and both hellebores, he saith, are no better 
than poison. Victor Trincavellius, lib. 2, cap. 14, found it in 
his experience, * " to be very noisome, to trouble the stomach, 
and hurt their bodies that take it overmuch." 

Black hellebore, that most renowned plant, and famous 
purger of melancholy, which all antiquity so much used and 
admired, was first found out by Melanpodius a shepherd, as 
Pliny records, lib. 25, cap. 5, ^ who, seeing it to purge his 
goats when they raved, practised it upon Elige and Calene, 
King Praetus's daughters, that ruled in Arcadia, near the 
fountain Clitorius, and restored them to their former health. 
In Hippocrates's time it was in only request, insomuch that 
he writ a book of it, a fragment of which remains yet. 
Theophrastus, ^ Galen, Pliny, Caelius Aurelianus, as ancient 
as Galen, lib. 1, cap. 6, Areteus, lib. 1, cap. 5, Oribasius, 
lib. 7, collect, a famous Greek, ^tius, ser. 3, cap. 112 & 
lis p. -3Egineta, Galen's Ape, lib. 7, cap. 4, Actuarius, 
Trallianus, lib. 5, cap. 15, Cornelius Celsus only remaining 
of the old Latins, lib. 3, cap. 23, extol and admire this 
excellent plant ; and it was generally so much esteemed of 
the ancients for this disease amongst the rest, that they sent 
all such as were crazed, or that doted, to the Anticyrae, or to 

1 ManTorum medici hoc lapide plerum- 184, Scoltadi. * Multa corpora Tidi 

quepurgantmelancholiam, &c. ^Qno gravissim^ hinc agitata, et stomacho 

ego ssepe feliciter usus sum, et magno multam obfUisse. ^Camvidisset ab eo 

cum auxilio. 3 Si non hoc, nihil restat curari capras farentes, &c. o Lib. 6, 

nisi helleboros, et lapis armenus. Consil. simpl. med. 


376 Oure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 4. 

Phocis in Achaia, to be purged, where this plant was in 
abundance to be had. In Strabo's time it was an ordinary 
voyage, Naviget Anticyras ; a common proverb among the 
Greeks and Latins, to bid a dizzard or a madman go take 
hellebore ; as in Lucian, Menippus to Tantalus, Tantale, 
desipis, heUeboro epoto tihi opus est, eoque sane meraco, thou 
art out of thy little wit, O Tantalus, and must needs drink 
hellebore, and that without mixture. Aristophanes in Vespis, 
drink hellebore, &c., and Harpax in the ^ Comedian, told 
Simo and Ballio, two doting fellows, that they had need to 
be purged with this plant When that proud Menacrates 
6 Ceiif, had writ an arrogant letter to Philip of Macedon, he 
sent back no other answer but this, Consulo tihi tU ad 
Anticyram te confera^s, noting thereby that he was crazed, 
aiqvs heUeboro indiyere, had much need of a good purge. 
Lilias Geraldus saith, that Hercules, after all his mad pranks 
upon his wife and children, was perfectly cured by a purge 
of hellebore, which an Anticyrian administered unto him. 
They that were sound commonly took it to quicken their wits 
(as Ennius of old), * Qui non nisi potus ad arma — prosilmt 
dicenda, and as our poets drink sack to improve their inven- 
tions, (I find it so registered by Agellius, lib. 17, cap. 15.) 
Cameades the academic, when he was to write against Zeno 
the stoic, purged himself with hellebore first, which ' Petro- 
nius puts upon Chrysippus. In such esteem it continued for 
many ages, till at length Mesne and some other Arabians 
began to reject and reprehend it, upon whose authority for 
many following lustres, it was much debased and quite out 
of request, held to be poison and no medicine ; and is still 
oppugned to this day by * Crato and some junior physicians. 
Their reasons are, because Aristotle, I. 1, de plant, c. 3, said, 
henbane and hellebore were poison ; and Alexander Aphro- 
diseus, in the preface of his problems, gave out, that (speak- 
ing of hellebore) * " Quails fed on that which was poison to 

^1 Pseudolo, act. 4, seen. ult. heUeboro Etsi multi ma^^ai viri probent, in bonam 

hisce hominibus opus est. ^ Hor. partem accipiant medici, non probem. 

In Satyr. * Crato, tonsil. 16, 1. 2. 6 Vescuntor yeratro coturoioes quod ho- 

Mem. 2, sabs 2. J Compound Purgers, 377 

men." Galen, /. 6, Epid, com, 5, Text, 35, confirms as macb ; 
^ Constantine the emperor in his Geoponicks, attributes no 
other virtue to it, than to kill mice and rats, flies and mould- 
warps, and so Mizaldus, Nicanderof old, Gervinus, Sckenkius, 
and some other Neoterics that have written of poisons, speak 
of hellebore in a chief place. ^Nicholas Leonicus hath a 
storj of Solon, that besieging, I know not what city, steeped 
hellebore in a spring of water, which by pipes was conveyed 
into the middle of the town, and so either poisoned, or else 
made them so feeble and weak by purging, that they were 
not able to bear arms. Notwithstanding all these cavils and 
objections, most of our late writers do much approve of it. 
* Gariopontus, Uh. 1, cap. 13, Codronchus, com. de heUeh,, 
Fallopius, lib. de med. purg. stmpL cap. 69, et consiL 15, 
Trincavellii, Montanus, 239, Frisemelica, consil. 14, Hercules 
de Saxonia, so that it be opportunely given. Jacobus de 
Dondis, Agg. Amatus, Lucet. cent 66, Godef. Stegius, cap. 

13, Hollerius, and all our herbalists subscribe. Fernelius, 
meth. med. lib. 5, cap. 16, "confesseth it to be a * terrible 
purge and hard to take, yet well given to strong men, and 
such as have able bodies." P. Forestus and Capivaccius 
forbid it to be taken in substance, but allow it in decoction 
or infusion, both which ways, P. Monavius approves above 
all others, Epist 231, Scoltzii; Jacchinus in 9 Rhasis com- 
mends a receipt of his own preparing ; Penottus another of 
his chemically prepared, Evonimus another. Hildesheim, 
spiceL 2, de mel. hath many examples how it should be used, 
with diversity of receipts. Heumius, Ub. 7, prax. med. cap. 

14, *' calls it an * innocent medicine howsoever, if it be well 
prepared." The root of it is only in use, which may be kept 
many years, and by some given in substance, as by Fallopius 
and Brassivola amongst the rest, who * brags that he was the 
first that restored it again to its use, and tells a story how he 

minibus toxioxim eat. i Lib. 28, c.7, 12, sed robustis datur tamen, &o. s In- 

14. s De Tar. hist. » Corpus incol- nocens medicamentum, modo rite pare- 

ume reddit, et juvenile efflcit. ^ Vet- tur. « Absit jactautia, ^o primua 

eres non sine causft usl sunt ; Bifflcllis prsebere coepi, &c. 
ez Helleboro purgatio, et terroris plena, 

378 Owre of Melancholy* [Part. n. sec. 4. 

cared one Melatasta, a madman, that was thought to be pos- 
sessed, in the Duke Ferrara's court, with one purge of black 
hellebore in substance ; the receipt is there to be seen ; his 
excrements were like ink, ^he perfectly healed at once; 
Vidus Vidius, a Dutch physician, will not admit of it in sub- 
stance, to whom most subscribe, but as before in the decoc- 
tion, infusion, or which is all in all, in the extract, which he 
prefers before the rest, and calls stiave medicamentum, a 
sweet medicine, an easy, that may be securely given to 
women, children, and weaklings. Baracellus, horto geniaU^ 
terms it maximcB prcestanticB medicamentum, a medicine of 
great worth and note. Quercetan in his Spagir, Phar. and 
many others, tell wonders of the extract. Paracelsus, above 
all the rest, is the greatest admirer of this plant ; and espec- 
ially the extract, he calls it thericumm, terrestre balsamum, 
another treacle, a terrestrial balm, instar omnium, " all in all, 
the * sole and last refuge to cure this malady, the gout, epi- 
lepsy, leprosy," &c K this will not help, no physic in the 
world can but mineral, it is the upshot of all. Matthiolus 
laughs at those that except against it, and though some abhor 
it out of the authority of Mesue, and dare not adventure to 
prescribe it, '"yet I, (saith he) have happily used it six 
hundred times without offence, and communicated it to divers 
worthy physicians, who have given me great thanks for it" 
Look for receipts, dose, preparation, and other cautions con- 
cerning this simple, in him, Brassivola, Paracelsus, Codron- 
chus, and the rest. 

SuBSECT. III. — Compound Purgers, 

Compound medicines which purge melancholy, are either 
taken in the superior or inferior parts ; superior at mouth or 
nostrils. At the mouth swallowed or not swallowed ; If 

1 In Oatart. Ex unSl sol9L eyacuatione fu- mum medicamentum, quod caetera omnia 

Tor cessavit et quietus inde vixit. l^&le ex- claudit, qusecunque ceteris laxatiTis pelli 

emplum apud Sckenkium. et apud Scolt- non possunt ad hunc pertinent ; si non 

zium, ep. 231. P. Monavius se stolidum huic, nulli cedunt. s Xestari possum me 

ourasse jactat hoc epoto tribus aut quatu- sexcentis Iiominibus Helleborum nigrum 

or vicibus. > Ultimum refugium, extre- eiddbuisse, nullo prorsus incommodo,&o. 


Mom. 2. subs. 8.] Compound Purgers. 379 

swallowed liquid or solid ; liquid, as compound wine of helle- 
bore, scilla or sea-onion, senna, Vinum ScilUttcum, ffeUe- 
haratum, which ^Quercetan so much applauds "for melan- 
choly and madness, either inwardly taken, or outwardly 
applied to the head, with little pieces of linen dipped warm 
in it." Oxymel SciUiticum, SyrupTis HeUehoraiMs major and 
minor in Quercetan, and Syrupus Genista for hypochondria- 
cal melancholy in the same author, compound syrup of suc- 
cory, of fumitory, polypody, &c. Heurnius his purging cock- 
broth. Some except against these syrups, as appears by 
^ Udalrinus Leonorus his epistle to Matthiolus, as most perni- 
cious, and that out of Hippocrates, cocta movere, et medicari, 
nan cruda, no raw things to be used in physic ; but this in 
the following epistle is exploded and soundly confuted by 
Matthiolus ; many juleps, potions, receipts, are composed of 
these, as you shall find in Hildesheim, spiceL 2, Heurnius, 
lib. 2, cap, 14, George Sckenkius, Itcd. mecL prax, &c. 

Solid purges are confections, electuaries, pills by them- 
selves, or compound with others, as de lapide lazulo, Armenio, 
piL IndcB, of fumitory, &c. Confection of Hamech, which 
though most approve, Solenander, sec. 5, consiL 22, bitterly 
inveighs against, so doth Rondoletius Pharmacop. officina, 
Femelius and others ; diasena, diapolypodium, diacassia, dia- 
catholicon, Wecker's electuarie de Epithymo, Ptolemy's hierol- 
ogadium, of which divers receipts are daily made. 

^tius, 22, 23, commends Hieram Buffi. Trincavellius, 
consiL 12, lib. 4, approves of Hiera ; non, inquit, invenio me- 
lius medicamentumf I find no better medicine, he saith. 
Heurnius adds piL aggregat. piUs de Epithymo, pil. Jnd. 
Mesne describes in the Florentine Antidotary, PilrdcB sine 
quibus esse nolo, PHuUb Cockia cum HeUeboro, Pil. Arabicce, 
FoetidcB, de quinque generibus mirabolanorum, &c. More 
proper to melancholy, not excluding in the mean time, turbith, 

1 Phaimaoop. Optimum est ad mani- motum. ^ Epist. Math. lib. 8. Tales 

am et omnea melancholioos afiectus, turn syrupi nocentissimi et omnibus modis 

intra assumptum, turn extrlnsecus capiti extirpandi. 
cum Unteolis in eo madefiictis tepide ad- 

380 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 4. 

manna, rhubarb, agaric, elescophe, <&c., which are not so 
proper to this humour. For, as Montaltus holds, cap. 30, and 
Montanus, cholera etiam purganda quod atr<B sit pabulum^ 
choler is to be purged because it feeds the other ; and some 
are of an opinion, as Erasistratus and Asciepiades maintained 
of old, against whom Galen disputes, i " that no physic doth 
purge one humour alone, but all alike or what is next." 
Most therefore in their receipts and magistrals which are 
coined here, make a mixture of several simples and com- 
pounds to purge all humours in general as well as this. 
Some rather use potions than pills to purge this humour, 
because that as Heumius and Crato observe, hie sv>ccu8 a 
sicca remedio cegre irahitur, this juice is not so easily drawn 
by dry remedies, and as Montanus adviseth, 25 cons. " All 
^ drying medicines are to be repelled, as aloe, hiera," and all 
pills whatsoever, because the disease is dry of itself 
. I might here insert many receipts of prescribed potions, 
boles, &c. The doses of these, but that they are common 
in every good physician, and that I am loath to incur the cen- 
sure of Forestus, lib. 3, cap. 6, de urinis, '"against those 
that divulge and publish medicines in their mother-tongue," 
and lest I should give occasion thereby to some ignorant 
reader to practise on himself, without the consent of a good 

Such as are not swallowed, but only kept in the mouth, 
are gargarisms used commonly after a purge, when the body 
is soluble and loose. Or apophlegmatisms, masticatories, to 
be held and chewed in the mouth, which are gentle, as hys- 
sop, origan, pennyroyal, thyme, mustard ; strong, as pellitory, 
pepper, ginger, &c. 

Such as are taken into the nostrils, errhina, are liquid or 
dry, juice of pimpernel, onions, &c, castor, pepper, white 

1 Ptu^ntia censebant medicamenta, qu89cunque. > Contra eos qui lingaft 

iionunumhumoremattrahere,8ed quern- yulgari etTernaoulSl remedia et medka- 

cunque attigerint ia guam nataram con- menta prsescribunt, et quibusvis oom- 

▼ertere. ^ Beligantur omnes ezsic- munia mciunt. 
cantes medicinse, ut aloe, hiera, piluUe 


Mem. 8.] Ghirurgical Remedies* 881 

hellebore, &c. To these you may add odoraments, perfumes, 
and sufFumigations, &c. 

Taken into the inferior parts are clysters strong or weak, 
suppositories of Castilian soap, honey boiled to a consistence ; 
or stronger of scammony, hellebore, &c. 

These are all used, and prescribed to this malady upon 
several occasions, as shall be shown in its place. 

MEMB. in. 

Chirurgical Remedies, 

In letting of blood three main circumstances are to be con- 
sidered, * " Who, how much, when." That is, that it be done 
to such a one as may endure it, or to whom it may belong, 
that he be of a competent age, not too young, nor too old, 
overweak, fat, or lean, sore laboured, but to such as have 
need, are full of bad blood, noxious humours, and may be 
eased by it. 

The quantity depends upon the party's habit of body, as 
he is strong or weak, full or empty, may spare more or less. 

In the morning is the fittest time ; some doubt whether it 
be best fasting, or full, whether the moon's motion or aspect 
of planets be to be observed; some affirm, some deny, some 
grant in acute, but not in chronic diseases, whether before or 
after physic. 'Tis Heurnius's aphorism, a phlehotomid auspi- 
candum esse curationem, non a pharmxzdd^ you must begin 
with bloodletting and not physic ; some except this peculiar 
malady. But what do I ? Horatius Augenius, a j)hysician 
of Padua, hath lately writ 17 books of this subject, Jobertus, 

Particular kinds of bloodletting in ^ use are three, first is 
that opening a vein in the arm with a sharp knife, or in the 
head, knees, or any other parts, as shall be thought fit, 

1 Quia, quantum, quando. > Fernelius, lib. 2, cap. 19. 

382 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 6. 

Cupping-glasses, with or without scarification, ocyssime 
compescunt, saith Fernelius, they work presently, and are 
applied to several parts, to divert humours, aches, winds, &c. 

Horseleeches are much used in melancholy, applied es- 
pecially to the haemorrhoids. Horatius Au genius, lib. 10, 
cap, 10, Platerus, de mentis alienat. cap, 3. Altomarus, 
Piso, and many others, prefer them before any evacuations 
in this kind. 

* OaiUeries, or searing with hot irons, combustions, borings, 
lancings, which, because they are terrible, Dropax and Sina- 
pismus are invented by plasters to raise blisters, and heating 
medicines of pitch, mustard-seed, and the like. 

Issues still to be kept open, made as the former, and ap- 
plied in and to several parts, have their use here on divers 
occasions, as shall be shown. 


SuBSECT. I. — Particular Cure of the three several Kinds ; 

of Head-Melancholy, 

The general cures thus briefly examined and discussed, it 
remains now to apply these medicines to the three particular 
species or kinds, that, according to the several parts aflfected, 
each man may tell in some sort how to help or ease himself. 
I will treat of head-melancholy first, in which, as in all other 
good cures, we must begin with diet, as a matter of most 
moment, able oftentimes of itself to work this efiect I have 
read, saith Laurentius, cap, 8, de Melanch, that in old dis- 
eases which have gotten the upper hand or a habit, the man- 
ner of living is to more purpose, than whatsoever can be 
drawn out of the most precious boxes of the apothecaries. 
This diet, as I have said, is not only in choice of meat and 

1 Renodaeus, lib. 6, cap. 21, de his, Mercurialis, lib. 3, de composit. med. cap. 24. 
Heurnius, lib. 1, prax. med. Wecker, &o. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Cure of Heed-Melancholy, 383 

drink, but of all those other non-natural things. Let £ur be 
clear and moist most part ; diet moistening, of good juice, 
easy of digestion, and not windy ; drink clear, and well 
brewed, not too strong, nor too small. '^ Make a melancholy 
man fat," as ^ Rhasis saith, '^ and thou hast finished the cure." 
Exercise not too remiss, nor too violent. Sleep a little more 
than ordinary. ^ Excrements daily to be voided by art or 
nature ; and which Femelius enjoins his patient, corml. 44, 
above the rest, to avoid all passions and perturbations of the 
mind. Let him not be alone or idle (in any kind of melan- 
choly), but still accompanied with such friends and familiars 
he most affects, neatly dressed, washed, and combed, accord- 
ing to his ability at least, in clean sweet linen, spruce, hand- 
some, decent, and good apparel ; for nothing sooner dejects a 
man than want, squalor, and nastiness, foul or old clothes out 
of fashion. Concerning the medicinal part, he that will satis- 
fy himself at large (in this precedent of diet) and see all at 
once, the whole cure and manner of it in every distinct 
species, let him consult with Gordonius, Valescus, with Pros- 
per Calenus, UK de atrd bile ad Card. CiESium, Laurentius, 
cap. 8 et 9, de melan. MYiBiH Montaltus, de mel, cap, 26, 27, 
28, 29, 30, Donat. ab Altomari, cap, 7, artis med. Hercules 
de Saxonia, in Panth, cap, 7, et Tract, ejus peculiar, d^ 
mehn, per Bolzetam, edit. Venetiis, 1620, cap. 17, 18, 19, 
Savanarola, Bub. 82, Tract. 8, cap. 1, SckeiJsius, in prax. 
curat. Ital, med. Heurnius, cap, 12, de morh, Vi^torius Fav- 
entinus, pract, Magn. et Empir. Hildesheim, Spicel. 2, de 
man, et mel. Fel. Plater, Stockerus, Bruel, P. Bayerus, 
Forestus, Fuchsius, Capivaccius, Eondoletius, Jason Praten- 
sis, Salust. Salvian. de re med. lib. 2, cap. 1, Jacchinus, in 
9 JRhasis, Lod. Mercatus, de Inter, marb. cur. lib. 1, cap. 17, 
Alexan. Messaria, pract. med. lib. 1, cap. 21, de mel. Piso, 
HoUerius, &c., that have culled out of those old Greeks, 
Arabians, and Latins, whatsoever is observable or fit to be 

1 Cont. Ub. 1. c. 9, festines ad impinguationem, et cum impinguantnr, remoTetur 
malum. s Beneficium yeDtris. 

384 Oare of Melancholy » [Part. II. sec. 5. 

used. Or let him read those counsels and consultations of 
Hugo Senensis, cotisiL 13 et 14, Renerus Solenander, consil. 
6, sec, 1, et consil. 3, sec, 3, Crato, consil, 16, lib, 1, Montanus, 
20, 22, and his following counsels, Laelius a Fonte Eugu- 
binus, consult. 44, 69, 77, 125, 129, 142, Fernelius, consil. 
44, 45, 46, Jul. Caesar Claudinus, Mercurialis, Frambesarius, 
Sennertus, &c. Wherein he shall find particular receipts, 
the whole method, preparatives, purgers, correctors, averters, 
cordials in great variety and abundance ; out of which, be- 
cause every man cannot attend to read or peruse them, I will 
collect for the benefit of the reader, some few more notable 


SuBSECT. II. — Bloodletting. 

Phlebotomy is promiscuously used before and after 
physic, commonly before, and upon occasion is often re- 
iterated, if there be any need at least of it. For Galen and 
many others, make a doubt of bleeding at all in this kind of 
head-melancholy. K the malady, saith Piso, cap. 23, and 
Altomarus, cap. 7, Fuchsius, cap, 33, ^ " shall proceed pri- 
marily from the misaffected brain, the patient in such case shall 
not need at all to bleed, except the blood otherwise abound, 
the veins be full, inflamed blood, and the party ready to run 
mad." In immaterial melancholy, which especially comes 
from a cold distemperature of spirits, Hercules de Saxonia, 
cap. 17, will not admit of phlebotomy ; Laurentius, cap. 9, 
approves i^ out of the authority of the Arabians; but as 
Mesne, Rhasis, Alexander appoint, ^ " especially in the head," 
to open the veins in the forehead, nose and ears is good. 
They commonly set cupping-glasses on the party's shoulders, 
having first scarified the place, they apply horseleeches on 
the head, and in all melancholy diseases, whether essential or 
accidental, they cause the haemorrhoids to be opened, having 
the eleventh aphorism of the sixth book of Hippocrates for 
their ground and warrant, which saith, " That in melancholy 

^ Si ex primario cerebri affectu melan- mittatur, si multus in vasis, &c.^ frustra 
cholici evaserint, sanguinis detractione enim fiitigatur corpus, &c. > Gompotit 
Don indigent, nisi ob alias causas sanguis ils phlebotomia firontis. 

Mom. 1, subs. 8.] Preparatives and Purgers. 385 


and mad men, the varicose tumour or haemorrhoids appear- 
ing doth heal the same." Yalescus prescribes bloodletting 
in all three kinds, whom Salust. Salvian follows. * " If the 
blood abound, which is discerned by the fulness of the veins, 
his precedent diet, the party's laughter, age, &c., begin with 
the median or middle vein of the arm ; if the blood be ruddy 
and dear, stop it, but if black in the spring-time, or a good 
season, or thick, let it run, according to the party's strength ; 
and some eight or twelve days after, open the head vein, and 
the veins in the forehead, or provoke it out of the nostrils, 
or cupping-glasses," &c Trallianus allows of this, ^"If 
there have been any suppression or stopping of blood at nose, 
or haemorrhoids, or women's months, then to open a vein in 
the head or about the ankles." Yet he doth hardly approve 
of this course, if melancholy be situated in the head alone, 
or in any other dotage, * " except it primarily proceed from 
blood, or that the malady be increased by it ; for bloodletting 
refrigerates and dries up, except the body be very full of 
blood, and a kind of ruddiness in the face." Therefore I con- 
clude with Areteus, * " before you let blood, deliberate of it," 
and well consider all circumstances belonging to it. 

SuBSECT. III. — Preparatives and Purgers. 

After bloodletting we must proceed to other medicines ; 
first prepare, and then purge, Augece stabidum purgare, make 
the body clean before we hope to do any good. Walter Bruel 
would have a practitioner begin first with a clyster of his, 
which he prescribes before bloodletting ; the common sort, 
as Mercurialis, Montaltus, cap, 30, &c., proceed from leni- 
tives to preparatives, and so to purgers. Lenitives are well 

1 Si aanguis abundet, quod scitur ex busb suppressaB sunt znenBefi, &o., talo 

Tenarum repletione, victiis ratione pne- secare oportet, ant vena frontis si sanguis 

cedente, risu aegri, setate et aliLs, tunda- peccet cerebro. > Nisi ortum ducat a 

tur mediana; et si sanguis apparetclarus sanguine, ne morbus inde augeatur: 

et ruber, supprimatur; aut si vere, si phlebotomia reArigerat et ezsiccat, nisi 

niger aut crassus permittatur fluere pro corpus sit yalde sanguineum, rubicun- 

viribus sBgri, dein post 8 vel 12 diem ape- dum. * Cum sanguinem detrahere 

riatur cepiialica partis magis affectse, et oportet, deliberatione indiget. Areteus. 

Tena frontis, aut sanguis provocetur setis lib. 7, c. 5. 
per nares, &c. s gi quibus consuetsB 

VOL. II. 25 

386 Cure of Melancholy, [Part II. sec. 5. 

known, electtiarium lenitivum, diaphenicum, dtaccUhoUcon, 
&c. Preparatives are usually syrups of borage, bugloss, ap- 
ples, fumitory, thyme and epithyme, with double as much of 
the same decoction or distilled water, or of the waters of 
bugloss, balm, hops, endive, scolopendra, fumitory, &c^ or 
these sodden in whey, which must be reiterated and used for 
many days together. Purges come last, ** which must not be 
used at all, if the malady may be otherwise helped," because 
they weaken nature and dry so much ; and in giving of them, 
^ " we must begin with the gentlest first'* Some forbid all 
hot medicines, as Alexander, and Salvianus, &c 2^e in- 
saniores inde fianty hot medicines increase the disease * " by 
drying too much." Purge downward rather than upward, 
use potions rather than pills, and when you begin physic, 
persevere and continue in a course; for as one observes, 
' movere et nan educere in omnibus malum est ; to stir up the 
humour (as one purge commonly doth) and not to prosecute, 
doth more harm than good. They must continue in a course 
of physic, yet not so that they tire and oppress nature, danda 
quies naturce, they must now and then remit, and let nature 
have some rest The most gentle purges to begin with, are 
* senna, cassia, epithyme, myrobalans, catholicon ; if these 
prevail not, we may proceed to stronger, as the confection of 
Hamech, pil. Indae, fumitorise, de assaieret, of lapis Armenius 
and lazuli, diasena. Or if pills be too dry ; * some prescribe 
both hellebores in the last place, amongst the rest Areteus, 
® " because this disease will resist a gentle medicine." Lau- 
rentius and Hercules de "Saxoni^ would have antimony tried 
last, " if the ^ party be strong, and it warily given." ® Trin- 
cavellius prefers hierologodium, to whom Francis Alexander 
in his ApoL rad, 5, subscribes, a very good medicine they 
account it But Crato in a counsel of his, for the Duke of 
Bavaria's chancellor, wholly rejects it. 

1 A lenioribus auspicandum. (Vales- » Rhasis, ssepe T&lent ex helleboro. 

ens, Piso. Bruel) rariusque medicamen- o Lib. 7. Bxigpiis medicamentis morbus 

tis purgantibus utendum, ni sit opus, non obsequitur. ^ Modo caute detnr 

3 Quia corpus exiccant, morbum augent. et robustis. ^ Consil. 10, 1. 1. 
3 Ouianerius, Tract. 15, c. 6. ^ Piso. 

Mem. 1, subs. 3.] Preparatives and Purgers. 387 

I find a vast chaos of medicines, a confusion of receipts 
and magistrals, amongst writers, appropriated to this disease ; 
some of the chiefest I will rehearse. * To be sea-sick first, 
is very good at seasonable times. Helleborismus Matthioli, 
with which he vaunts and boasts he did so many several 
cures, *" I never gave it (saith he), but after once or twice, 
by the help of Grod, they were happily cured." The manner 
of making it he sets down at large in his third book of £pist. 
to George Hankshius, a physician. Walter Bruel and Heur- 
nius, make mention of it with great approbation ; so doth 
Sckenkius in his memorable cures, and experimental medi- 
cines, cen, 6, ohser, 37. That famous Helleborism of Mon- 
tanus, which he so often repeats in his consultations and 
counsels, as 28 pro melan. sacerdote, et consiL 148, pro hypo- 
chondrtaco, and cracks, * " to be a most sovereign remedy for 
all melancholy persons, which he hath often given without 
offence, and found by long experience and observations to be 

Quercetan prefers a sjTup of hellebore in his Spagirica 
Pharmac, and Hellebore's extract, cap. 5, of his invention 
likewise (" a most safe medicine * and not unfit to be given 
children ") before all remedies whatsoever. 

Paracelsus, in his book of black hellebore, admits this 
medicine, but as it is prepared by him. * " It is most certain 
(saith he) that the virtue of this herb is great, and admirable 
in effect, and little differing from balm itself; and he that 
knows well how to make use of it, hath more art than all their 
books contain, or all the doctors in Germany can show." 

-^lianus Montaltus, in his exquisite work de morb, capitis, 

1 PKn. 1. 81, c. 6. Narigationes ob lere. Idem responsione ad Aubertum, 

Tomltionem prosunt plurimis morbis yeratrum nigrum, alias timidum et pe- 

capftls, et omnibus ob quos helleborum riculosum vini spiritu etiam et oleo com- 

bibitur. Idem Dioscorides, lib. 6, cap. 18. modum sic usui redditur. ut etiam pue- 

Avicenna tertia imprimid. > Nunquam ris tuto adminiatrari poesit. * Certum 

dedimus. quin ex unSLautalterilassump- est hujus herbse virtutem maximam et 

tione, Deo juvante, fuerint ad salutem mirabilem esse, parumque distare a bal- 

rcstituti. « Lib. 2. Inter composita samo. Et qui n8rit eo recte uti, plus 

purgantia melancholiam .  Longo ex- habet artis quam tota scribentinm cohors, 

perimento a se obserratum esse, melan- aut omnes doctores in Germanic, 
cholioos sine offens^ egregii cuiandoe ya- 

888 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. n. sec. 6. 

cap. 31, {/e meL sets a special receipt of his own, which in his 
practice * " he fortunately used ; because it is but short I wiU 
set it down." 

^ "St Syrupi de pomis 3ij. aquae borag. 3iiij. 
Ellebori nigri per noctem infusi in Iigatur& 
6 vel 8 gr. mand factft collaturd exhibe." 

Other receipts of the same to this purpose you shall find in 
him. Valescus admires pulvis Ifali, and Jason Pratensis 
after him ; the confection of which our new London Pharma- 
copoeia hath lately revived. ^ " Put case (saith he), all other 
medicines fail, by the help of God this alone shall do it, and 
'tis a crowned medicine which must be kept in secret." 

" B; Epithymi semunc. lapidis lazuli, agarici ana 3ij. 
Scammonii, 3 j. Cariophillorum numero 20 : pulverisentur 
Omnia, et ipsius pulveris scrup. 4, singulis septimanis assumat." 

To these I may add Amoldi vinum Buglossatuniy or borage 
wine before mentioned, which *Mizaldus calls vinum mirabile, 
a wonderful wine, and Stockerus vouches to repeat verbatim 
amongst other receipts. Rubeus his ^compound water oat 
of Savanarola; Pinetus his balm; Cardan's Pulvis Hya- 
cinthi, with which, in his book de curis (zdmirandis, he boasts 
that he had cured many melancholy persons in eight days, 
which *Sckenkius puts amongst his observable medicines; 
Altomarus his syrup, with which • he calls Grod so solemnly 
to witness, he hath in his kind done many excellent cures, 
and which Sckenkius, cent. 7, ohaerv. 80, mentioneth, Daniel 
Sennertus, lib. Impart. 2, cap. 12, so much commends; Ru- 
landus's admirable water for melancholy, which, cent. 2, cap. 
96, he names Spiritum vita aureum, Panaceam, what not, 
and his absolute medicine of Jifiy eggs, curat. JSmpir. cent. 1, 
cur. 5, to be taken three in a morning, with a powder of his. 

1 Quo fellciter mus sum. > Hoc vanarolse. 6 Sckenkius, obserr- 81. 

posito quod alise medicinae non valeant, 8 Donatus ab Altomari, cap. 7. Teetor 

lata tunc Dei misericordU valebit, et est Deum, me multos melanchoUcos hu- 

medicina coronata quae secretissim^ tene- jus solius syrupi usu curasse, fiictft priiis 

atur. 3 Lit), de artif. med. * Sect. 8. purgatione. 
Optimum remedium aqua composita Sa- 


Mem. 1, subs. 3.] Preparatives and Purgers. 389 

* Faventinus, prac. Empir, doubles this number of eggs, and 
will have one hundred and one to be taken bj three and three 
in like sort, which Sallust Salvian approves, de re med. lib. 2, 
c. 1, with some of the same powder, till all be spent, a most 
excellent remedy for all melancholy and mad men. 


" B; Epithymi, thymi, ana drachmas duas, sacchari albi iinclam unam, 
croci graua tria, 
Cinnamomi drachmam unam; misce, fiat pulvis/' 

All these yet are nothing to those ^ chemical preparatives of 
Aqua Chalidoma, quintessence of hellebore, salts, extracts, 
distillations, oils, Aurum potabile, &c. Dr. Anthony, in his 
book de auro potab. edit 1600, is all and all for it. * "And 
though all the schools of Galenists, with a wicked and un- 
thankful pride and scorn, detest it in their practice, yet in 
more grievous diseases, when their vegetals will do no good, 
they are compelled to seek the help of minerals, though they 
use them rashly, unprofitably, slackly, and to no purpose." 
Rhenanus, a Dutch chemist, in his "book de Sale e puteo emer- 
gertte, takes upon him to apologize for Anthony, and sets light 
by all that speak against him. But what do I meddle with 
this great controversy, which is the subject of many volumes ? 
Let Paracelsus, Quercetan, CroUius, and the brethren of the 
rosy cross, defend themselves as they may. Crato, Erastus, 
and the Galenists oppugn. Paracelsus, he brags on the 
other side, he did more famous cures by this means, than all 
the Galenists in Europe, and calls himself a monarch ; Galen, 
Hippocrates, infants, illiterate, &c. As Thessalus of old 
railed against those ancient Asclepiadean writers, * " he con- 
demns others, insults, triumphs, overcomes all antiquity (saith 

1 Oentum ova et unum, quolibet mand detestentur; tamen in gravoribus morbis, 

sumant ova sorbilia, cum sequent! pul- omui yegetabilium derelicto subsidio, ad 

▼ere supra OTum aspersi, et contineant mineralia confugiunt, licet ea temere, ig^ 

quousque a«sumpserint centum et unum, naviter, et inutiliter usurpent. Ad finem 

mandLacis et melancholicis utilissimum libri. ^ Veteres maledictis ince88it,yincit, 

remedium. 3 Quercetan. cap. 4. Phar. et contra omnem antiquitatem coronatur, 

Oswaldus Crollius. ^ Cap. 1. Licet ipseque a se victor declaratur. Gal. lib 

tota Qalenistarum schola, mineralia non 1, meth. c. 2. 
sine impio et ingrato fastu a suft practicdL 

390 Cure of Mdanchdy, [Part. II. sec. 6. 

Galen as if he spake to him), declares himself a conqueror, 
and crowns his own doings/' ^ One drop of their chemical 
preparatives shall do more good than all their fulsome po- 
tions. Erastus, and the rest of the Galenists, vilify them on 
the other side, as heretics in physic ; * " Paracelsus did that 
in physic, which Luther in divinity." ' " A drunken rogue 
he was, a base fellow, a magician, he had the devil for his 
master, devils his familiar companions, and what he did, was 
done by the help of the devil." Thus they contend and rail, 
and every mart write books pro and con^ et adhuc sub jtidice 
Us est ; let them agree as they will, I proceed. 

SuBSECT. IV. — Averters. 

Ayertebs and purgers must go together, as tending all to 
the same purpose, to divert this rebellious humour, and turn 
it another way. In this range, clysters and suppositories 
challenge a chief place, to draw this humour from the brain 
and heart, to the more ignoble parts. Some would have 
them still used a few days between, and those to be made 
with the boiled seeds of anise, fennel, and bastard saffiron, 
hops, thyme, epithyme, mallows, fumitory, bugloss, polypody, 
senna, diasene, hamech, cassia, diacatholicon, hierologodium, 
oil of violets, sweet almonds, &c. For without question, a 
clyster opportunely used, cannot choose in this, as most other 
maladies, but to do very much good; Clysteres nutriunt, 
sometimes clysters nourish, as* they may be prepai^ed, as I 
was informed not long since by a learned lecture of our nat- 
ural philosophy * reader, which he handled by way of dis- 
course, out of some other noted physicians. Such things as 
provoke urine most commend, but not sweat. Trincavellius, 
consil, 16, cap. 1, in head-melancholy forbids it. P. Bayerus 
and others approve frictions of the outward parts, and to 
bathe them with warm water. Instead of ordinary frictions, 

1 CodroQchas, de sale absjnthii. eratus, dsemonem pneeeptorem haboik, 

> Idem Paracelsus in medicinft, quod dsBmones familiares, &c. ^ Blaster D. 

Lutherus in theologia. s Disput. in Lapworth. 
eundem, parte 1. Magiu ebrius, illit- 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Averters, 391 

Cardan prescribes rubbing with nettles till they blister the 
skin, which likewise i Basardus Yisontinus so much mag- 

Sneezing, masticatories, and nasals are generally received. 
Montaltus, c, 34, Hildesheim, spiceL 3,foL 136 and 238, give 
several receipts of all three. Hercules de Saxonia relates 
of an empiric in Venice * " that had a strong water to purge 
by the mouth and nostrils, which he still used in head-melan- 
choly, and would sell for no gold." 

To open months and haemorrhoids is very good physic, 
*"if they have been formerly stopped." Faventinus would 
have them opened with horseleeches, so would Hercul. de 
Sax. ; Julius Alexandrinus, corml. 185, Scoltzii thinks aloes 
fitter ; ^ most approve horseleeches in this case, to be applied 
to the forehead, ^ nostrils, and other places. 

Montaltus, cap. 29, out of Alexander and others, prescribes 
• " cupping-glasses, and issues in the left thigh." Areteus, 
lih. 7, cap, 5, ''Paulus Regolinus, Sylvius will have them 
without scarification, " applied to the shoulders and back, 
thighs and feet ; " ® Montaltus, cap. 34, " bids open an issue 
in the arm, or hinder part of the head." * Piso enjoins 
ligatures, frictions, suppositories, and cupping-glasses, still 
without scarification, and the rest. 

Cauteries and hot irons are to be used ^^ " in the suture of 
tbe crown, and the seared or ulcerated place sufiered to run 
a good while. Tis not amiss to bore the skull with an instru- 
ment, to let out the fuliginous vapours." Sallust. Salvianus, 
de re medic, lib. 2, cap. 1, ""because this humour hardly 
yields to other physic, would have the leg cauterized, or the 

1 Ant. Philos. cap. de melan frictio ver- cucurbitulifl giccis humeris ac dorso affix- 

tice, &c. s Aqua fortissima purgans is, circa pedes et crura. ^ Fontanellam 

OS, nares, quam non yult auro vendere. aperi juxta occipitium, aut bracliium. 

3 MercuriaUs, consil. 6 et 30, haemorroi- ^ Balani, ligaturse, firictiones, &c. lo Cau- 

dum et mensium provocatio jurat, modo terium fiat sutura coronali, diu fluere 

ex eorum suppressione ortum iiabuerit. permittantur loca ulcerosa. Trepano 

* Laurentius, Brnel, &c. ^ V. Bayerus, etiam cranii densitas imminui poterit, 

1. 2, cap. 13, naribus, &c. ^ Cucurbit- ut raporibus fuliginosis exitus pateat. 

ulae siccse, et fontanellss crure sinistro. i^ Quoniam difilculter ccdit aliis medica- 

7 Hildesheim, spicel. 2. Vapores a cere- mentis, ideo fiat in vertice canterium, 

bro trahendi sunt frictionibus universi, aut crure sinistro infra genu. 

392 Cure of MdancJioly. [Part. II. sec. 5. 

left leg, below the knee, * and the head bored in two or three 
places,'' for that it much avails to the exhalation of the va- 
pours ; ^ '^ I saw (saith he) a melancholy man at Rome, that 
by no remedies could be healed, but when by chance he was 
wounded in the head, and the skull broken, he was excel- 
lently cured." Another, to the admiration of the beholders, 
' '^ breaking his head with a fall from on high, was instantly 
recovered of his dotage." Grordonius, cap. 13, part, 2, would 
have these cauteries tried last, when no other physic will 
serve. * " The head to be shaved and bored to let out fumes, 
which without doubt will do much good. I saw a melan- 
choly man wounded in the head with a sword, his brainpan 
broken ; so long as the wound was open he was well, but 
when his wound was healed, his dotage returned again.'' 
But Alexander Messaria, a professor in Padua, Uh. 1, j)ra4A. 
med, cap. 21, de melanchoL will allow no cauteries at all, 'tis 
too stiff a humour and too thick as he holds, to be so 

Guianerius, c. 8, Tra^t, 15, cured a nobleman in Savoy, by 
boring alone, * " leaving the hole open a month together,'' 
by means of which, after two years' melancholy and mad- 
ness, he was delivered. All approve of this remedy in the 
suture of the crown ; but Arculanus would have the cautery 
to be made with gold. In many other parts, these cauteries 
are prescribed for melancholy men, as in the thighs, {Mer- 
curtails, consiL 86,) arms, legs. Idem, consiL 6 and 19 and 
25, Montanus, 86, Rodericus a Fonseca, torn, 2, consult, 84, 
pro hypochond, coxa dextrd, &c., but most in the head, "if 
other physic wiU do no good." 

1 Fiant duo aut tria oauteria, cum ossis et flat eautertum in eapite ; procul dubio 

perforatione. > Vidi Romse melaachol- istafiiciunt ad fumorum ezhalationem ; 

icum qui, adhibitis multis remediis, sa- vidi melanchoUcum a fortunft gladio tuI- 

nari don poterat, sed cum cranium gla- neratum, et crauium fractum, quamdiu 

dio fractum esset, optime sanatus est. yulnus apertum, curatns optime ; at cum 

3 Et alterum yidi melanchoUcum, qui ex vulnus sanatum, revena est mania, 

alto cadens non sine astantium admira- 6 Usque ad dnram matrem trepanari fed, 

tione, libeiatus est. ^ Radatur caput et per mensem aperte stetit. 

Hem. 1, sabs. 5.] AUeratives, 393 

SuBSECT. V. — AUeratives and . Cardials, corroborating, re* 
solving the Relics, and mending the Temperament 

Because this humour is so malign of itself, and so hard 
to be removed, the relics are to be cleansed, by alteratives, 
cordials, and such means ; the temper is to be altered and 
amended, with such things as fortify and strengthen the heart 
and brain, ^" which are commonly both affected in this 
malady, and do mutually misaffect one another ; which are 
still to be given every other day, or some few days inserted 
after a purge, or like physic, as occasion serves, and are of 
such force, that many times they help alone, and as ^Ar- 
noldus holds in his Aphorisms, are to be " preferred before 
all other medicines, in what kind soever." 

Amongst this number of cordials and alteratives, I do not 
find a more present remedy, than a cup of wine or strong 
drink, if it be soberly and opportunely used. It ma^es a 
man bold, hardy, courageous, * " whetteth the wit," if moder- 
ately taken, (and as Plutarch *saith, Symp, 7, qucest. 12,) 
"it makes those which are otherwise dull, to exhale and 
evaporate like frankincense, or quicken, (Xenophon adds,) 

* as oil doth fire." • " A famous cordial," Matthiolus in Dios- 
coridem calls it, " an excellent nutriment to refresh the body, 
it makes a good colour, a flourishing age, helps concoction, 
fortifies the stomach, takes away obstructions, provokes urine, 
drives out excrements, procures sleep, clears the blood, ex- 
pels wind and cold poisons, attenuates, concocts, dissipates all 
thick vapours, and fuliginous humours." And that which is 
all in all to my purpose, it takes away fear and sorrow. 
^ Curas edaces dissipat Evius, " It glads the heart of man," 

1 Cordis ratio semper habendft quod natrlendo corpori alimentnm optimam, 

oerebro compatitur, et sese invicem ofBci- ntatem floridam &cit, calorem innatom 

unt. « Aphor. 88. Medicina Theria- fovet, concoctionem jurat, stomachum 

calin prsB casteris eligenda. ' Galen, de roborat, excrementis viam parat, urinam 

temp. lib. 3, c. 8, moderate vinum sump- moyet, somnum conciliat, yenena, frigl- 

tom aeuit ingeninm. ^ Tardoa aliter dos flatus dissipat, crassos humores at- 

et tristes thurls in modum ezhalaie &cit. tenuat, coquit, discudt, &e. 7 j^or. 

ft Hilaritatem ut oleum flammam excitat. lib. 2, od. 11. " Bacchus dissipates cor- 

* Viribus rednendis cardiacum ezimium, roding cares." 

394 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 6. 

Psal. civ. 15, ktlaritatis dtdce semtnarium. Helena's bowl, 
the sole nectar of the gods, or that true nepenthes in ^ Ho- 
mer, which puts away care and grief, as Oribasius, 5 Collect. 
cap. 7, and some others will, was nought else but a cup of 
good wine. " It makes the mind of the king and of the father- 
less both one, of the bond and free man, poor and rich ; it 
turneth all his thoughts to joy and mirth, makes him remem- 
ber no sorrow or debt, but enricheth his heart, and makes 
him speak by talents," £sdras iii. 19, 20, 21. It gives life 
itself, spirits, wit, &c. For which cause the ancients called 
Bacchus, Ltber pater a Uherando, and ' sacrificed to Bacchus 
and Pallas still upon an altar. ' ^' Wine measurably drunk, 
and in time, brings gladness and cheerfulness of mind, it 
cheereth Gk>d and men," Judges ix. 13, IcetiticB Bacchus 
dator, it makes an old wife dance, and such as are in misery 
to forget evil, and be * merry. 

*' Bacchus et afflictis requiem mortalibus affert, 
Crura licet duro compede vincta forent.'* 

'* Wine makes a troubled soul to rest, 
Though feet with fetters be opprest/* 

Demetrius in Plutarch, when he fell into Seleucus's hands, 
and was prisoner in Syria, ^ ^^ spent his time with dice and 
drink that he might so ease his discontented mind, and avoid 
those continual cogitations of his present condition wherewith 
he was tormented." Therefore Solomon, Prov. xxxi. 6, bids 
"wine be given to him that is ready to •perish, and to 
him that hath grief of h^art, let him drink that he forget his 
poverty, and remember his misery no more." SoUdtis am- 
mis onus eximit, it easeth a burdened soul, nothing speedier, 
nothing better ; which the prophet Zachariah perceived, when 
he said, "that in the time of Messias, they of Ephraim 
should be glad, and their heart should rejoice as through 
wine." All which makes me very well approve of that 

10<^88. A. sPausaniu. sSyiacides, ret, et oonditionis prtesentis cogitationes 

xxxi. &. * Legitur et prisci Catonis saepe quibus agitabatur sobrius Titaret. < So 

mero caluisse virtus. & In pocula et did the AtheniaDSofoldasSuidaarelateSi 

aleam se prflecipitaTit. et iis fere tempus and so do the Germans at this day. 
traduzit, ut aegram crapola mentem leva- 

Mem. 1, sabs. 6.] AUercUtves. 395 

prettj description of a feast in ^ Bartholomeus Anglicus, 
when grace was said, their hands washed, and the guests 
sufficiently exhilarated, with good discourse, sweet music, 
dainty fare, exhilarcUianis grcUid, poctda iterum cUqtte iterum 
offeruntur^ as ^corollary to conclude the feast, and continue 
their mirth, a grace cup came in to cheer their hearts, and 
they drank healths to one another again and again. Which 
as I. Fredericus Matenesius, OriU Christ, lib. 2, cap, 5, 6, & 
7, was an old custom in all ages in every commonwealth, so 
as they he not enforced, Uhere per violenttam, hut as in that 
royal feast of ^Ahasuerus, which lasted one hundred and 
eighty days, " without compulsion they drank by order in 
golden vessels," when and what they would themselves. 
This of drink is a most easy and parable remedy, a common, 
a cheap, still ready against fear, sorrow, and such trouble- 
some thoughts, that molest the mind ; as brimstone with fire, 
the spirits on a sudden are enlightened by it. " No better 
physic " (saith * Rhasis) " for a melancholy man ; and he 
that can keep company, and carouse, needs no other medi- 
cines," 'tis enough. His countryman Avicenna, 31, docL 2, 
cap. 8, proceeds farther yet, and will have him that is 
troubled in mind, or melancholy, not to drink only, but now 
and then to be drunk ; excellent good physic it is for this and 
many other diseases. Magninns, Beg. san. part. 3, c. 31, 
will have them to be so once a month at least, and gives his 
reasons for it, * " because it scours the body by vomit, urine, 
sweat, of all manner of superfluities, and keeps it clean." 
Of the same< mind is Seneca the Philosopher, in his book de 
tranquil, lib. 1, c. 15, nonnunquam tU in aliis morbis ad 
ebrietatem usqvs veniendum ; Guras deprimit, tristitice mede- 
tWy it is good sometimes to be drunk, it helps sorrow, de- 
presseth cares, and so concludes this tract with a cup of wine : 

1 Lib. 6, cap. 23 et 24, de reruxn pro- alia medicina. quod eo sunt omnia ad 

prietat. a Esther i. 8. a Tract. 1, usum necessaria hujus passionis. ^ Turn 

cont. 1. 1. Non oestrus laudabilior eo, quod sequatur inde sudor, vomitio, uri- 

Tel cura melior; qui melancholicus, uta- ua, a quibus superfluitates a corpore re- 

tur societate homlnum et biberia; et qui moyentur et remanet corpus mundum. 
potest sustinere usum yini, non indiget 

396 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 5. 

Hahes, Serene charissime, quce ad tranquiUitatem aninuB 
pertinent But these are epicureal tenets, tending to loose- 
ness of life, luxury and atheism, maintained alone by some 
heathens, dissolute Arabians, profane Christians, and are 
exploded by Rabbi Moses, tract, 4, Guliel. llacentius, lib. 1, 
cap, 8, Valescus, de Taranta, and most accurately ventilated 
by Jo. Sylvaticus, a late writer and physician of Milan, med. 
cont. cap. 14, where you shall find this tenet copiously 

Howsoever you say, if this be true, that wine and strong 
drink have such virtue to expel fear and sorrow, and to ex- 
hilarate the mind, ever hereafter let's drink and be merry. 

1 " Prome reconditum, Lyde strenua, csecabum, 
Gapaciores, puer, hue a£fer Scyphos, 
Et Chia vina aut Lesbia." 

" Come, lusty Lyda, fill ^a a cup of sack, 
And, sirrah drawer, bigger pots we lack. 
And Scio wines that have so good a smack." 

I say with him in ^A. Gellius, " let's maintain the vigour 

of our souls with a moderate cup of wine," ^Natis in usum 

hstiticB scyphis, ^^ and drink to refresh our mind ; if there be 

any cold sorrow in it, or torpid bashfulness, let's wash it all 

away." Nunc vino peUite curas; so saith * Horace, so 

saith Anacreon, 

MeiWovro yap fie Kelcr&ai 

TioTii) Kpeiaaw ^ ^dvovra. 

Let's drive down care with a cup of wine ; and so say I 
too (though / drink none myself), for all this may be done, 
so that it be modestly, soberly, opportunely used; so that 
" they be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess," which our 
* Apostle forewarns; for as Chrysostom well comments on 
that place, ad Icetitiam datum est mnum, non ad ebrietatemj 
'tis for mirth wine, but not for madness ; and will you know 

1 Hor. s lib. 15, 2 noct. Att. Vi- pentis Tencandin ftaerlt, dilouniu. 

gorem animi moderato vini usu tueamur, s nor. 1. 1, Od. 27. * Od. 7, lib. 1, 26. 

et ealefitcto simul lefotoque animo si Nam prsBstat ebrium me quam mortiium 

quid in eo vel frigidie tristitiae, vel tor- jaoere. * Ephes. t. 18, ser. 19, in oap. 6. 

Mem. 1, subs. 5.] Cure of Head-Melancholy. 397 

where, when, and how that is to be understood ? Vis discere 
tdn honum sit vinum f Audi quid dicat Scriptura, hear the 
Scriptures, " Give wine to them that are in sorrow," or as 
Paul bid Timothy drink wine for his stomach's sake, for con- 
coction, health, or some such honest occasion. Otherwise, as 
^ Pliny tells us ; if singular moderation be not had, ' '^ nothing 
BO pernicious, 'tis mere vinegar, Uandus daemon, poison itself." 
But hear a more fearful doom, Habac. ii. 15 & 16. ^ Woe 
be to him that makes his neighbour drunk, shameful spewing 
shall be upon his glory." Let not good fellows triumph there- 
fore (saith Matthiolus), that I have so much commended 
wine ; if it be immoderately taken, '^ instead of making glad, 
it confounds both body and soul, it makes a giddy head, a 
sorrowful heart" And 'twas well said of the poet of old, 
*' Wine causeth mirth and grief," * nothing so good for some, 
so bad for others, especially as ^one observes, qui a causa 
calidd male habent, that are hot or inflamed. And so of 
spices, they alone, as I have showed, cause head-melancholy 
themselves, they must not use wine as an ^ ordinary drink, or 
in their diet But to determine with Laurentius, c. 8, de 
mdan. wine is bad for madmen, and such as are troubled 
with heat in their inner parts or brains ; but to melancholy 
which is cold (as most is), wine, soberly used, may be very 

I may say the same of the decoction of China roots, sas- 
safras, sarsaparilla, guaiacum ; China, saith Manardus, makes 
a good colour in the face, takes away melancholy, and all in- 
firmities proceeding from cold, even so sarsaparilla provokes 
sweat mightily, guaiacum dries, Claudinus, comuU, 89 & 46. 
Montanus, Capivaccius, consult. 188, Scoltzii, make frequent 
and good use of guaiacum and China, • " so that the liver be 
not incensed," good for such as are cold, as most melancholy 
men are, but by no means to be mentioned in hot. 

1 Lib. 14,6. Nihil pemicioBius Tiribns, pessiinum feiinft melancholift. sPer- 

si modus absit, ▼enenum. > Theocri- nelias, conail. 44 et 46, Tinum prohibet 

tiu. Idyl. 18, vino dan Isetitiam et dolo- assiduum, et aromata. ^ Modo jeeur 

rem. > Renodteus. * Mercurialis, non incendatur. 
consil. 26. Vinum frigidis optimum, et 

398 Cure of MeHancholy. [Part n. s6c. 6. 

The Turks have a drink called coffee (for they use no 
wine), so named of a beny as black as soot, and as bitter 
(like that black drink which was in use amongst the Lace- 
daemonians, and perhaps the same), which they sip still of, 
and sup as warm as they can suffer ; they spend much time 
in those coffee-houses, which are somewhat like our ale-houses 
or taverns, and there they sit chatting and drinking to drive 
away the time, and to be merry together, because they find 
by experience that kind of drink, so used, helpeth digestion, 
and procured alacrity. Some of them take opium to this 

Borage, balm, saffron, gold, I have spoken of; Montaltos, 
c, 23, commends scorzonera roots condite. Garcias ab Horto, 
plarU, hist UK 2, cap, 25, makes mention of an herb called 
datura, ^ " which, if it be eaten, for twenty-four hours follow- 
ing takes away all sense of grief, makes them incline to 
laughter and mirth ; " and another called bauge, like in effect 
to opium, " which puts them for a time into a kind of ecstasy,'* 
and makes them gently to laugh. One of the Roman em- 
perors had a seed, which he did ordinarily eat to exhilarate 
himself. * Christophorus Ayrerus prefers bezoar stone, and 
the confection of alkermes, before other cordials, and amber 
in some cases. * " Alkermes comforts the inner parts ; " and 
bezoar stone hath an especial virtue against all melancholy 
affections, *"it refresheth the heart, and corroborates the 
whole body.*' *Amber provokes urine, helps the body, 
breaks wind, &c. After a purge, three or four grains of 
bezoar stone, and three grains of ambergris, drunk or taken 
in borage or bugloss water, in which gold hot hath been 
quenched, will do much good, and the purge will diminish 
less (the heart so refreshed) of the strength and substance 
of the body. 

^ Per 24 horas sensaxn doloris omnem ipsius nsti omnes cordis et corpoxis vires 

tollit, et ridere facit. > Hildesheim, spi- xairum in modum reflci. ftSaccininn 

eel. 2. 8 Alkermes omnia vitalia viscera vero albissimum conibrtat yentricalniD, 

mire confortat. < Contra omnes mel- fiatum disoutit, urinam moyet, &c. 
aachoUcos affectus ooafert, ac certum est 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Clwre of Hec^ Melancholy, 399 

B;. Gonfect. Alkermes 3^. lap. Bezoar. ^j* 
Saccini albi subtiliss. pulverisat. ^jj. cum 
Syrup, de cort. citri ; fiat electuarium. 

To bezoar stone most subscribe, Manardus, and ^many 
others ; '^ it takes away sadness, and makes him meny that 
useth it ; I have seen some that have been much diseased 
with faintness, swooning, and melancholy, that taking the 
weight of three grains of this stone, in the water of oxtongue, 
have been cured." Garcias ab Horto brags how many des- 
perate cures he hath done upon melancholy men by this 
alone, when all physicians had forsaken them. But alkermes 
many except against ; in some cases it may help, if it be 
good and of the best, such as that of Montpelier in France, 
which ^ lodocus Sincerus, Mnerario GaUitB, so much magni- 
fies, and would have no traveller omit to see it made. But 
it is not so general a medicine as the other. Femelius, 
canstL 49, suspects alkermes by reason of its heat, * " nothing 
(saith he), sooner exasperates this disease, than the use of 
hot working meats and medicines, and would have them for 
that cause warily taken." I conclude, therefore, of this and 
all other medicines, as Thucydides of the plague at Athens, 
no remedy could be prescribed for it, Niam quod uni profait^ 
hoc aliis erat exitio : there is no catholic medicine to be had ; 
that which helps one is pernicious to another. 

Diamargaritum frigtdum^ diambra^ diaboraginatum, else- 
tuarium IcBtificans Gcdeni et JRhasts, de gemmis, dianthos, 
diamoschum dvlce et amarum^ electtuirium conctltcUoris, 
syrup, Cidomorum, de pomis, conserves of roses, violets, 
fumitory, enula carapana, satyrion, lemons, orange pills con- 
dite, &c., have their good use. 

* " R. Diamoschi dulcie et amari, ana 3 ij. 

Diabuglossati, Diaboraginati, sacchari violacei, 
ana 3 j. misce cum syrupo de pomis." 

1 ChkTcias ab Horto, aromattun, lib. 1, 1617. Monspelil electuarium fit predo- 

cap. 16, adversufl omnes morbos melan- cissimiun Alcherm. &c. * Nihil mor- 

cliolicos conducit, et renenum. Ego bum hunc a^que exasperat, ac alimento- 

(!nquit)utorinmorbismelaiichoIicis,&c., rum vel calidiorum usus. Alchermea 

et deploratos hujus usu ad pristinam ideo guspectus, et quod semel moneam, 

sanltatem restitui. See more in Bauhi- caute adhibenda calida modicamenta. 

nus's book de lap. Bezoar, c. 46. sBdit. * Sckenkius, 1. 1, Observat. de Mania, ad 

400 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 5. 

Every physician is full of such receipts ; one only I will add 
for the rareness of it, which I find recorded by many learned 
authors, as an approved medicine against dotage, head-melan- 
choly, and such diseases of the brain. Take a ^ ram's head 
that never meddled with an ewe, cut off at a blow, and the 
horns only take away, boil it well, skin and wool together ; 
after it is well sod, take out the brains, and put these spices 
to it, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, mace, cloves, ana 5 £, mingle 
the powder of these spices with it, and heat them in a platter 
upon a chafingdish of coals together, stirring them well, that 
they do not burn ; take heed it be not overmuch dried, or 
drier than a calf's brains ready to be eaten. Keep it so pre- 
pared, and for three days give it the patient fasting, so that 
he fast two hours after it. It may be eaten with bread, in an 
egg or broth, or any way, so it be taken. For fourteen days 
let him use this diet, drink no wine, &c. Gesner, hist, animal, 
lib. 1, pa^. 917, Caricterius, pract. 13, in Nich. de metri. 
pag. 129, latro: Witenberg. edit. Tubing, pag. 62, mention 
this medicine, though with some variation ; he that list may 
try it, * and many such. 

Odoraments to smell to, of rose-water, violet flowers, balm, 
rose-cakes, vinegar, &c., do much recreate the brains and 
spirits, according to Solomon. Prov. xxvii. 9. " They rejoice 
the heart,'* and, as some say, nourish ; 'tis a question commonly 
controverted in our schools, an odores nutriant ; let Ficinus, 
lib. 2, cap. 18, decide it ; ^many arguments he brings to prove 
it ; as gf Democritus, that lived by the smell of bread alone, 
applied to his nostrils, for some few days, when for old age he 
could eat no meat. Ferrerius, lib. 2, meth. speaks of an excel- 
lent confection of his making, of wine, saffron, &c., which he 
prescribed to dull, weak, feeble, and dying men to smell to, 
and by it to have done very much good, ceque fere profuisse 

mentis alienationem, et desipientiam vitio addens aromata, Jbc. * Cinis testndmis 

cerebri obortam, in manuscripto codice ustus, et vino potus melancholiam cu- 

Germanico, tale medicamentum reperi. rat, et rasura comu Rhinocerotis, &c., 

1 Caput arietis nondnm experti venerem. Sckenkius. > Instat ia matrice, qu6d 

uno ictu amputatum, cornibus tantum sursum et deorsum ad odoris Bensmtt 

demotis, integrum cum lana et pelle bene prsecipitatur. 
elizabis, turn aperto cerebrum eximes, et 

Mem. 1, subs. 5.] Oure of Head-MeUmcholy. 401 

olfactu et potu, as if he had given them drink. Our noble and 
learned Lord * Verulam, in his book de vitd et morte, com- 
mends, therefore, all such cold smells as any waj serve to 
refrigerate the spirits. Montanus, consil. 31, prescribes a 
form which he would have his melancholy patient never to 
have out of his hands. If you will have them spagyrically 
pirepared, look in Oswaldus Crollius, BasiL Chymiccu 

Irrigations of the head shaven, ^ " of the flowers of water- 
lilies, lettuce, violets, camomile, wild mallows, wether's-head," 
&C., must be used many mornings together. Montan. consil, 
31, would have the head so washed once a week. Laelius k 
fonte Eugubinus, consult. 44, for an Italian count, troubled 
with head-melancholy, repeats many medicines which he 
tried, * " but two alone which did the cure ; use of whey 
made of goats' milk, with the extract of hellebore, and irriga- 
tions of the head with water-lilies, lettuce, violets, camomile, 
&c., upon the suture of the crown." Piso commends a ram's 
lungs applied hot to the forepart of the head, * or a young 
lamb divided in the back, exenterated, &c. ; all acknowledge 
the chief cure in moistening throughout. Some, saith Lau- 
rentius, use powders and caps to the brain ; but forasmuch 
as such aromatical things are hot and dry, they must be 
sparingly administered. 

Unto the heart we may do well to apply bags, epithems, 
ointments, of which Laurentius, c. 9, de mekm, gives ex- 
amples. Bruel prescribes an epithem for the heart, of 
bugloss, borage, water-lily, violet waters, sweet wine, balm 
leaves, nutmegs, cloves, &c 

For the belly, make a fomentation of oil, *in which the 
seeds of cumin, rue, carrots, dill, have been boiled. 

Baths are of wonderful great force in this malady, much 
admired by ^ Galen, ' JEtius, Ehasis, &c., of sweet water, in 

 Viscount St. Alban'8. i Ex decoc- &c., suturse coronali adhibita ; his reme- 

to florum Bymphese, lactucae, yiolarum, diis sanitatem pristinam adeptus est. 

chamomile, althess, capitis vervecum, s Gonfert et pulmo arietis, calidus agnus 

&c. 2 Inter auxilia multa adhibita, per dorsum divisua, exenteratus, admo- 

duo visa sunt remedinm adferre, usus tus sincipiti. * Semina cumini, rutae, 

seri caprioi cum extracto Hellebori, et dauci, anethi cocta. » Lib. 3. de locis 

irrigatio ex lacte nymphese, yiolarum, affect. > Tetrab. 2, ser. 1, cap. 10. 

VOL. II. 26 

r^i''*^'-/«iv.. , 

402 Ouir% of Mehmcholy. [Part. II. sec. 5. 

which are boOed the leaves of mallows, roses, violets, water- 
lilies, wether's-head, flowers of bugloss, camomile, melilot, &c. 
Guianer. cap. 8, traet, 15, would have them used twice a day, 
and when they come forth of the baths, their backbones to be 
anointed with oil of almonds, violets, njmpha&a, fresh capon 
grease, &c 

Amulets and things to be borne about, I find prescribed, 
taxed by some, approved by Renodaeus, Platerus {amulBta 
inquit non negligenda), and others ; look for them in Mizal- 
dus. Porta, Albertus, &c Bassardus Yiscontinus, ant, philos. 
commends hypericon, or St. John's wort gathered on a ^ Friday 
in the hour of " Jupiter, when it comes to his effectual opera- 
tion (that is, about the full moon in July) ; so gathered and 
borne, or hung about the neck, it mightily helps this affection, 
and drives away all fantastical spirits.*' ^Philes, a Greek 
author that flourished in the time of Michael Paleologus, 
writes that a sheep or kid's skin, whom a wolf worried, 
^Jlosdus inhumani raptus ah ore lupi, ought not at all to be 
worn about a man, ^* because it causeth palpitation of the 
heart," not for any fear, but a secret virtue which amulets 
have. A ring made of the hoof of an ass's right forefoot 
carried about, &c. I say with * Renoda&us, they are not 
altogether to be rejected. Peony doth cure epilepsy; pre* 
cious stones, most diseases; *a wolf's dung borne with one 
helps the colic, ® a spider an ague, &c. Being in the country 
in the vacation time not many years since, at Lindley in 
Leicestershire, my father's house, I first observed this amulet 
of a spider in a nutshell lapped in silk, &c., so applied for 
an ague by ^ my mother ; whom, although I knew to have ex- 
cellent skill in chirurgery, sore eyes, aches, &c., and such 
experimental medicines, as all the country where she dwelt 
can witness, to have done many famous and good cures upon 

1 Gap. de mel. collectum die vener. usurpandam, cordis enim palpitationem 

hora Joyis cum ad Energiam venit, i. e. excitat, &c. ^ Mart. * Phar. lib. 1, 

ad plenilunium Julii, inde gesta et coUo cap. 12. ^ iEtius, cap. 31, Tet. 8, 

appensa banc affectum apprime juvat et ser. 4. * Dioscorides, Ulysses Aldero- 

fanaticoB spiritus expellit. > L. de pro< vandns de arane^L. f Biistiess Dorothy 

prietat. animal, ovis a lupo correptse pel- Burton, she died, 1629. 
lem non esse pro indumento corporis 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Cure of HeadrMeJancholy, 403 

divers poor folks, that were otherwise destitute of help : yet 
among all other experiments, this methought was most ab- 
surd and ridiculous, I oould see no warrant for it Quid 
aranea cum febref For what andpathj? till at length 
rambling amongst authors (as often I do) I found this, very 
medicine in Diosoorides, approved by Matthiolus, repeated by 
Alderovandus, . cap* de Aranea, lib, de insectis, I began to 
have a better opinion of it, and to give more credit to amulets, 
when I saw it in some parties answer to experience. Some 
medicines are to be exploded, that consist of words, characters, 
spells, and charms, which can do no good at all, but out of a 
strong conceit, as Pomponatius proves ; or the devil's policy, 
who is the first founder and teacher of them. 

SuBSECT. VI. — Correctors of Accidents to procure Sleep, 
Against fearful Dreams, Redness, S^c, 

When you have used all good means and helps of altera- 
tives, averters, diminutives, yet there will be still certain 
accidents to be corrected and amended, as waking, fearful 
dreams, flushing in the face to some ruddiness, &c. 

Waking, by reason of their continual cares, fears, sorrows, 
dry brains, is a symptom that much crucifies melancholy men, 
and must therefore be speedily helped, and sleep by all 
means procured, which sometimes is a sufficient ^ remedy of 
itself without any other physic Sckenkius, in his Observa- 
tions, hath an example of a woman that was so cured. The 
means to procure it, are inward or outward. Inwardly taken, 
are simples, or compounds ; simples, as poppy, nymphaea, 
violets, roses, lettuce, mandrake, henbane, nightshade or 
solanum, saffron, hempseed, nutmegs, willows, with their 
seeds, juice, decoctions, distilled waters, &c Compounds are 
syrups, or opiates, syrup of poppy, violets, verbasco, which 
are commonly taken with distilled waters. 

K. Diacodii 3j. diascordii 3j^.aqnss lactncse 3iij.j^. 
mista fiat potio ad horam somni sumenda. 

1 Solo somno curata est citra medici anzUium, fol. 1£4. 

404 Cure of Melancholy, [Part. II. sec. 5. 

Requies NicJwlai^ Philonium Romanum, Tripkera magna, 
jnluUe de Oynoghssa, Diascordium, Laudxmum Paracehij 
Opium, are in use, &c. Country folks commonly make a 
posset of hempseed, which Fuchsius in his herbal so much 
discommends ; yet I have seen the good effect, and it may be 
used where better medicines are not to be had. 

Laudanum Paracehi is prescribed in two or three grains, 
with a drachm of Diascordium, which Oswald. Crollius com- 
mends. Opium itself is most part used outwardly, to smell 
to in a ball, though commonly so taken by the Turks to the 
same quantity ^ for a cordial, and at Goa in the Indies ; the 
dose forty or fifty grains. 

Rulandus calls Requiem NichoUd, vkimum refagium, the 
last refuge ; but of this and the rest look for peculiar receipts 
in Victorius Faventinus, cap. de phrenesi, Heumius, cap, de 
mania, Hildesheim, spicel. 4, de somno et vigil. &c. Out- 
wardly used, as oil of nutmegs by extraction, or expression 
with rose-water to anoint the temples, oils of poppy, nenuphar, 
mandrake, purslain, violets, all to the same purpose. 

Montan. consil. 24 and 25, much commends odoraments of 
opium, vinegar, and rose-water. Laurentius, cap. 9, prescribes 
pomanders and nodules ; see the receipts in him ; Codronchus, 
^ wormwood to smell to. 

Ungtientum Alabastritum, popiUeum, are used to anoint the 
temples, nostrils, or if they be too weak, they mix saffron 
and opium. Take a grain or two of opium, and dissolve it 
with three or four drops of rose-water in a spoon, and after 
mingle with it as much Uhguentum poptdeum as a nut, use it 
as before ; or else take half a drachm of opium, UnguefUum 
poptdeum, oil of nenuphar, rose-water, rose-vinegar, of each 
half an ounce, with as much virgin wax as a nut, anoint your 
temples with some of it, ad horam somni. 

Sacks of wormwood, * mandrake, * henbane, roses made 

1 BelloniuB, observat. lib. 8, cap. 15, licit olfactu. s R«ad Lemnins, lib. her. 

lassitudinem et labores animi tollunt; bib. cap. 2, of Mandrake. ^ Hyom^ya- 

inde Garcias ab Horto, lib. 1, cap. 4, mus sub cervicali viridis. 
simp. med. s Absynthium sonmos al- 

• m 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Gwre of Head- Melancholy, 405 

like pillows and laid under the patient's head, are mentioned 
by ^ Cardan and Mizaldus, " to anoint the soles of the feet 
with the fat of a dormouse, the teeth with ear wax of a dog, 
swine's gall, hare's ears ; " charms, &c. 

Frontlets are well known to every good wife, rose-water 
and vinegar, with a little woman's milk, and nutmegs grated 
upon a rose-cake applied to both temples. 

For an emplaster, take of castorium a drachm and a half, 
of opium half a scruple, mixed both together with a little 
water of life, make two small plasters thereof, and apply 
them to the temples. 

Rulandus, cent* 1, cur. 17, cent, 3, cur, 94, prescribes epi- 
thems and lotions of the head, with the decoction of flowers 
of nymphaea, violet leaves, mandrake roots, henbane, white 
poppy. Here, de Saxonii, sHUicidia, or droppings, &c. 
Lotions of the feet do much avail of the said herbs; by 
these means, saith Laurentius, I think you may procure sleep 
to the most melancholy man in the world. Some use horse- 
leeches behind the ears, and apply opium to the place. 

^Bayerus, Ub, 2, c. 13, sets down some remedies against 
fearful dreams, and such as walk and talk in their sleep. 
Baptista Porta, Mag. not, I, 2, c, 6, to procure pleasant dreams 
and quiet rest, would have you take hippoglossa, or the herb 
horsetongue, balm, to use them or their distilled waters after 
supper, &C. Such men must not eat beans, peas, garlic, 
onions, cabbage, venison, hare, use black wines, or any meat 
hard of digestion at supper, or lie on their backs, &c. 

RusticiLS pvdor, bashfulness, flushing in the face, high 
colour, ruddiness, are common grievances, which much tor- 
ture many melancholy men, when they meet a man, or come 
in ' company of their betters, strangers, after a meal, or if 
they drink a cup of wine or strong drink, they are as red and 
fleet, and sweat as if they had been at a mayor's feast, prm- 

I Plantam. pedis inungere pinguedine ciliare, &o. Cardan de rerum yarietat* 

gliris dicunt efficacissimum, et quod vix > Veni mecum lib. > Aut si quid in- 

credi potest, dentes inunctos ex sorditie cautius exciderit aut, &c. 
aurium canis somnum profundum coa- 


406 Chire of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 6. 

sertim si metus accesserit, it exceeds, ^ they think every man 
observes, takes notice of it ; and fear alone will eiSect it, sus- 
picion without any other cause. Sckenkiiis, observ. med, lib. 
1, speaks of a waiting gentlewoman in the Duke of Savoy's 
court, that was so much offended with it, that she kneeled 
down to him, and offered Biarus, a physician, all that she 
had to be cured of it. And 'tis most true, that ^Antony 
Ludovicus saith in his book de Pudorey ^ bashfulness either 
hurts or helps," such men I am sure it hurts. K it proceed 
from suspicion or fear, 'Felix Plater prescribes no other 
remedy but to reject and contemn it ; Id populus curat scili- 
cet, as a * worthy physician in our town said to a friend of 
mine in like case, complaining without a cause, suppose one 
look red, what matter is it, make light of it, who observes it ? 
If it trouble at or after meals (as * Jobertus observes, med, 
pract L 1, c. 7), after a little exercise or stirring, for many 
are then hot and red in the face, or if they do nothing at 
all, especially women ; he would have them let blood in both 
arms, first one, then another, two or three days between, if 
blood abound ; to use frictions of the other parts, feet especi- 
ally, and washing of them, because of that consent which is 
between the head and the feet. * And withal to refrigerate 
the face, by washing it often with rose, violet, nenuphar, let- 
tuce, lovage waters, and the like ; but the best of all is that 
hw virginaU, or strained liquor of litargy; it is diversely 
prepared ; by Jobertus thus : 5* lithar. argevtt, unc, j. cerus- 
s<B candidissimce, 5iij. caphurm, Bij. dissolvaniur aquarum 
solani, lacttica, et nenupharis ana unc, iij. aceti vini aUfiy 
unc, ij. aliquot horas resideat^ deinde iransmittatur per phiU, 
aqua servetur in vase vitreo, ac ed his terve fades quoiidie 
irroretur, ^ Quercetan, spagir, phar, cap, 6, commends the 
water of frogs' spawn for ruddiness in the face. ® Crato, 

1 Nam quSL parte pavor simul est pudor faeminis prsesertim ; causa quicquid fer- 

additus ilU. Statias. s Olysipponen- vidum aat halitaosum sanguinem &cit. 

sift medicas ; pudor aut juvat aut Isedit. 6 Interim &ciei prospiciendum ut ipsa 

s De mentis alienat. ^ Mr. Doctor Ash- refrigeretur ; utrumque prsestabit fn- 

worth. ^ Facira nonnullis maxime calet quens potio ex aquSl roaarum, violarnm, 

rubetque, si se paululum exercuerint ; nenupharis, &c. 7 Ad faciei ruborem 

nonnullis quiescentibus idem aocidit, aqua spermatis ranarum. ^Becte 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Chure of Hectd-Mehndioly. 407 

constL 283, Scoltzii, would fain have them use all summer 
the condite flowers of succory, strawberry water, roses (cup- 
ping-glasses are good for the time), consiL 285 et 286, and to 
defecate impure blood with the infusion of senna, savory, 
balm water. ^ Hollerius knew one cured alone with the use 
of succory boDed, and drunk for five months, every morning 
in the summer. ^ It is good overnight to anoint .the face with 
hare's blood, and in the mommg to wa«h it with strawberry 
and cowslip water, the juice of distilled' lemons, juice of 
cucumbers, or to use the seeds of melons, or kernels of 
peaches beaten small, or the roots of Aron, and mixed with 
wheat bran to bake it in an oven, and to crumble it in straw- 
berry water, ' or to put fresh cheese curds to a red face. 

If it trouble them at meal times that flushing, as ofl it 
doth, with sweating or the like, they must avoid all violent 
passions and actions, as laughing, &c, strong drink, and drink 
very little, *one draught, saith Crato, and that about the 
midst of their meal ; avoid at all times indurate salt, and 
especially spice and windy meat 

* Crato prescribes the condite fruit of wild rose, to a noble- 
man his patient, to be taken before dinner or supper, to the 
quantity of a chestnut. It is made of sugar, as that of 
quinces. The decoction of the roots of sow-thistle before 
meat, by the same author is much approved. To eat of a 
baked apple some advise, or of a preserved quince, cumin- 
seed prepared with meat instead of salt, to keep down fumes ; 
not to study or to be intentive after meals. 

** &. Nncleorum persic. seminis melonnm, ana hdc. Q ^, 
aqusd fragorum 1. ij. misce, ntatar mane." 

• To apply cupping-glasses to the shoulders is very good. 

utantur in lestate floribus Cichorii sac- 21, lib. unico rini haustn sit contentus. 

charo conditis vel saccharo losaceo, &c. 6 Idem, consil. 288, Scoltzii, laudatur con- 

1 Solo nsn decocti Cichorii. ^ Utile im- ditus rosae caninse fractus ante prandium 

primis noctu fiiciem illinire sanguine lep- et coenam ad magnitudinem castaneae. 

orino, et mane aquSL fragorum, vel aquSL Becoctum radicum Sonchi, si ante cibum 

floribus verbasci cum succo limonum dis- sumatar, valet plurimum. ^ Cucurbit, 

tillato abluere. > Utile rubenti &ciei ad scapulas appositse. 
caseum recentem imponere. * Consil. 


408 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 5. 

For the other kind of ruddmess which is settled in the face 
with pimples, &c., because it pertains not to my subject, I -will 
not meddle with it I refer you to Crato's counsels, Amoldus, 
lib, 1, hreviar, cap, 39, 1, Rulande, Peter Forestus de Fuoo, Uh, 
31, obser, 2. To Platerus, Mercurialis, Ulmus, Rondoletias, 
Heumius, Menadous, and others that have written largely of it. 
Those other grievances and symptoms of headache, palpita- 
tion of heart, Vertigo, deliquium, &c., which trouble many 
melancholy men, because they are copiously handled apart in 
every physician, I do voluntarily omit. 

MEMB. n. 

Cure of Melancholy over all the Body. 

Where the melancholy blood possesseth the whole body 
with the brain, ^it is best to begin with bloodletting. The 
Greeks prescribe the * median or middle vein to be opened 
and so much blood to be taken away as the patient may well 
spare, and the cut that is made must be wide enough. The 
Arabians hold it fittest to be taken from that arm on which 
side there is more pain and heaviness in the head ; if black 
blood issue forth, bleed on ; if it be clear and good, let it be 
instantly suppressed, ' " because the malice of melancholy is 
much corrected by the goodness of the blood." If the party's 
strength will not admit much evacuation in this kind at once, 
it must be assayed again and again ; if it may not be con- 
veniently taken from the arm, it must be taken from the 
knees and ankles, especially to such men or women whose 
haemorrhoids or months have been stopped. * If the malady 
continue, it is not amiss to evacuate in a part in the forehead, 
and to virgins in the ankles, who are melancholy for love 
matters ; so to widows that are much grieved and troubled 

1 Piso. < Mediana pne C8et«ri8. malo ez quacunque parte sanguis detiv 

s Succi melancholici malitia a sanguinis hi debet, 
bonttate corrigitar. ^ Perseyerante 

Mem. 8, subs. 1.] Care of Hypochondriacal Melancholy^ 409 

with sorrow and cares ; for bad blood flows in the heart, and 
so crucifies the mind. The haemorrhoids are to be opened 
with an instrument or horseleeches, i&c See more in Mon- 
taltus, cap, 29. ^Sckenkius hath an example of one that 
was cured bj an accidental wound in his thigh, much bleed- 
ing freed him from melancholy. Diet, dindnutives, altera- 
tives, cordials, correctors as before, intermixed as occasion 
serves, ^ '^ all their study must be to make a melancholy man 
fat, and then the cure is ended." Diuretica, or medicines to 
procure urine, are prescribed by some in this kind, hot and 
cold ; hot, where the heat of the liver doth not forbid ; cold, 
where the heat of the liver is very great ; ' amongst hot are 
parsley roots, lovage, fennel, &c. ; cold, melon seeds, &c., 
with whey of goats' milk, which is the common conveyer. 

To purge and * purify the blood, use sow-thistle, succory, 
senna, endive, carduus benedictus, dandelion, hop, maiden- 
hair, fumitory, bugloss, borage, &c., with their juice, decoc- 
tions, distilled waters, syrups, &c 

Oswaldus Crollius, Badl, Chym, much admires salt of 
corals in this case, and ^tius, tetrdbib, ser, 2, cap. 114, 
Hieram Archigenis, which is an excellent medicine to purify 
the blood, '^for all melancholy affections, faUing-sickness, 
none to be comnared to it." 


SuBSBCT. I. — Oure of Hypochondriacal Melancholy. 

In this cure, as in the rest, is especially required the recti- 
fication of those six non-natural things above all, as good 
diet, which Montanus, consiL 27, enjoins a French nobleman, 

1 Observat. fol. 164, cnratiu ex yulnere nli ; inter frigida emulsio aeminis melo- 

in crura ob cruorem amissum . > Stu- nam cum aero capiino quod est commune 

dium 8it omne nt melancholicus impin- Tehiculum. * Hoc uaum pnemoneo, 

guetur : ex quo enim pingues et carnosi, domine, at sis diligens circa rictum, sine 

illico sani sunt. ^ Hlldesheim, spicel. 2. quo csetera reme^ firustra adhibentur. 
Inter calida radix petroselini, apii, fenie- 

410 Oure of Melancholy, [Part. IL sec. 6. 

^'to have an especial care of it, without which all other 
remedies are in vain.^ Bloodletting is not to be used, ex- 
cept the patient's body be very full of blood, and that it be 
derived from the liver and spleen to the stomach and his 
vessels, then ^ to draw it back, to cut the inner vein of either 
arm, some say the salvatella, and if the malady be continuate, 
* to open a vein in the forehead. 

Preparatives and alteratives may be used as before, saving 
that there must be respect had as well to the liver, spleen, 
stomach, hypochondries, as to the heart and brain. To com- 
fort the ' stomach and inner parts against wind and obstruc- 
tions, by Areteus, Galen, ^tius, Aurelianus, &c, and many 
later writers, are still prescribed the decoctions of worm- 
wood, centaury, pennyroyal, betony sodden in whey, and 
daily drunk ; many have been cured by this medicine alone. 

Prosper Alpinus and some others as much magnify the 
water of Nile against this malady, an especial good remedy 
for windy melancholy. For which reason belike Ptolemeus 
Philadelphus, when he married his daughter Berenice to the 
king of Assyria (as Celsus, hb, 2, records), magrds impensis 
Nili aquam afferri jussit, to his great charge caused the 
water of Nile to be carried with her, and gave command that 
during her life she should use no other drink. I find those 
that commend use of apples, in splenetic and this kind of 
melancholy (lamb's wool, some call it), which howsoever ap- 
proved must certainly be corrected of cold rawness and wind. 

Codronchus in his book de sale ahsyrUh. magnifies the oil 
and salt of wormwood above all other remedies, * " which 
works better and speedier than any simple whatsoever, and 
much to be preferred before all those fulsome decoctions and 
infusions, which must offend by reason of their quantity; 
this alone in a small measure taken, expels wind, and that 

1 Lanrentiiu, cap. 15, evulsionis grati& luta in qnantitate mult3i, et magnfli eum 

venam intemam altering brachii secamus. assumentinm molestiSl desumpta. Plains 

s Si pertinax morbus, yenam fronte seca- hie sal efflcaciter dissipat, urinam movet, 

bis. Brnel. 8 Ego maximam curam hnmores craflsos abstergit, stomachum 

stomacho delegabo. Octa. Horatianus, egr^e confortat, cmditotem, nauaeain, 

lib. 2, o. 7. ^ Citina et efficacius anas appetentiam mirum in modum renovat. 

Tires ezeroet qnam solent decocta ac di- &o. 



Hem. 8, subs. 1.] dure of Hypochondriacal Melancholy, 411 

mo3t forcibly, moves urine, cleanseth tte stomach of all gross 
humours, crudities, helps appetite," &c. Amoldus hath a 
wormwood wine which he would have used, which every 
pharmacopceia speaks of. 

Diminutives and purges may ^be taken as before, of hiera, 
manna, cassia, which Montanus, consiL 230, for an Italian 
abbot, in this kind prefers before all other simples, ^^and 
these must be often used, still abstaining from those which 
are more violent, lest they do exasperate the stomach, &c., 
and the mischief by that means be increased." Though in 
some physicians I find very strong purgers, hellebore itself 
prescribed in this affection. If it long continue, vomits may 
be taken afler meat, or otherwise gently procured with warm 
water, oxymel, &c., now and then. Fuchsius, cap. 33, pre- 
scribes hellebore ; but still take heed in this malady, which I 
have oflen warned, of hot medicines, ' ^' because (as Salvianus 
adds) drought follows heat, which increaseth the disease ; " 
and yet Baptista Sylvaticus, cmvtrov, 32, forbids cold medi- 
cines, *" because they increase obstructions, and other bad 
symptoms." But this varies as the parties do, and 'tis not 
easy to determine which to use. * " The stomach most part 
in this infirmity is cold, the liver hot ; scarce therefore (which 
Montanus insinuates, consU. 229, for the Earl of Monfort) 
can you help the one and not hurt the other ; " much discre- 
tion must be used ; take no physic at all he concludes without 
great need. LbbIIus ^ugubinus, cormL 77, for an hypochon- 
driacal German prince, used many medicines ; '' but it was 
after signified to him in ^ letters, that the decoction of China 
and sassafras, and salt of sassafras, wrought him an incredi- 
ble good." In his 108 consult, he used as happily the same 
remedies ; this to a third might have been poison, by over- 
heating his liver and blood. 

iPiso, Altomarua. Lanrentlas, o. 16. tionem aUaque STmptomata augebit. 

SHis ntendnm saepius iteratis: a vehe- & Ventrkulus plemmqae frigidus, epar 

mentiorlbus semper abstinendam ne Ten- calidum ; quomodo ergo Tentrioolum cal- 

trem ezasperent. > Lib. 2, cap. 1. efibciet, vel refrigerabit hepar sine alteriua 

Qaoniam caliditate coi^unota est siocitas mazimo detrimento? o Significatum 

qius malum anget « Quisquis fHgidis per literas, incredibilem utilitatem ex. 

au^dliis hoc morbo usns faerit, is obstruc- deoocto Chinae, et Saasafras peroepisse. 

412 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. II. sec. 6. 

For the other parts look for remedies m Savanarola, Gk»r- 
donius, Massaria, Mercatus, Johnson, &c One for the spleen, 
amongst many other, I will not omit, cited bj Hildesheim, 
spied, 2, prescribed hj Mat. Flaccus, and out of the author- 
ity of Benevenius. Anthony Benevenius in a hypochondri- 
acal passion, ^" cured an exceeding great swelling of the 
spleen with capers alone, a meat befitting that infirmity, and 
frequent use of the water of a smith's forge ; by this physic 
he helped a sick man, whom all other physicians had for- 
saken, that for seven years had been splenetic" And of such 
force is this water, ^ " that those creatures as drink of it, have 
commonly little or no spleen/* See more excellent medi- 
cines for the spleen in him, and 'Lod. Mercatus, who is a 
great magnifier of this medicine. This Chalybs pr€eparat!USy 
or steel-drink, is much likewise commended to this disease by 
Daniel Sennertus, I. 1, part, 2, cap, 12, and admired by 
J. Caesar Claudinus, Respons, 29, he calls steel the proper 
^ alexipharmacum of this malady, and much magnifies it; 
look for receipts in them. Averters must be used to the 
liver and spleen, and to scour the meseraic veins ; and they 
are either to open or provoke urine. You can open no 
place better than the haemorrhoids, "which if by horse- 
leeches they be made to flow, * there may not be again such 
an excellent remedy," as Plater holds. Sallust. Salvian. will 
admit no other phlebotomy but this ; and by his experience 
in an hospital which he kept, he found all mad and melan- 
choly men worse for other bloodletting. Laurentius, cap. 15, 
calls this of horseleeches a sure remedy to empty the spleen 
and meseraic membrane. Only Montanus, consil, 241, is 
against it; ®"to other men (saith he) this opening of the 
haemorrhoids seems to be a profitable remedy ; for my part 

1 Tumorem splenis incurabilem sola quutuB. & Si hemorroidee flaxerint, 

cappari curavit, cibo tali eegritudini ap- nullum prsestantiuB esset remedium, 

tiasimo : Soloque usu aquae, in quft &ber quae aanguisugis admotis proyocari pote- 

ferrariuB saepe candens ferrum extinxerat, runt, obserrat. Ub. 1, pro hypoc. leguleio. 

&c. > Animalia quae apud hos &bro6 ^ Aliu apertio hieo in hoc morbo Tidefcor 

educantur, exiguoe habent lienes. sl. utilissima; mihi non admodum probatnr; 

1, cap. 17. ^ Continuus ^ua usus quia aanguinem tenuem attrahit et cxa»- 

semper feUcem in aegris finem est asse- sum relinqult. 


Mem. 8, subs. 1.] Cure of Ihff>ochondr%acal Melancholy. 413 

I do not approve of it, because it draws away the thinnest 
blood, and leaves the thickest behind." 

^tius, Vidus Vidius, Mercurialis, Fuchsius, recommend 
diuretics, or such things as provoke urine, as anise-seeds, dill, 
fennel, germander, ground pine, sodden in water, or drunk 
in powder ; and yet ^ P. Bayerus is against them ; and so is 
HoUerius : ^^ All melancholy men (saith he) must avoid such 
things as provoke urine, because by them the subtile or thin- 
nest is evacuated, the thicker matter remains." 

Clysters are in good request Trincavellius, lib. 3, cap, 38, 
for a young nobleman, esteems of them in the first place, 
and Hercules de Saxonia, Panth, lib, 1, cap. 16, is a great 
approver of them. *"I have found (saith he) by experi- 
ence, that many hypochondriacal melancholy men have been 
cured by the sole use of clysters," receipts are to be had in 

Besides those fomentations, irrigations, inunctions, odora- 
ments, prescribed for the head, there must be the like used 
for the liver, spleen, stomach, hypochondries, &c. *"In cru- 
dity (saith Piso) 'tis good to bind the stomach hard" to 
hinder wind, and to help concoction. 

Of inward medicines I need not speak ; use the same cor- 
dials as before. In this kind of melancholy, some prescribe 
^ treacle in winter, especially before or after purges, or in the 
spring, as Avicenna, ^ Trincavellius mithridate, ® Montaltus 
peony seeds, unicorn's horn ; os de corde cervi, &c. 

Amongst topics or outward medicines, none are more pre- 
cious than baths, but of them I have spoken. Fomentations 
to the hypochondries are very good, of wine and water in 
which are sodden southernwood, melilot, epithyme, mugwort, 
senna, polypody, as also "^ cerotes, ® plasters, liniments, oint- 
ments for the spleen, liver, and hypochondries, of which look 

1 Lib. 2, cap. 13, omnes meUuioholici tate optimum, ventriculam arctius alli- 

debent omittere urinam provocantia, gari. ^ 3j' Theriacse, vere prsesertdm 

quoniam per ea educitur subtile, et re- etaestate. &Cons. 12, 1. 1. ^ Cap. 33. 

manet crassum. » Ego experientiSl pro- ^ Trincavellius, consil. 15, cerotum pro 

bavi, multos hypoehondriacos solo usu sene melancholico ad jecur, optimum. 

clTSterum fuisse sanatos. > In crudi- ^Emplastra pro spleoe, Femel. consil. 45< 

414 (hre of Mdancho^, [Part 11. sec. 6. 

for examples in Laurentius, Jobertus, lib, 3, c, 1, prcu med^ 
Montanus, consil. 231, Montaltus, cap. 33, Hercules de Saxo- 
nii, Faventinus. And so of epithems, digestive powders, 
bags, oils, Octavius Horatianus, lib, 2, c, 5, prescribes calas- 
dc cataplasms, or dry purging medicines, Piso ' dropaces of 
pitch, and oil of rue, applied at certain times to the stomach, 
to the metaphrene, or part of the back which is over against 
the heart, ^tius sinapisms ; Montaltus, cap, 35, would have 
the thighs to be ^ cauterized, Mercurialis prescribes beneath 
the knees ; Laelius -^ugubinus, cormL 77, for a hypochondri- 
acal Dutchman, will have the cautery made in the right 
thigh, and so Montanus, consiL 55. The same Montanus, 
consil. 34, approves of issues in the arms or hinder part of 
the head. Bemardus Patemus in Hildesheim, spicel 2, 
would have * issues made in both the thighs ; . * Lod. Merca- 
tus prescribes them near the spleen, aiU props verUricuU 
regionem, or in either of the thighs. Ligatures, frictions, 
and cupping-glasses above or about the belly, without scari- 
fication, which * Felix Platerus so much approves, may be 
used as before. 

SuBSECT. 11. — Correctors to expel Wind, Against Costive- 

ness, S^c, 

In this kind of melancholy one of the most offensive 
symptoms is wind, which, as in the other species, so in this, 
hath great need to be corrected and expelled. 

The medicines to expel it are either inwardly taken, or out- 
wardly. Inwardly to expel wind, are simples or compounds ; 
simples are herbs, roots, &c., as galanga, gentian, angelica, 
enula, calamus aromaticus, valerian, zeodoti, iris, condite 
ginger, aristolochy, cicliminus, Cliina, dittander, pennyroyal, 
rue, calamint, bay-berries, and bay-leaves, betony, rosemary, 
hyssop, sabine, centaury, mint, camomile, stoechas, agnus cas- 
tus, broom-flowers, origan, orange pills, &c ; spices, as saf- 

1 Dropax e pice navali, et oleo rutaceo nellse sint in ntroque cmre.  Lib. 1, 
aflttgatur ventriculo, et toti metaphreni. o. 17. * De mentis alienat. c. S, flatiu 
3 Oauteria cruribus inusta. s Fonta- egregie diacutiunt evooant. 


Mem. 3, subs. 2.] dure of HypocJwndricLcal Melancholy. 415 

fron, cinnamon, bezoar stone, myrrh, mace, nutmegs, pepper, 
cloves, ginger, seeds of anise, fennel, amni, cari, nettle, rue, 
&c., juniper berries, grana paradiei; compounds, dianisum, 
diagalanga, diaciminum, diacalaminth, eUctuarium de baccts 
lauri, benedicta laxative^ pulvis ad flatus^ antid. JlorenU pul- 
vis carmincUivtis, aromaticum rosatum, treacle, mithridate, &c. 
This one caution of ^ Gaulter Bruel is to be observed in the 
administering of these hot medicines and drj, '< that whilst 
they covet to expel wind, they do not inflame the blood, and 
increase the disease; sometimes (as he saith) medicines 
must more decline to heat, sometimes more to cold, as the 
circumstances require, and as the parties are inclined to heat 
or cold." 

Outwardly taken to expel wind, are oUs, as of camomile, 
rue, bay, &c. ; fomentations of the hypochondries, with the 
decoctions of dill, pennyroyal, rue, bay leaves, cumin, &c., 
bags of camomile flowers, anise-seed, cumin, bays, rue, 
wormwood, ointments of the oil of spikenard, wormwood, 
rue, &C. ^ Areteus prescribes cataplasms bf camomile flow- 
ers, fennel, anise-seed, cumin, rosemary, wormwood leaves, 

'Cupping-glasses applied to the hypochondries, without 
scarification, do wonderfully resolve wind. Femelius, consiL 
43, much approves of them at the lower end of the belly ; 
* Lod. Mercatus calls them a powerful remedy, and testifies 
moreover out of his own knowledge, how many he hath seen 
suddenly eased by them. Julius Caesar Claudinus, Respons. 
med. resp* 33, admires these cupping-glasses, which he calls 
out of Galen, ^"a kind of enchantment, they cause such 
present heipJ* . 

Empirics have a myriad of medicines, as to swallow a 

^ Gayendum hie diligenter a multum dum exigentiam circumstantiarum, vol 

calefacieDtibue, atque exsiccantibus, siye ut patiens iDcliaat ad cal. et frigid, 

alimenta fuerint hsec, sive medicamenta : * Cap. 5, lib. 7. ^ Piso, Bruel, mire fla- 

nonnulli enim ut Teutositates et rugitus tus resolvit. ^ Lib. 1, c. 17, nonnullos 

compescant, hujusmodi utentes medica- prae tensione ventris deploratos illico 

mentis, plurimum peccant, morbum sic restitutos his vidimus. ^ Velut incan- 

augentes : debent enim medicamenta tamentum quoddam, ex flatuoao gpiritn 

declinare ad calidum yel frie^dum secun- dolorem ortum leyant. 

416 Cure of Melancholy. [Part. n. sec. 6. 

bullet of lead, &c., which I voluntarilj omit Amatus Lusi- 
tanus, cent, 4, curat, 54, for a hypochondriacal person, that 
was extremely tormented with wind, prescribes a strange 
remedy. Put a pair of bellows* end into a clyster pipe, and 
applying it into the fundament, open the howels, so draw 
forth the wind, natura nan admittit vacuum. He vaunts he 
was the first invented this remedy, and by means of it speed- 
ily eased a melancholy man. Of the cure of this fiatuous 
melancholy, read more in Fienus^ dejlatibusy cap, 26, et pas- 
sim alias. 

Against headache, vertigo, vapours which ascend forth of 
the stomach to molest the head, read Hercules de Saxonia, 
and others. 

If oostiveness offend in this, or any other of the three 
species, it is to be corrected with suppositories, clysters or 
lenitives, powder of senna, condite prunes, &c. H; Elect. 
lenit, e succo rosar, ana s j* misce. Take as much as a nut- 
meg at a time, half an hour before dinner or supper, orpU. 
mastickin, s j> in six pills, a pill or two at a time. See more 
in Montan. consiL 229. Hildesheim, spied, 2. P. Cne- 
mander, and Montanus, commend ^ " Cyprian turpentine, 
which they would have familiarly taken, to the quantity of 
a small nut, two or three hours before dinner and supper, 
twice or thrice a week if need be ; for besides that it keeps 
the belly soluble, it clears the stomach, opens obstructions, 
cleanseth the liver, provokes urine." 

These in brief are the ordinary medicines which belong to 
the cure of melancholy, which if they be used aright, no 
doubt may do much good ; Si non levando, sakem leniendo 
valent peculiaria bene selecta, saith Bessardus, a good choice 
of particular receipts must needs ease, if not quite cure, not 
one, but all or most, as occasion serves. JEt gua non prosunt 
singula, muUajuvant, 

1 Terebinthiiuun Cypriam habeant &- expedire videbitnr; nam praeterqaam 

miliarem, ad quaDtitatem deglutiaat quod alTUin moUem efficit, obatructiones 

nticis parvsB, tribus horis ante prandium aperit, yentricnlum pargat, urinam 

Tel coBiuun, ter 8ing;;ali8 septimanis prout prorooat, hepar mundiflcat. 



' Prefihoe or Introdnetion. Subseet. 1. 

LoTe'8 definition, pedigree, object, fiiir, amiable, gracious, and pleasant, flrom 
which comes beauty, grace, which all desire and love, parts affected. 

' Natural, in things without life, as Iotc and hatred of elements ; 
and with life, as Tegetable, vine and elm, sympathy, antipathy, 
Sensible, as of beasts, for pleasure, preservation of kind, mutual 
agreement, custom, brin^^ng up together, &c. 






Division or 
Subs. 2. 

Sttbs. 1. 


' Simple, 
hath three 
objects, as 
Memb. 1. 




Subs. 2. 

Health, wealth, honour, we love our 
bene&ctors ; nothing so amiable as 
profit, or that which hath a show 
of commodity. 

'Things without life, made by art, 
pictures, sports, games, sensible ob- 
jects, as hawks, hounds, horses ; or 
men themselves, for similitude of 
manners, natural aflSaction, as to 
friends, children, kinsmen, &c., 
for glo^ such as commend us. 



Before marriage, as Heroi- 
eal Mel. Sect. 2, vide <^ 

Or after marriage, as JecU- 
oiMy, Sect. 8, vide ^ 


' Fucate in show, by some error or hy- 
pocrisy; some seem and are not: 
or truly for virtue, honesty, good 
parts, learning, eloquence, &o. 

Mixed of 
all three, 
which ex- 
tends to 
Mimb. 8. 

' Common good, our neighbour, country, friends, 
which is charity ; the defect of which is cause 
of much discontent and melancholy. 

or ( In excess, vide O* 

GK)d, Sect. 4. (. In defect, vide £2. 

VOL. 11. 



Syrwpsii of the Third Partition. 

Heroical or 
choly, in 
which con- 

Memh. 1. 
His ped^ree, power, extent to yegetables and sensible creatures, as 

well as men, to spirits, devils, &c. 
His name, definition, object, part affected, tyranny. 

Stars, temperature, fnll diet, place, conntry, clime, 

condition, idleness, Subs. 1. 
Natural allurements, and causes of love, as beauty, its 

praise, how it allureth. 
Comeliness, grace, resulting from the whole or some 

parts, as fbce, eyes, hair, hands, &c. Subs. 2. 
Artificial allurements, and provocations of lust and 

love, gestures, apparel, dowry, money, &c. 
i^uest. Whether beauty owe more to Art or Nature ? 

^ubs. 8. 
Opportunity of time and place, confiBvence, discourse, 

music, singing, dancing, amorous tales, lascivious 

objects, familiarity, gifts, promisee, &c. Subs. 4. 
Bawds and Philters. Subs. 5. 



Symptoms or 
Memh. 8. 

Of body 

I Dryness, paleness, leanness, waking, 

\ sighing, &c. 

i Quest. An detur pulsus atmatoriua ? 


Of mind. 

Bad, as 

'Fear, sorrow, suspicioii, 

anxiety, &c. 
A hell, torment, fire, 

blindness, &c. 
Dotage, slavery, ne^^t 

of business. 


Qood, as - 

Spruceness, neatness, 
courage, aptness to 
learn music, singing, 
dancing, poetry, &e. 

Prognostics; despsdr, madness, f^n^, death, Memb. 4. 

By labour, diet, physic, abstinence, Subs. 1. 

To withstand the b^nnings, avoid occasions. fUr and 
fbul means, change of place, contrary passion, witty 
inventions, discommend the former, bring in an- 
Cures, other, Subs. 2. 

Memb. 5. 1 By good counsel, persuasion, firom ftiture miseries, in- 
conveniences, &c.. Subs. 8. 

By philters, magical, and poetical cures, Subs. 4. 

To let than have their desire disputed pro and con. 
Impediments removed, reasons for it. Subs. 6. 

' His name, definition, extent, power, tyranny, Memb. 1. 




tions, kinds,' 

Improper • 

' To many beasts, as swans, cocks, bulls. 
To kings and princes, of thdr subjects, succes- 
To firiends, parents, tutors over their children, ex 

Sect. 2. 


In the par- 
ties them- 


from others. 

( Before marriage, oorrivals, &e. 

( After, as in this place our present suljject. 

' Idleness, impoteney in one party, melancholy, long 

They have been naught themselves. Hard usage, 

unkindness, wantonness, inequality of years, 

persons, fortunes, &c. 

Outward enticements and provocations of others. 

Synopsis of the Third Partition, 


Memb. 2. 

Memb. 8. 

Memb. 4. 







In excess 
of such as 
do thsfc 
which is 
not re- 
Mtmb. 1. 

In defect, 

Memb. 2. 

( Fear, sorrow, suspicion, anguish of mind, strange actions, ges- 
< tares, loolcs, speeches, locking up, outrages, seyere laws, pro- 
l digious trials, &c. 

Despair, madness, to make away themselTes, and others. 

By avoiding occasions, always busy, never to be idle. 

By good counsel, advice of friends, to contemn or dissemble it. 

Subs. 1. 
By prevention before marriage. Plato's communion. 
To marry such as are equal in yean, birth, fortunes, beauty, of 

like conditions, &c. 
, Of a good &mily, good education. To use them well. 

A proof that there is such a species of melancholy, name, object 
God, what his beauty is, how it allureth, part and parties af- 
fected, superstitious, idolaters, prophets, heretics, &c., Svbs. 1. 

Subs. 2. 



Subs. 8. 

Prognostics, Svbs. 4. 

The devil's allurements, Mse miracles, 
priests for their gain. Politicians, to 
keep men in obedience, bad instructors, 
blind guides. 

i' Simplicity, fear, ignorance, solitariness, 
melancholy, curiosity, pride, vainglory, 
decayed image of Ood. 

Zeal without knowledge, obstinacy, su- 
perstition, strange devotion, stupidity, 
G«nenl \ confidence, stiff defence of their tenets, 
mutual love and hate of other sects, 
belief of incredibilities, impossibilities. 

Of heretics, pride, contumacy, contempt 
of others, wilfulness, vainglory, singu- 
larity, prodigious paradoxes. 

In superstitious blind zeal, obedience, 
strange works, fluting, sacrifices, obla- 
tions, prayers, vows, pseudo-martyr- 
dom, mad and ridiculous customs, cer- 
emonies, observations. 

In pseudo-prophets, visions, revelations, 
dreams, prophecies, new doctrines, &c., 
of Jews, Ctentiles, Mahometans, &c. 

New doctrines, puadoxes, blasphemies, 
madness, stupidity, despair, damna- 



Cures, Subs.h. 

void of 
grace and 


ful, or too 
as despe- 
rate, la 

By physic, if need be, conference, good 
counsel, persuasion, compulsion, cor- 
rection, punishment. Qwaritur an co- 
gi debent ? Affir. 
' Epicures, atheists, magicians, hypocrites, such as have 
cauterized consciences, or else are in a reprobate 
sense, worldly secure, some philosophers, impenitent 
sinners. Subs. 1. 

The devil and his allurements, rigid 
preachers, that wound their con- 
sciences, melancholy, contemplation, 
How melancholy and despair differ. Dis- 
trust, weakness of fidth. Guilty con- 
science for ofllBpce conunitted, misun- 
derstanding Scr. 
S^ Fear, sorrow, anguish of mind, extreme 
tortures and horror of conscience, fear- 
ftil dreams, conceits, visions, &c. 
Prognostics. Blasphemy, violent death, ^ibs. 4. 

c Physic, as occasion serves, conference, not 

Cures, 8.b. < to be idle or alone. Good counsel, good 

( company, all comforts and contents,&c. 


Subs. 8. 




The Prefcuie. 

There will not be wanting, I presume, one or other that 
will much discommend some part of this treatise of love- 
melancholy, and object (which * Erasmus in his preface to 
Sir Thomas More suspects of his) " that it is too light for a 
divine, too comical a subject to speak of love symptoms, too 
fantastical, and fit alone for a wanton poet, a feeling young 
lovesick gallant, an eflTeminate courtier, or some such idle 
person." And 'tis true they say ; for by the naughtiness of 
men it is so come to pass, as ^ Caussinus observes, ut castis 
auribus vox amoris svspecta sit, et invisct, the very name of 
love is odious to chaster ears ; and therefore some again, out 
of an affected gravity, will dislike all for the name's sake be- 
fore they read a word ; dissembling with him in * Petronius, 
and seem to be angry that their ears are violated with such 
obscene speeches, that so they may be admired for grave phi- 
losophers and staid carriage. They cannot abide to hear talk 
of love toys, or amorous discourses, vultu, gestu, ocvlis in their 

1 Encom. Morias, leyiores esse nugas toriis mentio fiusta eet, tam Tehementer 

quam nt Theolc^um deceant. 3 Lib. 8, excandai ; tam seyera tristida -violari aniM 

Eloquent, cap. 14, de affectibus morta- meas obsoeno sermone nolui, at me tan* 

Uum Titio fit qui pneclara quaeque ia quam unum ez Philosophis intuerentor. 
pravM us OS vertunt. > Quoties de ama- 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Preface. 421 

outward actions averse, and yet in their cogitations they are 

all out as bad, if not woi*se than others. 

1 " Embuit, posuitqae meum Lucretia libram, 
Sed coram Bmto, Brute recede, legit." 

But let these cavillers and counterfeit Catos know, that as 
the Lord John answered the queen in that Italian ^ Guazzo, 
an old, a grave, discreet man is fittest to discourse of love 
matters, because he hath likely more experience, observed 
more, hath a more staid judgment, can better discern, resolve, 
discuss, advise, give better cautions, and more solid precepts, 
better inform his auditors in such a subject, and. by reason of 
his riper years sooner divert Besides, nihil in hdc amoris 
voce suhtimendum, there is nothing here to be excepted at ; 
love is a species of melancholy, and a necessary part of this 
my treatise, which I may not omit ; operi suscepto inservie^i- 
dumfuit: so Jacobus Mysillius pleadeth for himself in his 
translation of Lucian's dialogues, and so do I ; I must and 
will perform my task. And that short excuse of Mercerus 
for his edition of Aristaenetus shall be mine, ' " If I have 
spent my time ill to write, let not them be so idle as to read." 
But I am persuaded it is not so ill spent, I ought not to ex- 
cuse or repent myself of this subject, on which many grave 
and worthy men have written whole volumes, Plato, Plu- 
tarch, Plotinus, Maximus Tyrius, Alcinous, Avicenna, Leon 
Hebraeus in three large dialogues, Xenophon, sympos, Theo- 
phrastus, if we may believe AthenaBus, lib. 13, cap, 9, Picus 
Mirandula, Marl us .^quicola, both in Italian, Kommannus, 
de lined Amoris^ lib. 3. Petrus Godefridus hath handled in 
three books, P. Haedus, and which almost every physician, as 
Amoldus, Villanovanus, Valleriola, Observat. med, lib, 2, 
observ, 7, ^lian Montaltus and Laurentius in their treatises 
of melancholy, Jason Pratensis, de morb. cap. Valescus de 
Taranta, Gordonius, Hercules de Saxonia, Savanarola, Lan- 
gius, &c., have treated of apart, and in their works. I ex- 

1 Bfartial. '* In Brutus's presence Lu- read." 2 Lib. 4, of ciyil conyersation. 
cretia blushed and laid my book aside ; > Si male locata est opera scribendo, ne 
when he retired, she took it np again and ipsi locent in legendo. 

422 Love^Melanclwly* [Part. ni. sec. 1. 

cuse myself therefore with Peter Godefridus, Valleriola, 
Ficinus, and in * Langius's words : " Cadmas Milesius writ 
fourteen books of love, and why should I be ashamed to 
write an epistle in favour of young men, of this subject ? " 
A company of stern readers dislike the second of the ^neids, 
and Virgil's gravity, for inserting such amorous passions in 
an heroical subject; but ^Servius, his commentator, justly 
vindicates the poet's worth, wisdom, and discretion in doing 
as he did. Castalio would not have young men read the. 
' Canticles, because to his thinking it was too light and am- 
orous a tract, a ballad of ballads, as our old English transla- 
tion hath it. He might as well forbid the reading of Genesis, 
because of the loves of Jacob and Rachel, the stories of 
Sichem and Dinah, Judah and Tamar ; reject the Book of 
Numbers, for the fornications of the people of Israel with the 
Moabites ; that of Judges, for Samson and Delilah's em- 
bracings ; that of the Kings, for David and Bathsheba's adul- 
teries, the incest of Amnon and Tamar, Solomon's concubines, 
&c., the stories of Esther, Judith, Susanna, and many such. 
Dicearchus, and some other, carp at Plato's majesty, that he 
would vouchsafe to indite such love toys ; amongst the rest, 
for that dalliance with Agatho, 

" Suavia dans Agathoni, animam ipse in labrH tenebam ; 
u£gra etenim properans tanquam abitura fait." , 

For my part, saith *Maximus Tyrius, a great Platonist 
himself, me non tarUum admiratio habet, sed etiam stupor, I 
do not only admire but stand amazed to read, that Plato and 
Socrates both should expel Homer from their city, because 
he writ of such light and wanton subjects. Quod Junonem cum 
Jove in Ida concumbentes inducit, ah immortali nube contectoSj 
Vulcan's net, Mars and Venus's fopperies before all the gods, 
because Apollo fled when he was persecuted by Achilles, the 

1 Med. epist. 1. 1, ep. 14. Cadmus Mi- lam. > Comment, in 2.£neid. 'Me- 

lesius, teste Snidft, de hoc Erotico Amore ros amores meram impndicitUua aonare 

14 llbros scripsit, nee me pigebit in gra- yidetur nisi, &c. * Ser. 8. 
Ham adolescentum banc scribere episto- 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Preface. 423 

^ gods were wounded and ran whining away, as Mars that 
roared louder than Stentor, and covered nine acres of ground 
with his fall, Vulcan was a summer's day falling down from 
heaven, and in Lemnos Isle brake his leg, &c., with such 
ridiculous passages ; when as both Socrates and Plato by his 
testimony writ lighter themselves ; quid enim tarn distat (as 
he follows it) qitam amans a temperante, formarum admirator 
a demenUy what can be more absurd than for grave philos- 
ophers to treat of such fooleries, to admire Autiloquus, Alci- 
biades, for their beauties as they did, to run after, to gaze, to 
dote on fair Phaedrus, delicate Agatho, young Lysis, fine 
Charmides, hcecdne Philosophum decent f Doth this become 
grave philosophers ? Thus peradventure Callias, Thrasym- 
achus, Polus, Aristophanes, or some of his adversaries and 
emulators might object; but neither they nor ^Anytus and 
Melitus his bitter enemies, that condemned him for teaching 
Critias to tyrannize, his impiety for swearing by dogs and 
plane trees, for his juggling sophistry, &c., never so much as 
upbraided him with impure love, writing or speaking of that 
subject ; and therefore without question, as he concludes, both 
Socrates and Plato in this are justly to-be excused. But 
suppose they had been a little overseen, should divine Plato 
be defamed ? no, rather as he said of Cato's drunkenness, if 
Cato were drunk, it should be no vice at all to be drunk. 
They reprove Plato then, but without cause (as *Ficinus 
pleads) " for all love is honest and good, and they are worthy 
to be loved that speak well of love." " Being to speak of 
this admirable affection of love " (saith * Valleriola) " there 
lies open a vast and philosophical field to my discourse, by 
which many lovers become mad, let me leave my more seri- 
ous meditations, wander in these philosophical fields, and look 

I Quod lisum et eorum amores com- nestuft et bonus, et amore digui qui bene 

memoret. ^ Quum multa ei objecissent dicunt de amore. ^ Med. obser. lib. 2, 

quod Critiam tyrannidem docuisset, quod cap. 7, de admirando amoris affectu dic- 

Platonem juraret loquacem sophistam. turns, ingens patet campus et philosoph- 

&c., accusationem amoris nullam fece- icus, quo saepe homines ducuntur ad in- 

runt. Ideoque honestus amor, &c. saniam, libeat modo vagari, &c., quee 

> Carpunt alii Platonicam majestatem non ornent modo, sed fragrantia et suc- 

quod amori nimium indulserit, Dicear- culentiSL jucuncUl plenius alant, &c. 
chus et alii ; sed male. Omnis amor ho- 

424 Love-Melancholy. [Part. III. sec. 1. 

into those pleasant groves of the Muses, where, with unspeak- 
able variety of flowers, we may make garlands to ourselves, 
not to adorn us only, but with their pleasant smell and juice 
to nourish our souls, and All our minds desirous of knowl- 
edge," &C. After a harsh and unpleasing discourse of mel- 
ancholy, which hath hitherto molested your patience and tired 
the author, give him leave with * Godefridus the lawyer, and 
Laurentius {cap, 5) to recreate himself in this kind after liis 
laborious studies, " since so many grave divines and worthy 
men have without offence to manners, to help themselves and 
others, voluntarily written of it." Heliodorus^ a bishop, 
penned a love story of Theagines and Chariclea, and when 
some Catos of his time reprehended him for it, chose rather, 
saith ^Nicephorus, to leave his bishopric than his book. 
-ZEneas Sylvius, an ancient divine, and past forty yeai's of 
age (as ' he confesseth himself, after Pope Pius Secundus), 
indited that wanton history of Euryalus and Lucretia. And 
how many superintendents of learning could I reckon up that 
have written of light, fantastical subjects ? Beroaldus, Eras- 
mus, Alpheratius, twenty-four times printed in Spanish, &c. 
Give me leave then to refresh my muse a little, and my 
weary readers, to expatiate in this delightsome field, hoc de- 
liciarum campo, as Fonseca tenns it, to * season a surly dis- 
course with a more pleasing aspersion of love matters ; 
Edvleare vitam convenit, as the poet invites us, cuvas ntigis, 
&c., 'tis good to sweeten our life with some pleasing toys to 
relish it, and as Pliny tells us, magna pars studiosorum 
amoenitates qucerimus, most of our students love such pleas- 
ant ^ subjects. Though Macrobius teach us otherwise, * " that 
those old sages banished all such light tracts from their studies 
to nurse's cradles, to please only tlie ear ; " yet out of Apuleius 

1 JAb. 1, praefat. de amoribas ageips rel- ■prKtergreesuB in yesperem feror. Anens 

axandi animi causa laboriosissimis eta- Sylvias, prsefot. ^ Ut severiora studia 

diis fatigati ; quando et Theologi se his iis amoei^tatibas lector condire poesit. 

juvaxi et javare illaesis moribus volant. Accius. ^ Discum quam philosophum 

2 Hist. lib. 12, cap. d4. ^ Prae&t. quid audire malunt. o In Som. Scip. e sa- 

quadragenario convenit cum amore? crario sno turn ad cunas nutricum sapi- 

Ego vero a^nosco amatorium scriptum entes eliminarunt, solas aurium delicias 

Diihi non convenire, qui jam meridiem profitentes. 

Mem. 1, subs. l.J Preface. 425 

I will oppose as honourable patrons, Solon, Plato, ^ Xenopbon, 
Adi'lan, &c., that as highly approve of these treatises. On 
the other side methinks they are not to be disliked, they are 
not so unfit. I will not peremptorily say as one did, ^tom 
svxivia dicam fadnora, ut male sit ei qui talihus nan delec- 
tetUTy I will tell you such pretty stories, that foul befall him 
that is not pleased with them ; Neque dicam ea quce vobis 
USUI sit audivisse, et voluptati meminisse, with that confidence 
as Beroaldus doth his enarrations on Propertius. I will not 
expect or hope for that approbation which Lipsius gives to 
his Epictetus; plurisfacio quum relego; semper ut novum, et 
quum repetivi, repetendum, the more I read, the more shall 
I covet to read. I will not press you with my pamphlets, or 
beg attention, but if you like them you may. Pliny holds it 
expedient, and most fit, severitcUem jucunditate etiam in scrip- 
tis condire, to season our works with some pleasant discourse ; 
Synesius approves it, licet in ludicris ludere, the * poet ad- 
mires it, Omne tvMt punctum qui miscuit utile dulci ; and 
there be those, without question, that are more willing to read 
such toys, than * I am to write ; " Let me not live," saith 
Aretine's Antonia, " if I had not rather hear thy discourse, 
* than see a play ! " No doubt but there be more of her 
mind, ever have been, ever will be, as •Hierome bears me' 
witness. A far greater part had rather read Apuleius than 
Plato ; Tully himself confesseth he could not understand 
Plato's Timaeus, and therefore cared less for it ; but every 
schoolboy hath that famous testament of Grunnius Corocotta 
Porcellus at his fingers* ends. The comical poet, 

" Id sibi negotl credidit solum dari, 
Populo ut placerent, quas fecisset fabulas," ^ 

made this his only care and sole study to please the people, 
tickle the ear, and to delight ; but mine earnest intent is as 

1 Babyloniug et Ephesius, qui de Amore Luci&n. ^ Plus capio yoluptatis inde, 

icripserunt, uterque amoree MyrrhsB, quam spectancUs in theatre ludis. «Pro- 

Cyrenea, et Adonidis. Suidaa. « Pet. oemio in Isaiam. Multo major pars Mile - 

Aretine. dial. Ital. 3 Hor. " He has sias fabulas revolTentium quam Platonifl 

accomplished every point who has joined libros. t " This he took to be his only 

the useful to the agreeable." ^ Legen- business, that the plays which he wrote 

di cupidiores, quam ego scribendi, saith should'please the people." 

426 Love-Melancholy, [Part. III. sec. 1. 

mach to profit as to please ; non tarn ut popuU) placerem, 
qtuim ut popvdum juvarem, and these my writings, I hope, 
shall take like gilded pills, which are so composed as well to 
tempt the appetite, and deceive the palate, as to help and 
medicinally work upon the whole body ; my lines shall not 
only recreate, but rectify the mind. I think I have said 
enough ; if not, let him that is otherwise minded, remember 
that of * Maudarensis, " he was in his life a philosopher (as 
Ausonius apologizeth for him), in his epigrams a lover, in his 
precepts most severe ; in his epistle to Caerellia, a wanton.*' 
Annianus, Sulpicius, Evemus, Menander, and many old 
poets besides, did in scriptis prurire, write Fescennines, 
Attellanes, and lascivious songs ; Icstam materiam ; yet they 
had in moribtis censuram, et severitatem, they were chaste, 
severe and upright livers. 

" Castum esse decet pium poetam 
Ipsum, versiculos nihil necesse est, 
Qui turn denique habent salem et leporem." i 

I am of Catullus's opinion, and make the same apology in 
mine own behalf; JIoc etiam quod scribo, pendet plerumgue 
ex aliorum sententid et aucforitate ; nee ipse forsan insanio, 
sed insanientes sequor, Atqui detur hoc insanire me; semd 
insamvimus omnes, et tute ipse opinor insanis aliqtcando, 
et is, et iUe, et ego, scilicet,^ Homo sum, humani a m£ nihil 
alienum puto ; ' And which he urgeth for himself, accused 
of the like fault, I as justly plead, * lasciva est nobis patina, 
vita proha est. Howsoever my lines err, my life is honest, 
^vita verecunda est, musa jocosa mihi. But I presume I 
need no such apologies, I need not, as Socrates in Plato, 
cover his face when he spake of love, or blush and hide mine 

* In vita philosophus, in Epigram, ama- ers; nor perhaps am I firantic, I only 

tor, in Epistolis petulans, in prfleceptis follow madmen; but thus &r I maybe 

oeverus. i ''The poet himself should deranged; we have all been so at some 

be chaste and pious, but his verses need one time, and yourself, I think, art some- 

not imitate him in these respects; they times insane, and this man, and that 

may therefore contain wit and humour." man, and I also.*' s'^i am mortal, 

2 *' This that I write depends sometimes and think no humane action unsuited to 

upon the opinion and authority of oth- me." * Mart. ^ Ovid. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Preface. 427 

eyes, as Pallas did in her hood, when she was consulted bj 
Jupiter about Mercury's marriage, quod super nuptiis mrgo 
cansuUtur, it is no such lascivious, obscene or wanton dis- 
course ; I have not offended your chaster ears with anything 
that is here written, as many French and Italian authors in 
their modem language of late have done, nay some of our 
Latin pontifical writers, Zanches, Asorius, Abulensis, Bur- 
chardus, &c, whom ^Bivet accuseth to be more lascivious 
than Virgil in Priapeiis, Petronius in Catalectis, Aristoph- 
anes in Lycistratse, Martialis, or any other pagan profane 
writer, qtd tarn alrocitlr (*one notes) hoc genere peccdrunt 
ut mvUa ingenioBiBsime Bcripta obscoenitcUum gratia castcB 
mentes abkorreant Tis not scurrile this, but chaste, honest, 
most part serious, and even of religion itself. * " Incensed 
(as he said) with the love of finding love, we have sought it, and 
found it." More yet, I have augmented and added something 
to this light treatise (if light) which was not in the former 
editions, I am not ashamed to confess it, with a good ^ author, 
quod extendi et locupletari hoc suhjectum plerique postidabant, 
et eorum importunitate victus, animum tUcunque reniterUem 
ed adegi, vt jam sextd vice ccUamum in manutn sumerem, 
scriptionique Jxmge et a studiis et professtone med aliencB me 
acctngerem, horas aliquas a sertts meis occupaiionihus interim 
suffuraius^ ea^sque veluti ludo cuidam ac recreationi des- 
tinam ; 

6 " Cogor ^retrorsum 

Vela dare, atque iterare corsus 
Olim relictos " 

etsi no7i ignorarem novas fartasse detractores novis hisce in- 
terpolationibus meis minime defvJturos^ 

1 Isago. ad sac. pcrip. cap. 13. * Bar- myself to literature yery foreign indeed 

thius, notis in Coelestinam, ludum Hisp. to my studies and professional occupa- 

8 Ficihns, Comment, c. 17. Amore incensi tions, stealing a few hours from serious 

inveniendiamoris, amoremqusesivimuset pursuits, and deyoting them, as it Were, 

Inyenimus.  Author Coelesfcinae, Barth. to recreation." 6 Hor. lib. 1, Ode 34. 

interpreter ** That, overcome by the solici- '' I am compelled to reverse my saili, and 

tations of friends, who requested me to retrace my former course" « "Although 

enlarge and improve my volumes, I have I was by no means ignorant that new 

devoted my otherwise reluctant mind to calumniators would not be wanting to 

the labour ; and now for the sixth time censure my new introductions." 
have I taken up my pen, and applied 

j 428 Love-Melancholy. [Part. III. sec. 1. 

And thus much have I thought good to say by way of 
preface, lest any man (which * Godefridus feared in his book) 
should blame in me lightness, wantonness, rashness, in speak- 
ing of love's causes, enticements, symptoms, remedies, lawful 
and unlawful loves, and lust itself, * I speak it only to tax 
and deter others from it, not to teach, but to show the 
vanities and fopperies of this heroical or herculean love, 
* and to apply remedies unto it. I wiU treat of this with 
like liberty as of the rest 

* " Sed dicam vobis, vos porro dicite multis 
Millibus, et facite haec charta loquatur anus." 

Condemn me not, good reader, then, or censure me hardly, 
if some part of this treatise to thy thinking as yet be too 
light ; but consider better of it ; Omnia munda mundis, * a 
naked man to a modest woman is no otherwise than a picture, 
as Augusta Livia truly said, and ^mala inens, mahis animus, 
'tis as 'tis taken. If in thy censure it be too light, I advise 
thee as Lipsius did his reader for some places of Plautus, 
istos qiuzsi Sirenum scopulos prcetervehare, if they like thee 
not, let them pass ; or oppose that which is good to that 
which is bad, and reject not therefore ^11. For to invert 
that verse of Martial, and with Hierom Wolfius to apply it 
to my present purpose, sunt mala sunt qucedam, mediocria, 
sunt bona plura ; some is good, some bad, some is indifferent 
I say further with him yet, I have inserted (' levictda qtus- 
dam et ridicula ascribere non sum gravatus, circumforanea 
qucedam e theatrisj e plateis, etiam e popinis) some things 
more homely, light, or comical, lita